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WHITNEY LIBRARY, 


HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 


THE GIFT OF 


J: D. WHITNEY, 
Sturgis Hooper Professor 


IN THE 


MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
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THE QUARTERLY 


POURNAL OF SCIENCE, 


AND ANNALS OF 


MINING, METALLURGY, ENGINEERING, INDUSTRIAL ARTS, 
MANUFACTURES, AND TECHNOLOGY. 


EDITED BY 


WILLIAM CROOKES, F:iR.S.; &c. 


VOL. IV. (22%) 


SERIES. 
VOL; XI. (O:S:) 


WITH ILLUSTRATIONS ON COPPER, STONE, AND WOOD. 


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MINING, METALLURGY, ENGINEERING, ENDUSY YRDAL ARTS, 


MANUFACTURES, AND ) TECHNOLOGY. 


EDITED BY 


No. XLI. 


WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c. 
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ART. 


VIII. 


Tyndall’s ‘“* Lectures on Light ” 
Lockyer’s ‘‘ The Spectroscope and its Moieatione* 


[The Copyright of Articles in this Fournal is Reserved.| 


CONTENTS: OF) + No. XE. 


THE SATURNIAN SysTEM. By Richard A. Proctor, B.A., 
SceskcA.S. . : : - : : : - 


ON THE RELATION BETWEEN REFRACTED AND DIFFRACTED 
SPECTRA. By Mungo Ponton, F.R.S.E. 


OBSERVATIONS ON THE OPTICAL PHENOMENA OF THE 
ATMOSPHERE. By Samuel Barber, F.M.S. . 


RECENT CHANGES IN BRITISH ARTILLERY MATERIEL. By 
S. P. Oliver, Capt. R.A. : : : : ° 
THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM . 3 


GALL’s DISCOVERY OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN, AND 
Its REcEPTION. By T. Symes Prideaux . - . 


Economy oF Fur. By F.C. Danvers, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 


NoTES OF AN ENQUIRY INTO THE PHENOMENA CALLED 
SPIRITUAL, DURING THE YEARS 1870-73. By William 
Crookes, F.R.S., &c. 


NOTICES OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS. 


Proctor’s * Light Science for Leisure Hours ”’ 
Jenkin’s “ Ele¢tricity and Magnetism ”’ 


Thorpe’s ‘‘ Quantitative Chemical Analysis” 


Shelley’s ‘‘ Workshop Appliances” 


PAGE, 


27 


34 


40 
52 


56 
67 


77 


102 
105 
107 
107 
10g 


Latham’s ‘‘ Sanitary Engineering 


Baird’s “‘ Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1872” 


CONTENTS. 


” 


Gillmore’s ‘‘ Report on Béton Aggloméré ”’ 


Gillmore’s ‘ Practical Treatise on Limes, Hydraulic Cements, 


and Mortars ” 
Bain’s ‘* Mind and Body ” 


Sir John Lubbock’s “* Origin and Meenas of Inseéts ” 


Fox’s *‘ Ozone and Antozone ” 


Atkinson’s “‘ Ganot’s Elementary Treatise on Physics ” 


Althaus’s ‘‘ Treatise of Medical Electricity ” 


Saltzer’s ‘‘ Treatise on Acoustics ” 


Blackley’s ‘‘ Experimental Researches on the Causes and Nature 


of Catarrhus Astivus ” 


Baker’s ‘‘ Long Span Bridges”’ 


PROGRESS IN SCIENCE. 


PAGE. 


110 
II! 
IIz 


112 
113 
II5 
116 
117 
ri, 
118 


118 
118 


Including Proceedings of Learned Societies at Home and Abroad, and 


MINING 
METALLURGY 
MINERALOGY 
ENGINEERING 
GEOLOGY . 
PuysIcs 


Notices of Recent Scientific Literature. 


11g 
121 
122 
123 
126 
128 


THE QUARTERLY 


PouURNAL.OF SCIENCE, 


JANUARY, 1874. 


re oTHE SATURNIAN) SYSTEM, 


By RicHarD A. Proctor, B.A. (Cambridge). 
Author of “ Saturn,” “The Sun,” ““The Moon,” &c. 


[7 has always appeared to me, since first I studied the 
subject of Saturn and his system, that our books on 
astronomy fail to indicate effectively the position which 
this noble planet, and the scheme over which he holds sway, 
bear in the economy of the solar system. The remark extends 
to Jupiter, and in a less degree to Uranus and Neptune. 
There is to my mind something most incongruous between 
the true teachings of .astrenomy respecting the giant planets, 
and the notions complacently presented in book after book 
on elementary astronomy, and even in treatises by masters 
of the subject. We have the astronomy of the ancients 
and the modern astronomy intermixed. We see rightly 
taught the dimensions and general aspect of the different 
planets, but we find these bodies classed together precisely 
as they very reasonably were when astronomers knew 
little more than that there are, besides the sun and 
moon, the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and 
Jupiter. The orbits of these bodies are plotted down in 
a series of concentric and equidistant circles, on which 
very commonly are shown pictures (save the mark) of 
the several planets, and the reader is left to combine the 
utterly erroneous notions thus indicated with such ideas as 
he may derive from the array of numbers contained in the 
tables of planetary elements. Nor in the verbal description 
of the planets is any stress laid upon the characteristic 
peculiarities which distinguish the outer family of planets 
from the inner. Differences are stated, but mere statement 
in such cases counts for very little; the impression really 
conveyed is, that whereas the earth, and Mars, and Venus, 
and Mercury are so many smaller worlds, Jupiter, and 
Saturn, and Uranus, and Neptune are as many larger 
worlds ; and whatever peculiarities distinguish these outer 
‘and larger planets from the rest are discussed with direct 
VOL. IV. (N.S.) B 


a The Saturnian System. {January, 


reference to familiar terrestrial relations. For instance, if 
the satellites of Saturn are referred to, the remark is made 
that the external skies of Saturn must be well illuminated, 
and very beautiful with all these moons, when our own 
single moon forms so beautiful a feature of our nights. 
When the rapid rotation of Saturn is mentioned, we are 
told immediately that therefore the day in Saturn lasts only 
so many of our hours. So withthe Saturnian year, because 
the mean density of Saturn is but about 13-1ooths 
of the earth’s; we are told that, therefore, his globe is 
construéted of material as light as ‘mahogany ; and so on, 
through a variety of such comparisons. 

It appears to me that the history of investigations into 
the physical condition of the planets is chara¢terised by a 
very singular unreadiness to view the whole subject from 
the new standpoint, available when telescopic observations 
began to be made. The new knowledge gained by means 
of the telescope was welded to the old ideas respecting 
the planets. New cloth was added to old garments. The 
natural course, one would have supposed, would have been 
to consider the planets altogether in the light of information 
obtained by the telescope, simply because that was the first 
really reliable information obtained by astronomers. Every- 
thing until then had been guess work; yet the results of 
such guess work still appears in our books on astronomy. 
It is not Saturn or Jupiter, as revealed by the telescope, 
with which our writers on astronomy deal; but they tell us, 
in effect, that the Saturn and Jupiter of the old astronomers 
have been found to have such and such dimensions, 
rotation-rates, aspect, and so on. 

Accordingly, the attempt to reason respe¢ting these planets 
in perfect independence of the ideas entertained ages ago by 
astronomers, is regarded as a species of innovation. That 
is held to be rash and fanciful speculation which in point of 
fact is the only scientific way of treating the subject. It is 
held to be a sort of heresy to speak of Saturn or Jupiter 
in terms not stri€tly compatible with the words of Sir 
W. Herschel, for example, although his ideas respe¢ting 
these planets were based entirely on the ideas formerly 
entertained about them, and conveyed to Sir W. Herschel 
through the instruCtive but not very suggestive teachings of 
Ferguson. I have not, indeed, myself had to complain on 
this point. I have, in faét, been surprised at the exceedingly 
liberal manner in which my own theoretical opinions have 
been received—I may even say welcomed—by many who, | 
nevertheless, still retain a prejudice for the older way of 


1874.) — The Saturnian System. 3 


treating the subject. But I observe that other writers have 
been less fortunate; and when they have indicated the 
significance of the features which distinguish giant planets 
from the terrestrial planets, and touch on some of the 
conclusions flowing from such considerations, their views 
are scouted as wild and fanciful—too startling, in fact, to 
obtain acceptance among men of science. 

In passing, I would touch on the objection to startling 
views, merely because they are startling, as utterly unreason- 
able in the presence of all that has been discovered, not 
merely in astronomy, but in science generally. The accepted 
truths of science are nearly always startlingly unlike what 
has been imagined before the evidence became strong 
enough, or was well studied enough, to indicate the real 
facts. Take, for instance, what has been learned recently 
about the sun. Suppose that twenty years ago the now 
known truths about the constitution of the sun, about 
coloured prominences, and about the corona had _ been 
simply enumerated, either as the result of theoretical 
considerations or of observations the nature of which was 
not made known: then it is certain that the surprising 
character of these new views would have _ rendered 
them unwelcome to astronomers. Less startling theories 
would have been received with favour, and quoted as 
altogether preferable to notions so bizarre and fanciful; yet 
the sober theories of twenty years ago were wide of the 
truth. They were in reality fanciful, and though not far 
fetched, yet ill fetched ; drawn, in fact, from utterly incorrect 
analogies. 

It may be assumed, indeed, ordinarily, that the relations 
as yet unknown are such as we should regard as surprising. 
It is not merely an unsafe, but an almost certainly mis- 
leading assumption that the best explanation of facts is the 
one which is most obvious and natural. What can be 
more natural, for instance, than the theory that the solar 
corona is due to the passage of the sun’s rays through our 
own atmosphere ?—what more utterly misleading? How 
natural was Faye’s theory that the solar sierra is a 
phenomenon produced by the lunar atmosphere; and yet 
the theory was altogether and demonstrably unsound. ‘To 
go farther back in the history of astronomy, the Ptolemaic 
theory was unquestionably intended to explain in the most 
natural way the celestial motions observed from our earth, 
obviously fixed, obviously far larger than any of the heavenly 
orbs. Even more natural and seemingly obvious is the 
theory that the earth is a great plain. ‘The true theory in 


4 The Saturnian System. [ January 


these and hundreds of other instances has not been the 
theory which commended itself by its obviousness and by 
its close accordance with what was mistakenly regarded as 
the natural order of things. 

I propose in the present essay on the Saturnian system 
to begin with the consideration of known faéts about Saturn 
and his system, and from them to endeavour to educe just 
ideas respecting the constitution of the Saturnian system, 
proceeding in perfect independence of all preconceived 
opinions. I shall neither endeavour to support nor to over- 
throw the common notion that Saturn is a globe resembling 
our earth in nature, though larger and in certain details unlike 
the earth. I shall endeavour as far as possible to treat my 
subject as though the earth were not the sole orb in the 
universe with which we have a close acquaintance. 

In the first place; then, let us consider Saturn’s position in 
the solar system, as respects mass, the most important 
element of a planet’s condition, simply because the mass of 
a planet measures the planet’s power. 

Regarding the solar system as a whole, we see the sun so 
largely surpassing all the planets together in mass and 
volume, that if we knew nothing else respecting him, we 
should recognise the fact that he belongs to another order of 
created things. He does not surpass the several planets 
only, but all the planets taken together. 

But we are apt to overlook the fact that Jupiter and 
Saturn are as markedly distinguished from the earth and 
Venus as the sun is from the giant planets. Jupiter 
alone surpasses all the members of the inner or terrestrial 
family of planets, taken together, about a hundred and forty 
times. Saturn surpasses them all, taken together, about 
forty times. A difference such as this can hardly be 
described as one of degree merely. It is a difference of 
kind, so far as mass can indicate such a difference. It 
seems a sufficient proof of this to note that if the sun were 
destroyed as well as Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, then 
Jupiter could effectively replace the sun as a ruling orb, 
round which the terrestrial families could travel, not indeed 
on such wide orbits as at present, but on paths of great 
extent, Jupiter remaining as appreciably stable at the centre 
of the scheme as the sun now is. ‘The like can be said 
about Saturn, since his mass exceeds that of the earth— 
the largest member of the family of minor planets—about 
ninety times. 

Even taking into account Uranus and Neptune, Jupiter 
and Saturn are supreme among the members of the solar 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 5 


system. Jupiter | is indeed easily first, seeing that he 
surpasses about 2} times (in Mars) all the other members of 
the family, including Saturn, taken together. But Saturn 
is as easily second, seeing that he in turn surpasses all the 
other members of the planetary scheme, taken together, 
nearly three times. 

Still it is, when we compare either Jupiter or Saturn with 
the members of the terrestrial family of planets, or rather 
with that family as a whole, that we perceive most clearly 
that those giant planets belong to another order of bodies. 
Our earth does not to the same degree surpass the family of 
asteroids regarded as a whole. It is indeed rather surprising 
that the asteroids should so readily have been recognised as 
belonging to a distiné& order, while the giant planets, which 
differ fully as much from the terrestrial family of planets as 
these planets differ from the asteroids, should be regarded 
as though they were members of one and the same 
family. 

It may be urged, perhaps, that the asteroids by travelling 
altogether within a comparatively small region of the sun’s 
domain seem marked out as forming a distinct family. But 
in truth, the region within which the asteroids pursue their 
path is very much larger than that occupied by the members 
of the terrestrial family of planets—certainly twice as large, 
if we leave altogether out of account the great range of the 
asteroids in distance from the mean plane of the solar 
system. The orbital range of the terrestrial family of 
planets is indeed so small, compared with that of the outer 
family, that the two sets of orbits cannot be properly 
represented in the same diagram. If a diagram includes 
the orbits of the giant planets properly drawn to scale, then 
the path of Mars, the outermost of the terrestrial planets, 
is represented by a circle considerably smaller than that 
commonly used to represent the sun in ames of the solar 
system. 

Let us endeavour, then, to picture to anrSEInee the giant 
globe of Saturn pursuing its career so far from the central 
orb that the region girt round by its orbit exceeds more than 
ninety-fold the region which the earth circuits in her annual 
revolution. Let us remember that in precisely the same 
degree the solar light and heat are reduced at Saturn’s 
distance, and (also in the same degree) the attractive 
influence of the sun, and singularly enough, in the same 
degree, Saturn’s own attractive influence exceeds the earth’s. 
For the former relation was a necessary consequence of the 
law according to which light, heat, and gravity diminish 


6 The Saturnian System. (January, 


with distance ;* but the latter is, as it were, accidental, since 
there is no necessary connection between the mass of any 
planet and the distance at which it travels. It is worthy of 
notice, as a convenient aid to the memory, that while the 
area swept out by Saturn is about ninety times that swept 
out by the earth, and solar heat, light, and gravity at Saturn 
about one-ninetieth less than at the earth, the mass of 
Saturn exceeds that of the earth about ninety-fold. It is 
manifest, then, that Saturn must be regarded as a much 
more efficient ruler over the region of space along which he 
circles than the earth can possibly be over the region 
of space through which she travels. Or rather, it is 
manifest that the range of Saturn’s influence is much 
wider. So feeble is the earth, so narrow is the sphere 
of her special influence, that even her own moon is far 
more fully under solar influence than under terrestrial 
rule. In fact, if we remember that the sun’s mass is about 
315,000 times that of the earth, we see that his influence 
equals hers at any point whose distance from the sun is to 
that from the earth as the square root of 315,000 to unity, 
or about as 561 tor. Now since the distance of the earth 
from the sun is about 91,500,000 miles, a point on the line 
joining the earth and sun (and between these bodies) 
must be distant from the earth 1-562nd part of this distance 
to be equally influenced by the sun and earth. This 
distance is rather less than 163,000 miles, whereas the 
moon’s distance from the earth amounts to 238,800 miles. 
A point beyond the earth on the line joining the sun and 
earth produced should be at 1-560th part of g1,500,000 miles 
from the earth, to be equally influenced by the earth and 
sun, that is about 164,000 miles. This is the farthest point 
from the earth at which her influence equals that of the 
sun; and if a sphere be described in space at any instant, 
having the line joining this last-named point and the one 
before determined (163,000 miles from the earth’s centre 
towards the sun) as diameter, then at all points within this 
sphere with its diameter of 327,000 miles or thereabouts, 
the earth acts more potently than the sun; but everywhere 
else she acts less potently. Now let us apply a similar 
process to Saturn, in order to ascertain the dimensions of 
the sphere over which his power is, as it were, supreme, and 


* Since the area swept out by a planet in completing its orbit varies directly 
as the square of the mean distance, while light, heat, and gravity vary inversely 
as the square of the mean distance, it follows that the light, heat, and attraction 
influencing bodies revolving around the same central sun vary inversely as the 
area of their orbits. 


1874.] The Saturman System. a 


we shall at once perceive how different is his position as a 
ruler of matter compared with that of the earth. The mean 
distance of Saturn from the sun amounts to 872,137,000 
miles, and his mass is about go times the earth’s, or about 
I-3500th of the sun’s mass. Hence the sun’s influence 
equals Saturn’s at any point whose distance from the sun 
is to that from Saturn as the square root of 3500 to unity, 
or about as 59 to £. Hence a point on the line joining 
Saturn and the sun, and between these bodies, must be 
distant from Saturn 1-60th part of the distance of Saturn 
from the sun to be equally influenced by the sun and 
Saturn. This distance is about 14,500,000 miles from 
Saturn on the side towards the sun. On the farther side, a 
point equally influenced by Saturn and the sun would lie at 
a distance from Saturn equal to 1-58th part of Saturn’s 
distance from the sun, or at a distance of about 15,000,000 
miles. Hence the sphere over which Saturn bears supreme 
sway has a diameter of 29,500,000 miles. We have seen 
that the sphere over which the earth bears supreme sway 
has a diameter of only 327,000 miles. Hence Saturn’s 
sphere of rule is to the earth’s, in diameter, as 29,500 
to 327, or is about go times greater.* Here strangely 
enough the proportion go to I comes in yet again, not as 
the reader might imagine at a first view, as a necessary 
consequence of the same proportion go to I in the mass of 
Saturn compared to the earth’s, and in the square of his 
mean distance to the square of the earth’s, but inde- 
pendently—since it would not have appeared as the result 
of our calculations did not the sun’s mass bear to Saturn’s 
the proportion 3500 tor. The volume of the sphere ruled 
over by Saturn bears to the volume of the sphere ruled over 
by the earth a proportion of about 730,000 to unity; and it 


* It may be interesting to determine in the same way the extent of the 
sphere over which Jupiter bears sway. His mean distance from the sun 
amounts to 475,692,000 miles, and his mass is equal to about one ,,,,th part 
of the sun’s. Hence the influence of Jupiter and the sun are equal at any 
point, whose distance from Jupiter is to its distance from the sun as I to the 
square root of 1048, or as 1 to about 32. Hence we must take from Jupiter 
on the side towards the sun a distance equal to ,',rd part of Jupiter’s distance, 
and on the side away from the sun a distance equal to ,st part of Jupiter’s 
distance. These distances are respectively about 14,400,000 miles, and about 
15,300,000 miles; so that the sphere over which Jupiter bears superior sway 
has a diameter of about 29,700,000 miles, which may be regarded as about 
equal to the diameter of the sphere over which Saturn bears superior sway, 
I have spoken of the region over which a planet bears special sway as a 
sphere, and this is actually the case. It is manifest from the reasoning that 
the planet is not centrally placed within the sphere, but is nearer the side 
towards the sun. The sphere is manifestly not constant in dimensions, being 
larger or smaller, according as the planet is farther from or nearer to the sun. 


8 } The Saturnian System. (January, 


may not unfairly be said that this proportion indicates the 
relative position of the two orbs—Saturn and the earth—as - 
respects power in the scheme of the planets. This pro- 
portion seems certainly more truly to indicate their relative 
power than the direct proportion between their masses— 
since we must recognise in the earth’s relative proximity” 
to the sun a source of comparative inferiority as a ruler 
over matter. It is noteworthy, moreover, that if we adopt 
this criterion, Saturn and Jupiter are brought almost to 
equality, notwithstanding the greatly superior mass of the 
last named planet. 

It is to be noticed that the relation here considered bears 
very importantly on the question of the original formation 
of the planetary system. I must admit that, for my own 
part, I find much in Laplace’s conception of the genesis of 
the solar system, which is very far from satisfactory. A 
gradually contracting nebulous mass, such as he pictures, 
could scarcely in my opinion have produced a system in 
which the masses are at a first view so irregularly scattered 
as in the solar system. But if we adopt such a view as I 
have endeavoured to maintain in my ‘‘ Other Worlds,” we find 
in the position of the various members of the solar system 
a satisfactory reason for their various dimensions. Accord- 
ing to that view the solar system had its origin in the 
gathering together of matter towards a great centre of 
aggregation. The subsidiary centres of aggregation which 
would as naturally arise during such a process as subsidiary 
whorls in a gigantic whirlpool, might be expected to have 
such dimensions as we actually observe. Close to the great 
centre, such centres would be relatively small, because the 
ruling centre would be supreme everywhere within the 
sphere close around him, except quite close to subordinate 
aggregations. No matter except such as passed very close 
to such aggregations would be gathered in. We may 
suppose that such aggregations would indeed only form on 
account of the enormous wealth of matter within that 
sphere, and the consequent certainty of collisions, or very 
close approaches resulting in agglomeration; and towards 
the outskirts of this part of the sphere of the sun’s 
influence there would not even be any definite agglome- 
ration, but a number of very small—and, as it were, 
accidental—aggregations resulting in the ring of asteroids. 
Outside the sphere of the sun’s overmastering influence, 
there would still be a great wealth of matter, and gathering 
aggregations would exert their attractive energies far more 
widely. Nearest of all to the central region would come 


1874.] The Saturnan System. 9 


the mightiest aggregation of all, on account of the greater 
quantity of matter. Here, then, Jupiter had his birth, chief 
giant of the solar system, and prince of all the planets. 
But the range of sway would widen with increasing distance, 
and at first such widening would go far to counterbalance the 
gradual falling off in the gravity of matter. Moreover, 
with increase of distance from the sun would come a greater 
freedom to form out of the aggregating matter subordinate 
schemes or systems. Next, then, beyond Jupiter, with his 
giant bulk and uniform system of secondary bodies, came 
Saturn into being, inferior in mass to his giant brother, but 
ruling over a wider space, separated from Jupiter by a far 
greater distance than separates Jupiter from the asteroids, 
and in fact, according to the criterion I have laid down above, 
nearly the equal of Jupiter in the range of his independent 
power. Here we see the origin of the most remarkable 
system within the solar domain—a scheme of rings whose 
complicated structure is as yet not half understood, anda 
family of eight satellites as diverse in size and arrangement 
as the eight primary members of the solar family itself; 
and we can readily understand how, with yet increasing 
distances and continually decreasing quantity of matter, the 
minor but still gigantic masses of Uranus and Neptune 
should appear on the outskirts of the solar system. I 
venture to predict, with some degree of confidence, that 
if. any trans-Neptunian planet be ever discovered, it will 
be inferior, but not greatly inferior, to both Uranus and 
Neptune in mass.* 

Let us now, however, turn from the consideration of the 
mass and weight of Saturn, and of the processes by which 
he may be thought to have reached his present condition, 
to the inquiry what that condition probably is. 

We see Saturn, then, the centre of a scheme of wonderful 
extent and importance. The outermost satellite circuits in 
an orbit having a diameter of more than 4,600,000 miles. 
This is the widest span of any satellite orbit, and not far 
short of ten times the span of our moon’s orbit. The widest 
span of the Jovian satellite system amounts to but 2,380,000 
miles, or almost exactly five times the span of the moon’s 
orbit. It will be observed that both the Saturnian and 


* In old times this would have been a tolerably safe prediction, since any 
such planet would have been very unlikely indeed to be discovered. But in 
these days, when the zodiac is continually being swept for the discovery of 
new planets, and when new planets are being detected at an average rate of 
about five per annum, it is exceedingly unlikely that any trans-Neptunian planet 
will long escape detection, supposing any such planet exist to be detected. 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) Cc 


10 The Saturnian System. [January ; 


Jovian satellite systems lie far within the limits of the 
spheres ruled over with superior sway by these planets 
respectively. For it will be remembered that Saturn’s 
sphere of sway has a diameter of about 29,500,000 miles, 
while Jupiter’s (see note at p. 7) is about 200,000 miles 
wider. The effect of this is seen in the motions of the 
Jovian and Saturnian satellite systems. For whereas the 
orbit of our moon around the sun is everywhere concave 
towards the sun, notwithstanding the motion of the moon 
round the earth, the paths even of the outermost of the 
Jovian and Saturnian satellites are markedly convex towards 
the sun when these bodies are in inferior conjunction. The 
inner satellites, in fact, not only move at those times on 
courses convex towards the sun, but have an excess of 
motion in their orbit round their primary over the onward 
motion which they share with him around the sun, and 
consequently travel backwards in this part of their motion. 
It follows that in successive lunations the inner satellites 
trace out looped paths. This happens with the four 
satellites Mimas, Euceladus, Tethys, and Dione. ‘The 
fifth, Rhea, shows the singular peculiarity of coming almost 
exactly to rest when in inferior conjun¢tion—that is, to rest 
relatively to the solar system. The path of this satellite 
with reference to the solar system is nearly an epicycloid, 
any portion of which, from cusp to cusp, is appreciably a 
cycloid. ‘The satellites Titan, Hyperion, and Japetus follow 
waved courses convex to the sun through a considerable 
portion of each lunation. It will be seen that Saturn 
has his system in complete control.* Even the outermost 
is very much less perturbed by the sun (relatively as well as 
absolutely) than our moon. 

The second satellite inwards has an orbit diameter of 
rather more than two millions of miles. It is a somewhat 
remarkable circumstance that this satellite, lying between 
Titan and Japetus, the two largest satellites, should be the 
smallest or at least the faintest of all Saturn’s satellite 


* The distinction between our moon and the satellites of the major planets is 
a marked one, and significant. Our moon is, in point of fact, much more to be 
regarded as a fifth planet of the inner family of terrestrial planets than as an 
orb dependent on ourearth. If she could be watched from a distant standpoint, 
her motions would scarcely indicate the fact that she circles around the earth; 
for, in fact, the result of this so-called circling motion corresponds simply to large 
perturbational effects. _Onthe contray, the motions of the satellites of Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are chiefly influenced by their respective 
primaries, and this could not but be recognised if the motions of these moons 
were watched from a distant point. Even if their primaries were concealed 
during the observation, the motions of the satellites would reveal the fact that 
these bodies are ruled by a central orb. 


1874.] The Saturnian System. II 


family. One would be led to suspect that Hyperion is but 
one member of a zone of small satellites travelling between 
the paths of Titan and Japetus. It appears to me to bea 
confirmation of this view that the path of Hyperion does 
not correspond with the general arrangement of the scheme, 
but bears somewhat the same sort of relation to it that we 
should recognise in the orbit of one of the innermost of the 
asteroids if taken, instead of the zone of asteroids, to 
represent the orbit intermediate to the paths of Mars and 
Jupiter. 

As we proceed onwards towards Saturn we are struck 
with the comparatively close order of the orbits of the inner 
satellites. The distance separating the orbit of the inner- 
most from that of the fifth Rhea is less than half the 
distance separating the orbit of Rhea from that of Titan 
the sixth. The following table of distances has been 
calculated on the assumption that the sun’s equatorial 
horizontal parallax is 8°g16” :— 


N Distance in mean Distance Difference. 
ane: radii of Saturn. in miles. in miles. 
Ee Mimas 3°3607 1152333 2,66 
II. Euceladus  4°3125 148,000 : ie 3 
TT. Tethys 5°3396 183,250 ee a 
IV. Dione 6°8395 ZANT i ie 
Ni Rhea 9°5528 527:540 ee 
VI. ‘Titan 22°1450 759,999 Ta0"Ro 


VII. Hyperion 26°7834 919,170 
VIII. Japetus 6 4°3590 2,208,720 7789550 


Passing yet farther inwards, after crossing the orbit of 
Mimas, we come upon the ring-system. The outer edge of 
the outer ring lies at a distance of 83,460 miles from the 
centre of Saturn, or 31,875 miles from the orbit of the 
innermost satellite. It is noteworthy how uniformly the 
distances from this ring outwards to orbit after orbit of the 
four inner satellites proceed. This uniformity somewhat 
resembles what we notice in the case of the four terrestrial 
planets, since we see that the distance from the sun to 
Mercury, thence to Venus, and thence to the earth, are very 
nearly equal (being roughly 35, 32, and 35 millions of miles), 
while the distance to Mars, though greater, belongs to the 
same order of distances. ‘The remaining elements, which 
are convenient for reference in treating of the ring-system, 
are the following :— 


12 The Saturnian System. |January, 


Exterior diameter of outer ring in miles . . 166,920 


Interior af PP ¥ 
Exterior : °’,; inner ring ,, 1. CE 
Interior 3 if ie . Sega 
Interior SS dark ring ,, i? Tomiie 
Breadth of outer bright sing ss 2) Uc 18. 9,025 
Breadth of division between rings . . . . 1,680 
Breadth of inner brightring . . . . . + 17,605 
Breadth of dark ring. splay WeanE 8,660 


Breadth of system of bright rings . ciel oP 
Breadth of ‘entiré'system ‘of rings ©. '. °.)°) 39,57@ 
Space between planet and dark ring. Bret 9,760 


We are thus brought to the planet’s globe. Its mass we 
have already indicated. Its dimensions are as follows :— 
the equatorial diameter is about 70,150 miles, the polar 
diameter about ths less, or about 63,500 miles. The 
volume exceeds the earth’s 697 times, so that since in mass 
Saturn only exceeds the earth about go times, his mean 
density is but about ?%ths of the earth’s. His globe rotates 
in about gh. 55¢m. on an axis inclined about 263° to the 
perpendicular to Saturn’s orbit-plane. The rings and all 
the satellites, except the outermost, travel nearly in the 
plane of Saturn’s equator, but the outermost satellite travels 
on a path inclined about 15° to that plane. 

Even on a general survey, only, of this wonderful system, 
the impression conveyed to the mind would not be that we 
have in Saturn an orb belonging to the same order as our 
earth, were it not for the influence of the preconceptions to 
which I have already adverted. It seems to me that if we 
could imagine a visitant from outer space viewing our solar 
system, he would at once recognise in Jupiter and- Saturn 
the members of an order of orbs probably intermediate in 
character between the sun and the minor planets. He would 
reason that while, on the one hand, these planets being very 
much less than the sun in volume and mass, are obviously 
of an inferior order, and in this sense resemble the earth and 
Venus; they are, on the other hand, sofar comparable with 
the sun, even in these respects, that they largely exceed the 
earth and her fellow planets—that is, in those circum- 
stances in which alone the major planets are comparable 
with the minor planets, they are as far removed from them 
on the one hand as from the sun on the other. But when 
we turn to features in which the major planets resemble the 
sun, we find that they differ absolutely from the minor 
planets. Thus, in having the complete control of systems 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 13 


of bodies, these planets resemble the sun, and are utterly 
unlike the earth. In mean density Jupiter is almost exactly 
like the sun, and Saturn has even a less mean density than 
the earth. This last is the most important distin¢tion of 
all, as we shall presently see ; in faét, I think I shall be able 
to show that of itself it demonstrates the fact that the major 
planets are utterly unlike the earth and her fellow minor 
planets. Again, in the condition and phenomena of their 
atmospheric envelopes, Jupiter and Saturn to a certain 
degree resemble the sun, as will presently appear; and 
though the resemblance is not altogether complete, yet this 
is counterbalanced by the circumstance that the want of 
resemblance between the major and minor planets in this 
respect is very marked indeed. 

It will be understood that I rely in the main for evidence 
as to the condition of the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn 
on the results of telescopic researches. Other evidence 
there is, and in particular the spectroscope has afforded 
information of an interesting nature. But as yet this infor- 
mation is not definite enough to be reliable as a basis of 
reasoning; whereas the evidence given by the telescope is 
sufficient, rightly used, to convey very important information. 
I would note that we may properly combine the information 
given by both Jupiter and Saturn, since these planets 
manifestly resemble each other in those leading features 
which we can alone deal with in our present enquiries. It 
is altogether likely that in minor respeCts Jupiter and 
Saturn are as unlike as the earth and Mars. But precisely 
as we can trace a general resemblance between all the 
members of the minor family of planets, so manifestly 
Saturn and Jupiter (as also probably Uranus and Neptune) 
resemble each other in the broader features of their con- 
dition. It is very important to recognise this, because, in 
point of fact, the information conveyed by one planet 
supplements in an interesting way that given by the other. 
Jupiter being very much larger and far nearer to the earth 
can be more satisfactorily studied; and we can only recognise, 
in the case of Jupiter, the details of those atmospheric belts 
which girdle both planets. But on the other hand Saturn 
affords a test as to the nature of these belts, which is 
wanting in the case of the larger planet. For Jupiter’s 
equator plane is very little inclined to the level in which the 
planet travels, whereas, as has been mentioned in the 
elements given above, the equator plane of Saturn is 
inclined at a very considerable angle, so that what we 
may for convenience term the seasonal changes of Saturn 


14 The Saturnian System. (January, 


(noting always, however, that they must be quite unlike the 
seasons of our earth) are of a marked character, whereas 
Jupiter has scarcely any seasonal changes at all. Here, 
then, is a criterion to show what part, if any, the sun plays 
in producing changes in the condition of the atmospheric 
envelopes of these planets, since we should expect, if his 
action is the leading cause of changes, that the changes in 
the Jovian belts would differ°markedly in charaéter from 
those in the Saturnian belts. 

I take for granted the ordinarily described telescopic 
features of the belts, as presumably known to all the readers 
of this Journal. 

The first feature to be noticed as bearing on the condition 
of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, is the remarkable 
parallelism of the belts. It has been commonly stated that 
this feature is comparable with the existence of trade-wind 
zones on our earth. I apprehend that if our earth were 
viewed from Venus or Mercury, even with high telescopic 
power, nothing like zones would be recognised. It is, 
indeed, only over the oceans that the equatorial cloud band 
exists; and even this is but a mid-day phenomenon. The 
sun rises in a clear sky in equatorial regions at sea; and it 
is only towards noon that heavy clouds cover the whole sky. 
In the afternoon these are dissipated by heavy rain-falls and 
electric storms, and towards sunset the sky is clear. 

There is, indeed, a difficulty in accounting for the zones 
in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Their ordinary 
regularity implies the existence of a much more effective 
cause than that which produces our trade-winds. The 
cause must be, it should seem, a difference of rotational 
velocity, causing clouds to lag as clouds on our trade zones 
do, only much more markedly, or else causing clouds to be 
carried in advance of the prevailing rotation-rate. Either 
cause would serve equally well; the difficulty lies in under 
standing how either can operate with sufficient activity. 
The rapid rotation-rates of Jupiter and Saturn would of 
course make the differences of rate correspondingly great. 
But so far as the cause which produces our own trade-winds 
is concerned, this circumstance is much more than counter- 
balanced by the greatly reduced effects of solar action in 
Jupiter and Saturn. That, notwithstanding this reduction 
of effect, sun-raised clouds should be so much more ener- 
getically swayed into zones than on our earth must be 
regarded as altogether improbable. We must find some 
other interpretation of these zones,—a result which would 
indeed have been forced upon us, as I think, by the mere 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 15 


circumstance that there are sometimes so many of them. 
Polar and equatorial air-currents such as exist in our own 
air would naturally explain, perhaps, an equatorial cloud- 
zone and sub-tropical trade zones on either side of it; but 
they can afford no explanation of the existence, even though 
occasional only, of three or four well-marked zones on either 
side of the equatorial one. 

_It appears to me a natural inference from these considera- 
tions that the difference of rotational velocity to which the 
cloud zones of Jupiter are certainly due, does not result 
from polar and equatorial currents carrying cloud-matter to 
regions where the movement of rotation is greater or less, 
but from upward and downward motions within the Jovian and 
Saturnian atmospheres. Or else, (though the assumption is 
not incompatible with the hypothesis of upward and down- 
ward currents), we may assume that some cause resembling 
that which occasions the solar spot zones is at work to 
produce cloud-zones on Saturn and Jupiter. We cannot 
proceed much farther in this direction until we have more 
definite information. But it suffices for our purpose to 
notice that we have in upward and downward currents, 
combined probably with some resemblance in condition to 
the sun, a reasonable explanation of the general features of 
the cloud-zones of the giant planets. 

Only, it is necessary to notice that such views require the 
atmospheric envelopes of these planets to be exceedingly 
deep, and the upward and downward motions taking place 
within them exceedingly rapid. The upward motions 
would, in fact, appear, according to this view, to resemble 
rather the uprush of vapours during volcanic eruptions than 
any ordinary forms of vertical currents. The downward 
motions need not necessarily be so rapid; they might, and 
probably would, be merely the quiet return of the vapourous 
masses which had been propelled upwards, by which they 
resumed the level due to their density. 

It appears to me that the results of telescopic scrutiny 
correspond well with these requirements. It is impossible 
to observe the belts of Jupiter with adequate telescopic 
power without being led to the conviction that the atmo- 
sphere in which these belts exist is exceedingly deep. It is 
impossible to convey by any description, and not easy to 
indicate even by pictorial illustration, the force of the 
telescopic evidence. It may be remarked, however, that 
the shapes and changes of shape of the cloud masses show 
that they have been generated in a deep atmosphere, and 
therein exposed to modifying influences. There is also one 


16 The Saturnian System. (January, 


piece of evidence on this point the significance of which is 
unmistakable. Scarcely ever, if ever, is any feature stable, 
even for a few successive rotations. It is certain that we 
scarcely ever, if ever, see the real surface of Jupiter or 
Saturn. I doubt myself whether those features whose suc- 
cessive returns have been observed for the determination of 
the rotation-rates of these planets are other than atmo- 
spheric phenomena. They appear to resemble rather the 
solar spots, whose motion may indeed suffice for the deter- 
mination of the general rotation-rate, but cannot possibly be 
regarded as the motion of some obje¢t on the real surface of 
the solar orb (if he have any). However this be, it is 
certain that if any part of the real surface of Jupiter has 
ever been seen, the whole of that surface is usually con- 
cealed from view. Even the dark zones are not zones of 
his real surface, though they unquestionably underlie the 
bright cloud zones. Moreover, signs of violent action 
-such as I have suggested have been by no means wanting ; 
since not only do the features of the Jovian belts change 
rapidly in shape, but special details are sometimes seen,—as 
round white spots lasting but for a short period, &c.,—which 
can be readily explained as due to an uprush of vapour, 
and, in my opinion, can no otherwise be so satisfactorily 
accounted for. 

But so soon as we admit the probability that the atmo- 
spheres of Jupiter and Saturn are very deep, we are led toa 
line of reasoning which seems demonstrative of the fact 
that the condition of these planets is utterly unlike that of 
the earth. A deep atmosphere, subjected to the strong 
gravitating energy of either planet, would acquire at ordi- 
nary temperatures a density altogether incompatible with 
the existence of any resemblance to our own atmosphere in 
any part of its extent. In fact, if we only assume that the 
atmosphere of Jupiter has a depth of 50 miles below 
the cloud layers, we deduce at the surface of Jupiter 
a density incompatible with the gaseous state, a density 
exceeding many times that of our heaviest metals! It is 
difficult to suppose that that atmosphere, the changes in 
which are so manifest at our great distance from the giant 
planets, has a less depth than this would imply; and yet 
the assumption that it has such a depth leads dire¢tly to the 
conclusion that (if at ordinary temperature) it increases in 
density till liquefaction is attained, and that if Jupiter has 
any liquid surface at all, such surface is due to the pressure 
of the Jovian atmosphere producing liquefaction. There 
would, however, be more probably continuity of change 


1874.) The Saturnian System. 17 


from the vapourous to the liquid condition. I do not say 
that this is the actual state of matters; on the contrary, I 
shall endeavour to show that the real condition of the 
Saturnian and Jovian atmospheres is altogether different. 
But this is the conclusion to which we are led if we assume 
that these atmospheres have such a depth as telescopic 
observation indicates, and exist at ordinary temperatures. 
But if we assume, as we must on the assumption of ordi- 
nary temperature, that, at a comparatively moderate depth 
below the apparent limits of the globes of Saturn and 
Jupiter, the liquid condition is attained by mere vastness of 
atmospheric pressure, or else exists simply because the 
atmosphere is not so deep as we have been supposing, we 
have, in the small mean densities of Jupiter and Saturn, a 
problem of no ordinary difficulty... We cannot possibly 
believe (in the presence of the results experimentally shown 
to follow from applying great pressure to solid materials) 
that there can be cavernous openings in the interior of 
these vast globes. Under enormous pressure, solids, even 
such solids as iron, gold, and platinum, are perfectly plastic. 
They vun like fluids. And no pressure ever yet applied 
experimentally is for a moment comparable with the pressure 
which must exist at very moderate depths below the surface 
of Jupiter and Saturn. It is as incredible that cavernous 
openings or great hollow interiors exist in the solid globes of 
Saturn and Jupiter as it would be that cavernous openings 
should exist in the depths of ocean, and with no other walls 
but the water itself. If the globes of Saturn and Jupiter 
are in the main solid or liquid, they are solid or liquid 
throughout, without gaps or interstices. Moreover, they are 
subject to a pressure constantly increasing from surface to 
centre, and enormously greater than that at the earth’s 
centre, at but a relatively short distance from the surface. 
In Jupiter especially, the pressure must increase with great 
rapidity, on account of the greatness of his attractive power; 
for gravity at his surface exceeds gravity at the earth’s 
surface fully 2} times. And again, in Jupiter’s enormous 
globe, a depth such as that which separates the centre of 
the earth from her surface is relatively insignificant, being 
less than a tenth part of the distance separating his centre 
from his surface, on our present assumptions. ‘That a solid 
or liquid globe, subjected to such enormous pressures 
throughout by far the greater part of its volume, should 
have a mean density less than a fourth of the earth’s, as in 
Jupiter’s case, or less than a seventh of the earth’s, as in 
Saturn’s, must assuredly be regarded as a most surprising 
VOL. IV. (N.S.) D 


18 The Saturnian System. (January, 


circumstance. Of what materials should such a globe be 
composed? Are there any materials whatever, of such 
small density, which can be supposed to exist in such rela- 
tively enormous quantities as to constitute nearly the whole 
of the mass of Jupiter or Saturn? It would be absurd to 
regard as a reasonable hypothesis, now, either the theory of 
Whewell, that Jupiter consists mainly of water, or the 
alternative suggestion of Brewster, that the substance of 
the giant planets may be of the nature of pumice-stone. 
Such theories as these are the really startling theories 
of science; they are really fanciful, because based on no 
known physical fa¢éts. They were unscientific even when 
they were propounded; but they are doubly unscientific 
now that spectroscopic analysis has rendered it probable 
that the elements constituting the great orbs of the universe 
are in the main the same that we are familiar with on earth, 
and proportioned similarly as to relative quantity. If our 
sun were to solidify, there would be in his globe our familiar 
iron, gold, copper, calcium, sodium, and other metallic 
elements, combined with those other elements which we 
recognise as the chief constituents of the earth’s globe. 
We cannot refuse to admit the probability that what is true 
of the small earth and the gigantic sun, as well as of his 
giant brothers, the stars, can scarcely fail to be the case 
with the intermediate order of bodies to which Saturn and 
Jupiter belong. But we cannot admit this inference, pro- 
bable theugh it is, if we adhere to our assumption that the 
conditions of temperature in Saturn and Jupiter resemble 
those in our earth. We should certainly find these planets, 
in that case, as dense as our earth, or rather (considering 
the much larger pressures to which the greater part of their 
mass would be subjected) we should find their mean density 
very much greater. Since, on the contrary, they are of 
very small mean density compared with the earth, we are 
driven from the assumption that their physical condition 
resembles that of the earth. 

It is natural, under these circumstances, to inquire 
whether, since the earth gives us no satisfactory explana- 
tion of the condition of Jupiter and Saturn, we may not 
find in the sun some suggestions towards an explanation. 
It would have been natural, indeed, to have turned first to 
the sun, because of the much greater similarity of condition 
already mentioned as existing between the giant planets and 
the sun. But I preferred to consider first the less obvious 
and probable line of argument, partly to dispose of it, and 
partly because, unlikely and even unreasonable as it is, it is 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 19 


the one which has hitherto been nearly always followed. 
Very few have thought of explaining Jovian and Saturnian 
phenomena by a reference to solar phenomena; very 
many, including believers as well as disbelievers in the 
habitability of Saturn and Jupiter, have endeavoured to 
force the observed phenomena into accordance with the 
familiar phenomena of our own earth. 

We notice at once that the same low density being recog- 
nised in the case of the sun as we have been discussing in 
the case of the giant planets, any explanation which presents 
itself in the sun’s case is available, at least to be tested by 
whatever evidence may exist. 

Now we can have no hesitation in ascribing the sun’s 
small mean density to the great temperature of his whole 
globe. This temperature operates against those effects of 
pressure which, in his case, would operate far more markedly 
than in the case of the giant planets. Many elements, 
which in his interior would be solidified or liquefied by the 
great pressures to which they are subjected, remain gaseous, 
and others which do not remain gaseous yet exist at a density 
far lower than that which they would have if at ordinary 
temperatures. We may say of the sun as a whole that its 
globe is expanded, and so reduced in density by excess of 
heat. We are not able to explain precisely how his various 
elementary components are disposed throughout his globe 
in consequence of the temperatures and pressures at which 
they severally exist. In fact, everything in the sun is so 
unlike what we are familiar with, that we cannot apply 
directly any of the known laws of physics to the interpreta- 
tion of solar phenomena. But we remain, nevertheless, 
satisfied that the main reason why gravity has not its will 
throughout the solar orb, compressing the substance of that 
orb until a high mean density results, is that the great heat 
of the sun opposes the process of contraction which would 
operate at once if gravity were left unresisted. 

The inference is that the orbs of Jupiter and Saturn are 
in like manner intensely heated, though, it need hardly be 
said, by no means to the same degree. Nor, in fact, can it 
be necessary, to maintain the mean densities of Saturn and 
Jupiter at their present low amount, that anything like the 
same degree of heat should exist in their case as in the sun’s. 
For the pressures due to gravity are far less even near the 
surface of these planets, and the distance from surface to 
centre, on which the amount of the increase of pressure 
beneath the surface depends, is very much less. But that 
the temperature of Saturn and Jupiter greatly exceeds that 


The Saturnian System. [January, 


which exists in the case of our own earth, seems to be the 
explanation to which we are driven by the facts of the case, 
and, from what we know of the sun, may be regarded as 
a sufficient explanation. 

It remains to be seen, however, whether this explanation 
is supported or negatived by other facts. If it be the correct 
explanation, moreover, not only should it be in accordance 
with the facts hitherto considered, but it should indicate the 
existence of other relations than those which have led us to 
it. In other words, on carefully considering this theory, 
consequences should appear to follow from it which corre- 
spond with the actual results of observation. 

Let us begin, however, by considering the arguments which 
at a first view seem to oppose the theory that the globes of 
Saturn and Jupiter are intensely heated. 

It is manifest that the heat required by the theory is such 
that the substance of the real globes of Saturn and Jupiter 
must be self-luminous, and perhaps to a high degree. Now 
it is certain that the discs of these planets, as we see them, 
do not owe their light chiefly to inherent luminosity. This 
is shown, not only by what I shall mention presently as to 
the quantity of light received from these planets, but also 
by a circumstance which deserves more careful attention 
than it has yet, I think, received. Not only does the disc 
grow darker near the edge,* as it would if the light were 
reflected light, but both Jupiter and Saturn, when near their 
quadratures, show a marked defalcation of light on the side 
where lies the terminator of the really gibbous disc. Again, 
we see that the satellites of Jupiter disappear in the shadow 
of their primary, which would not be the case if the planet 
shone with a very strong inherent light. An even clearer 
argument at a first view is found in the circumstance that 
the shadows of the satellites look black, as though the whole 
of Jupiter’s light were reflected sunlight. 

None of these circumstances, however, suffices to prove 
that the disc of Jupiter does not possess some degree, and 
even it may well be a considerable degree, of inherent 
luminosity. It is manifest that the vanishing of the satel- 
lites in Jupiter’s shadow would only imply that his disc 
does not glow with an intense lustre of its own, a fa¢ét which 
is otherwise obvious. The darkening at the edge of the 

* To ordinary vision, the reverse appears the case; but the reason of this is 
that the dark sky on which, as on a background, the disc is seen, causes the 
edge of the disc to look dark by an effec of contrast. Mr. Browning tested 
the matter two or three years ago with a graduated darkening-glass, and found 


that, as had been theoretically inferred from the aspect of the satellites on 
different parts of the disc, the edge is darker than the middle. 


1874.] The Saturman System. aI 


disc does not show that the light is im the main reflected, 
though it proves that a considerable share of the planet’s 
light is reflected. The apparent blackness of the satellites’ 
shadows would be a strong argument if we were not aware 
how large a part contrast may play in producing such a 
phenomenon. The spots on the sun look black at their 
nucleus by contrast with the light of the photosphere, but 
so does the glowing lime of the oxyhydrogen light look 
black against the sun’s disc. And a like test is available to 
show that the blackness of the shadows of Jupiter’s satel- 
lites may be apparent only. For the satellites themselves 
ordinarily look dark in transit, and the fourth satellite looks 
absolutely black. Now this fourth satellite is certainly not 
black ; in fact, it shines on the background of the sky with 
a sufficiently bright light. We have, therefore, no evidence 
that the inherent luminosity of Jupiter may not be equiva- 
lent to the light which the fourth satellite reflects. 

Now it is to be noticed that the light of matter glowing 
with intensity of heat is not necessarily intense. The red 
of burning coals, for example, or of hot metal is not so 
bright as many imagine. It is not so bright as a red object 
in ordinary sunlight. The very best imitation of a fire of 
glowing coals I ever remember to have seen was produced 
by a piece of rather dark red cloth, accidentally placed ina 
grate in an ill-lighted room (day-light). Bright red cloth in 
sunlight does not produce nearly so good an illusion; and 
it is perhaps hardly necessary to remark that the ordinary 
imitations of a coal-fire in theatrical representations fail in 
consequence of their being very much too bright. 

In my opinion, there is nothing to prevent us from 
assuming that the darker belts of Jupiter owe the ruddiness 
of their colour to the glow of a red-hot interior, and this 
extends to the case of Saturn, whose dark belts bear 
a tolerably close resemblance to those of Jupiter in their 
general tint. I would not have it thought, however, that I 
limit the inherent heat of Jupiter to ordinary red heat. 
I simply infer that the portion of the inherent light which 
makes its way through the cloud-laden envelope of the 
dark belts corresponds to that of red-hot matter. I should 
regard the brighter belts, notwithstanding their greater 
brightness, as those whence less inherent luminosity 
proceeds, the greater part of their light being, I conceive, 
reflected from clouds of purest white, concealing the glowing 
surface beneath. It is to be carefully noted, however, that 
we have no reason for believing that any part of the cloud- 
belts of either planet is absolutely continuous. Openings 


22 The Saturnian System. (January, 


two or three hundred miles across would be quite invisible 
from the earth with the best telescopes and the most piercing 
eye-sight. In faé¢t, the apparent area of such openings in 
Jupiter’s atmosphere would be less than the fiftieth part of 
the least of Jupiter’s satellites. 

All that we might expect, I think, as an effect of the 
high temperature which our theory requires in the giant 
planets, is that these globes should shine with a light 
notably brighter than globes of equal size, similarly placed, 
and constituted of some such substance as the whiter kinds 
of sandstone. Now this is certainly the case. The lowest 
estimates of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn assign to 
these orbs regarded as absolutely opaque a reflective power 
more than twice as great as that of white sandstone. 
Jupiter’s brightness, as a whole, is not far inferior to that 
which he would have if his whole surface were of the white- 
ness of driven snow. When we remember how far his 
globe is from being white, its actual whiteness as a whole 
resulting from the combination of several colours, we see 
that, according to this the lowest estimate, he must possess 
some inherent lustre. But other estimates have placed his 
brightness far higher. And it is a notable circumstance 
that Dr. De la Rue, in photographing Jupiter and our moon 
under the same circumstances (atmospheric and otherwise), 
found that the actinic power of the moon is to Jupiter’s 
only as 6 to 5, or 6 to 4, whereas if the two bodies both 
shone only by refleCting solar light, and possessed equal 
reflective powers, the moon should have nearly 27 times the 
actinic power of Jupiter, since Jupiter is 5; times further 
from the sun than the moon is. ‘‘ On December 7, 1857, 
Jupiter was photographed in 5 seconds, and Saturn in 60, 
and on another occasion the moon and Saturn were photo- 
graphed in 15 seconds, just after an occultation of the 
planet.” Jupiter should exceed Saturn about four times if 
both shone by reflecting solar light, and Saturn would 
appear, from the observation of December 7, 1857, to be of 
a brightness inferior to that due to its greater distance, 
while the other observation would imply the reverse. It 
seems manifest that photographic results would require 
a careful comparison, not only inter se but with some standard, 
to lead to satisfa¢tory conclusions. 

We may place greater reliance on direct photometric 
estimates; and, as it seems to me, the following results by 
Zollner, when carefully studied, indicate that the condition 
of the outer planets differs essentially from that of the earth, 
Mars, Moon, and probably Venus and Mercury. He found 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 23 


the light of the following planets, regarded as light-reflecting 
bodies, indicated the tabulated reflecting powers :— 


Monte acs sls a6 6. i, (CO L720 
Marss (Sis say es Or 2072 
(pILSEa-! cape 2 e) O10Z36 
Satu: .- w4,” us. | 3 MOMOSE 
Uranus 7s). Ve) 0<) ay 5. “OO700 
Neptine Wis ss - a Ort04G7 


The following determinations of the reflecting powers of 
terrestrial substances indicate the significance of Zollner’s 
results :— 

Snow just fallen . . . 0°783 
White paper << =. « (0°700 
White sandstone . . . 0°237 
lag Mae si, eo pis ts ate Y O'L5O 
Ouartz porphyty =. « o-108 
MOISE. SOM: 4s. oe @ +o). 07079 
Dark erey syenite.. . . o078 


I have discussed at some length and in various aspects, 
in my ‘‘ Other Worlds” and Essays on Astronomy, the 
evidence in favour of occasional actual change in the shape 
of Saturn. It seems to me that it may now be desirable to 
quote the ipsissima verba of Sir W. Herschel as to the so- 
called square-shouldered aspect of Saturn. It must be 
mentioned in the first place that no possible question can 
now exist as to the ordinary shape of Saturn’s disc being 
that of an ellipse. Herschel himself was not quite sure 
whether the square-shouldered aspect might not have been 
presented even when he made those earlier measurements 
which seemed to indicate a truly elliptical figure. But as we 
now know from the measurements of Main, Bessel, and 
others that the ordinary figure of Saturn is elliptical, we see 
what interpretation can alone be placed on the observations 
now to be quoted, if accepted. 

It is customary to assign April, 1805, as the first occasion 
on which Herschel perceived any departure from the 
elliptical figure. But he himself quotes the following 
observation, made 17 years earlier :— 


* I may note, by the way, that, considering the enormous difficulty of 
determining the dimensions of the planet Neptune, it may be questioned 
whether the above result might not suggest that the real dimensions of 
Neptune are less than usually stated, and therefore the albedo greater than 
above indicated. Of course it would be extremely rash to assume this on the 
strength merely of the fa& that Neptune has a less albedo than any of his 
fellows among the giant planets. Still the point is worth noting. 


24 The Saturnian System. (January, 


** August 2,1788, 21h.58m. 20-feet reflector; power 300. 
—Admitting the equatorial diameter of Saturn to lie in the 
direction of the ring, the planet is evidently flattened at the 
poles. I have often before, and again this evening, sup- 
posed the shape of Saturn not to be spheroidical (like that 
of Mars and Jupiter), but much flattened at the poles, and 
also a very little flattened at the equator; but this wants 
more exact observations.” 

The results observed in 1805 have been often quoted by 
myself and others. It appears, therefore, desirable to 
proceed to the results obtained in 1806 :— 

** April 16, 1806.—I examined the figure of the body of 
Saturn with the 7 and tro-feet telescopes, but they acted 
very indifferently ; and, were I to judge by present appear- 
ances, I should suppose the planet to have undergone a con- 
siderable change. Should this be the case, it will then be 
necessary to trace out the cause of such alterations.” 

‘‘April 1g. s10-feet; power 300.—The polar regions are 
much flattened. The figure of the planet differs a little 
from what it appeared last year. ‘This may be owing to the 
increased opening of the ring, which in four places obstructs 
now the view of the curvature in a higher latitude than it 
did last year. The equatorial regions, on the contrary, are 
more exposed to view than they have been for some time 

ASE. 

Then follow several observations indicating a close 
resemblance in 1806 to the figure which the planet had 
presented in 1805, when the flattening was first recognised. 
At length we have :— 

“‘May g. Power 527.—The air being very clear, I see 
the figure of Saturn nearly the same as last year; the flat- 
tening at the poles appears at present somewhat less; the 
equatorial and other regions are still the same.” 

These observations, combined with those made in 1805, 
and with subsequent observations by Schroter, Kitchener, 
Sir John Herschel, Coolidge, the Bonds, Airy, and others, 
seem to leave little doubt as to the occasional apparent ex- 
pansion of the planet in its temperate zones, and also as to 
other changes of figure sometimes limited to one hemisphere 
of the planet’s globe. 

I find it difficult to understand how these observations, 
made, be it observed, by experienced astronomers, can be 
explained as due to illusion. They accord perfectly well 
with the theory which I have advocated in the present essay 
and elsewhere. I would not indeed suggest that owing to 
any processes of expansion or contraction changes take 


1874.] The Saturnian System. 25 


place in the real globe of Saturn, or even that his atmo- 
sphere becomes at times heaped up in particular regions; 
but there is nothing to prevent the occasional existence 
(perhaps for long periods of time) of cloud-layers at higher 
levels than usual in the temperate zones, or else the occa- 
sional dissipation of the higher cloud-layers in the equatorial 
zone. 

I have described, in my ‘‘ Other Worlds,” an observation 
of the ingress of one of Jupiter’s satellites on the disc, and 
its subsequent reappearance, as though tt had retraced tts course ; 
and I have shown that the only conceivable explanation of 
this remarkable phenomenon (witnessed by three excellent 
observers at different stations) appears to reside in the rapid 
dissipation of a high cloud-layer. I have never seen any 
other explanation even suggested; and, for my own part, I 
cannot agree with those who would simply abandon all 
attempt at explanation. 

The general conclusion to which all the evidence, as it 
seems to me, would appear to point, is that both Jupiter 
and Saturn are in a semi-sun-like condition. It is not alto- 
gether correct to say that they occupy a position midway 
between that of the earth and that of the sun, for, in point 
of fact, such a mode of expression does not*admit of any 
definite interpretation. It is manifest, moreover, that in 
some respects Jupiter and Saturn are utterly unlike the sun, 
while in other respects they are utterly unlike the earth and 
her fellow terrestrial planets. ‘They must be regarded as 
sui generis; and it must be the work of long and careful 
observation with the best telescopes to ascertain the nature 
of these orbs. This is a subject of independent research, 
and although some analogies suggested by our knowledge of 
the earth, and other analogies suggested by our knowledge 
of solar phenomena, may be useful as guides, yet, on the 
whole, the safest course will be to pursue the inquiry in an 
independent manner. And here I would note that there is 
excellent promise of new information to be derived from the 
systematic observation of Saturn and Jupiter in both hemi- 
spheres of the earth.* Hitherto most of the observations 


* It would not, indeed, be necessary that northern and southern observatories 
should be engaged in the work if an observatory could be established, for 
researches into the physics of astronomy, in some elevated region of our pos- 
sessions in British India. For, near the equator, the ecliptic at all times 
passes high above the horizon. It was proposed some time since, by 
an almost unanimous vote of the council of the Astronomical Society, that 
such an observatory should be erected for the purpose indicated. Whether 
this proposal will be carried out remains to be seen. It unfortunately was 
made only as arr amendment on a proposition of an eminently unsatisfactory 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) E 


26 The Saturnian System. (January, 


have been made in the northern hemisphere, though even 
there systematic observations have been wanting. Now 
Jupiter for six years and Saturn for fifteen years lie to the 
south of the equator, and are therefore ill-placed for obser- 
vation from northern stations. It may well be that changes 
occur having as their period the year of either planet, in 
which case observations made during one half only of the 
year of either planet cannot reveal the law or nature of 
such periodic changes. And in any case it must needs be 
unsatisfactory that trustworthy observations should be 
interrupted for periods so long as those I have named. 

A similar consideration applies to the Saturnian rings. 
It seems to me to have been demonstrated that these rings 
consist of multitudes of discrete bodies, though whether 
these be solid, fluid, or vapourous remains uncertain. 
Observations of both sides of the ring-system are much 
required, however, to elucidate the whole subject of the 
constitution of these strange objects. Now hitherto only 
the northern side of the system has been satisfactorily 
examined ; and this side is only presented towards us under 
conditions favourable for study during two or three succes- 
Sive oppositions out of the whole series of oppositions 
occurring during a Saturnian year. It is worthy of remark 
that all the chief discoveries respecting the rings have been 
made at these times. It cannot but be regarded as most 
desirable that the opportunities afforded when the ring 
is most open, but the southern side turned earthwards, 
should not be lost. If, as is supposed, the ring-system 
is undergoing processes of change, systematic observations 
at these favourable times are essential to the inquiry into 
their condition. 


nature, brought forward by Colonel Strange; and it is to be feared that it may 
not be received with such favour in Government circles as it would perhaps 
have obtained if not foundin questionable company. Nevertheless it is in itself 
an excellent proposition, and, supported as it was by all the leading members 
of the council except one, it is difficult to imagine that Government would 
refuse a favourable hearing to it. Should it ever be carried out, we can 
scarcely doubt that the physics of astronomy would be importantly advanced, 
and results obtained which at present are unattainable owing to the limited 
range of our northern observatories. 


1874.] Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. 27 


II. ON THE RELATION BETWEEN REFRACTED 
AND DIFFRACTED SPECTRA. 


By Munco Ponrton, F.R.S.E. 


O all workers with the spectroscope, an accurate 
method of determining the relation between the 
indications of that instrument and the normal 

positions of the spectral lines in the diffracted spectrum, 
which correspond to their wave lengths, has long been an 
object of desire. 

The method hitherto followed, in ascertaining the wave- 
length corresponding to any line found in the field of the 
spectroscope, is that of interpolation, by means of the 
formula suggested by Mr. W. Gibbs, in ‘‘Silliman’s Journal,” 
for July, 1870. Reduced to its most simple shape, this 
formula may be stated thus :—Let a, b, c represent the 
given positions of any three lines in the index of the spe¢tro- 
scope, and let x, y, z represent their corresponding wave- 
lengths. Further make 6—a=/, c—b=q, and c—a=r. 
Then, according to the formula of Mr. Gibbs, we have— 


he Bali 
2 ts ae G 
from which any one member may be found if the rest are 


given. 

This formula, however, is applicable only when the three 
lines are very near each other—a proximity not always 
attainable. Moreover, it will be found that, even when the 
three lines are near, the result is much less approximately 
correct in some parts of the spectrum than in others. 

The truth is, that the formula is absolutely correct only 
when thrown into the following more general shape— 

e Pigt Ee — 0) 

ze me oe 

where the exponent « is variable, having diverse values in 
different parts of the spectrum. 

The question thus arises, whether it may be possible to 
ascertain the law, according to which this exponent varies, 
with sufficient accuracy to render the formula available, not 
only for determining unknown wave-lengths, but also for 
correcting those already approximately ascertained by obser- 
vation. Could implicit reliance be placed on an adequate 
number of observations, this task would not be difficult. 


28 Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. (January, 


At present, however, the observations are neither so 
numerous nor so correct as to admit of the determination 
of the law with perfect accuracy. It is nevertheless possible, 
by taking advantage of the observations as they exist, to 
determine the manner in which the exponent varies with 
such a degree of correctness as may be found available for 
practical purposes. 

The following investigation has been based on a care- 


ful comparison of Angstrém’s Atlas of the Diffracted 
Spectrum, and his Relative Tables of Wave-lengths, with 
the Maps and Indices of the Refracted Spectrum, by 
Kirchhoff, Hofmann, Angstrom, and Thalén. 

To find the value of the exponent « for any three lines, of 
which both the positions in the index of the spectroscope 
and the corresponding wave-lengths are approximately 
ascertained by observation, is a little troublesome; because 
it can be done only by the method of gradual approximation, 
or trial and error. It therefore becomes of importance to 
have the value of « determined and tabulated for every 
1o° of Kirchhoff’s scale; because the value of « being known, 
the calculation of the wave-length from the general formula 
becomes easy. Such a table must proceed on the assumption 
that the vate of variation of the value of e remains nearly 
uniform for 10° of Kirchhoff’s scale; and although this 
assumption cannot be said to be absolutely correct for every 
Io’, yet it is so nearly accurate as to be practically available. 

For the purpose of framing such a table, it is convenient 
to assume the extreme lines A, and the more refrangible H 
of the speétrum as constants; so that, in the formula, the 
quantities x, z, and y may be always the same. ‘Then if 0, 
the index position in the spectroscope of any line, be given, 
its corresponding wave-length y may be found by means of 
the tabular value of « in the region where 0 is situated. It 
is further convenient to assume the value of z to be 10, and 
to determine the wave-lengths, in the first place, in relation 
to this basis, converting them afterwards into the millimetric 
scale of Angstrém. By this method we have always 
e=log. x, which is a facility in calculation. 

The assumed position of Ain Kirchhoff’s scale is 404°5, 
and of the more refrangible H 3882'5, the difference being 
3478=r in the formula. Then the value of p is always 
= b—404'5, and that of g=3882°5—b. The log. of the wave- 
length x in relation to z is 1°2863197, and the log. of that 
log. is 0*1093490, which is one of the constants in the 
calculation. ‘The log. of y is 3°5413296, and is another 


{ 
| 
, 
| 


a es “So 


1874.] Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. 29 
constant. The log. by which the relative wave-length y 
found by the calculation, is converted into the millimetric 


scale’of Angstrom is 2°5947234. 

The following are the values of e for the six principal lines 
of the spectrum, intervening between A and the more 
refrangible H, based on their positions in Kirchhoff’s index, 
and the formulated values of their wave-lengths relatively 
to that of H=1o. 


Index position. Log. of wave-length. Log. of log. Value of «. 
Bs)! 2593°r I°2420499 0°0941391 3°1516 
G50 69455 1°2223188 0°0871845 3°1963 
iD ro02;8 1°1757690 0°0703210 372322 
E. 1523°7 1°1269776 0°0519153 3°0057 
F. 2080'0 T°0919797 0°0382145 2°6244 
G. 2854°4 1°0394751 o’o168141 3°3636 


From the last column it will be perceived how variable is 
the value of «, and how erroneous must be any formula 
which is based on the assumption of its being constant— 
more especially if the constant be fixed so low as 2. 

The annexed table of the value of « has been calculated 
for every 10° of Kirchhoff’s scale, for the entire space 
between B and H. In the space between A and B, the 
observations are so few and uncertain that it has been 
found impossible to extend the table into this region with 
any degree of satisfaction. 

A careful examination of this table will show that, were 
the values of « graphically represented, they would form not 
a continuous curve, but a waved line—although in certain 
parts the line becomes straight. From 590 to rooo of 
Kirchhoff’s scale, the value of « gradually rises from 3°1516 
to 3'2342; but there isa slight interruption to the continuity 
of the ascent at 830 of the scale, where it has attained to 
3°2130. Here it remains constant for 5 terms, after which 
it falls slightly, becoming at 880 only 3'2040. It then 
ascends until, at 930, it reaches 3°2310, from which point 
there is a second fall, until at g60 it becomes 3°2210, whence 
it ascends to the maximum of 3'2342, which it reaches at 
1000 of the scale. 

From this maximum there is a continuous and more or 
less regular descent, until at 1980 of the scale the value of 
e is reduced to its minimum of 2°6150. From this point 
there is a continuous ascent to a second maximum at 3526, 
where « reaches the value of 3°4520. In this interval there 
are several points, at which « remains unaltered for several 
successive terms of the series. From 3526 of the scale 


30 Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. |January, 


there is again a descent, which attains its lowest limit at 
3770, where « is 2°9100. This value remains constant to 
3820 of the scale, from which point there is a rapid ascent 
to the end of the series; but in this part of the table the 
values of « are somewhat uncertain. 

In some parts of the series, the differences in ascending 
or descending from term to term are pretty regular; while in 
other parts these differences vary more abruptly. Their 
general characteristic feature is an alternate rise and fall in 
their value, so that, were they represented graphically, they 
would exhibit a very wavy line, at intervals becoming 
straight. 

For this table, absolute accuracy is not claimed; but it is 
as nearly correct as it can be made in the present imperfect 
state of the observations. Future more accurate observa- 
tions may render it necessary to introduce into it slight 
modifications here and there; but it is far from probable 
that these will affect its main features; while it may even 
now be trusted in the calculation of the wave-lengths, which 


will be correct to the fourth place of figures in Angstrom’s 
millimetric scale. 

To illustrate the method of applying the scale to this 
purpose, let us take an example. Suppose we wish to 
ascertain the wave-length corresponding to the hydrogen 
line, which stands at 2796°7 of Kirchhoff’s scale. One 
advantage of taking the extreme lines of the spectrum as 
constants is, that it presents the general formula always in 
one shape, namely— 


i Y 
€e= 
Pd 
ZE NE 
where y is the wave-length to be found, and the other 
quantities are all given. 
In the case of the above hydrogen line, we have— 
p=2796'7— 404°5=2392°2 log. 3°3787975 


q= 3882'5— 2796°7=1085'8 ,, 3°0357498 
y constant 3478°0 5, 3°5413296 


The value of « corresponding to index 2800 is 3°2890 
and to index 2790 3°2790 


Difference 0’0100 


so that 3'2790+67=3'2857 is the tabular value of «, cor- 
responding to 2796°7 of index. 


. 


Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. 


1874.] 


K é 
999 3°2330 
1000 342 
Io 270 
20 200 
30 131 
40 064 
50 000 
60 3°1935 
70 873 
80 814 
90 758 
II00 704. 
Io 652 
20 601 
30 551 
40 502 
50 454 
60 407 
70 361 
80 316 
go 272 
1200 229 
10 187 
20 146 
30 106 
40 067 
50 029 
60 3°0992 
79 955 
80 919 
go 883 
1300 848 
se) 813 
20 Ta 
3O% | 5/89 
40 698 
50 655 


K £ 
1360 30611 
70 568 
80 527 
go 487 
1400 449 
10 414 
20 381 
30 359 
40 322 
50 2098 
60 280 
a 270 
90 260 
1500 230 
IO 170 
20 0go 
30 000 
40 2'9910 
50 820 
60 729 
70 636 
80 541 
go 445 
1600 349 
10 253 
20 157 
30 062 
40 2°8968 
50 875 
60 783 
70 692 
80 602 
go 513 
1700 425 
10 SY/ 
20 248 


TAB EE. 


K € 
1730 2°8158 
40 068 
59 2°7977 
60 886 
79 795 
80 704. 
go 612 
1800 519 
10 427 
20 337 
30 249 
40 164 
50 o81 
60 000 
70 2'6917 
80 834 
go 749 
Ig00 660 
nfo) 570 
20 480 
30 399 
40 310 
50 240 
60 Igo 
70 160 
80 
a 150 
2000 160 
Io 170 
20 180 
30 Igo 
40 200 
50 210 
60 221 
70 232 
80 244 
90 300 


K 
2100 
10 


€ 
2°6380 
460 
559 
640 
720 
800 
880 
979 
2°7070 
150 
220 
310 
400 
4990 
540 
5990 
670 
760 
860 
970 
2°8070 
140 
200 
270 
349 
410 
490 
600 
720 
830 
920 
999 
2°g050 
120 
200 
290 
380 


€ 


2°9475 
579 
670 
779 
850 
930 
3'0030 
130 
240 
340 
45° 
559 
660 
780 
890 
990 
3°1070 
150 
260 
379 
480 
600 
720 
830 
940 
3°2060 
180 
290 
390 
490 
600 
700 
799 
890 
3°3010 
160 
349 


K é 
2840 3°3500 
50 614 
60 to } 
2900 f 664 
10 to 
40 } 680 
2950 710 
60 750 
70 780 
80 |} 
oo pe) 88 
3000 820 
Io 860 
20 880 
30 
40 } 890 
5° 950 
cae SoG 
go 34 
3100 o1o 
Io 020 
20 045 
30 to 
70 } 080 
80 IIo 
go 160 
3200 Igo 
roto 2 
70 a 
80 260 
go to 
3370 mip 
80 280 
go 290 
eae 300 
3470 
80 304 


K 


3490 


3500 
Io 


20 
30 
40 


3°4319 


324 
330 
380 
450 
520 
440 


3°0940 
310 
2°'9780 
430 
210 


100 


200 
500 
30100 
3°1100 
2600 


4700 


32 Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. (January, 


To fina 2 — 
log. £ 3°3787975 
p € 3°2857 
oe = 1'2390 Ae Sees 
‘i 99°73 9°0930975 
to find ze log. of log. x 0°1093490 


log. of ¢ 0°5166279 
log. xe 4°2264610 0°6259769 

p 
1239075 _~— log. g 3°0357948 


Ze 
log. x, above 4°2264610 
4 =0'064466 teh 2 YB Bogs sae 


—— log. r3°5413296 
P4%— 17303541 log. o°1151247 
ze XE ee BK 
log. yé=3°4262049 log. 0°5348133 
log. € 0°5166279 
log. y =1°0427624 o°0181854 
add constant 2°5947234 


¥=4339°96 3°6374858 


According to Angstrom, the value of this wave- 
length.in the millimetric. scale is. . ... . « 4S4Ge 


According to the above itis .° 2°. > 3.65. Se 4gapae 


Difference 0000°14 
which is almost unappreciable. 

‘In judging of this result, it must be borne in mind that 
the chances of errors of observation, in ascertaining the 
wave-length and the position of the line in the scale of the 
spectroscope, are about equal; so that, of the above dif- 
ference, small as it is, only one-half should be set down to 
the wave-length. If the latter be made 4340°03, thus 
halving the difference, then with the exponent «=3°2857, 
the position of the line in the scale of the spectroscope 
would have to be made 2796'56, which differs only oo000°r4 
from that assigned to it by observation—a difference which 
is in like manner scarcely appreciable. As determined by 
the table, then, this hydrogen line ought to have for its 
index position 2796'56, and for its wave-length 4340°03. 


1874.] Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. a3 


The mode of finding the value of «, when both the position 
of the line in the scale of the spectroscope and the wave- 
length are given, and held to be absolutely exact, differs but 
little from the foregoing. A certain value of « must be 
assumed, and when log. yé and its log. are found as in 
the preceding calculation, the log. of the log. of y, as given 
by observation, is to be subtracted from it. If the value 
of « has been accurately assumed, then the difference should 
be exactly equal to log. «. If the difference be greater than 
this last, then the assumed value of « must be increased ; 
if the difference be less, then the value of e€ must be 
diminished. A little experience will show the extent of the 
requisite increase or diminution, which varies in different 
regions of the spectrum. 

Thus, in the foregoing case, if from the log. 

2 NESE Gui aie ler ener ean, Semen 

We subtract log. of log. of the relative wave- 

length corresponding to 4340°1 of the milli- 
MCESC HC oe Se cere a ping hs, oat, Sie ee ee OO OLOTOLE 
UMMC Me? Sse ays Aye vias on alo 0°5166222 
Myhich is less than log.'c by w  ., 2... ..., 00000057 


OD Ee ena tee Op LOO2 ZO 


Thus showing that the value of e¢ should be slightly 
diminished. The requisite diminution is 00015, making the 
exact value of e, on the assumption that the observations 
are absolutely correct, 3°2842. 

It will hence be perceived how very sensitive is the expo- 
nent, and how considerable a variation it may undergo even 
with a scarcely appreciable difference of wave-length, or in 
the position of the line in the spectroscopic scale. 

In the table (p. 31), the columns marked K contain the 
degrees in Kirchhoff’s scale; while those marked e contain 
the corresponding values of the: variable exponent. The 
table is submitted in the hope that, notwithstanding any 
slight imperfections it may be found to contain, it may prove 
useful to those who are engaged in spectroscopic investiga- 
tions. 


0°5348133 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) F 


34 Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. [January, 


III. OBSERVATIONS ON THE OPTICAL 
PHENOMENA OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 


By S. BARBER, F.M.S.. 


qs) URING the first quarter of the year 1872, many 
d— remarkable optical phenomena were observed in the 

neighbourhood of Liverpool; and as I have on 
previous occasions published remarks bearing on the 
prognostic value of these appearances,* it seemed advisable 
to colleét and compare such notes as may bear upon the 
prediction of weather, and help to elucidate the questions 
that have been raised as to the origin, and varieties of halos 
and parhelia. The subject, certainly, is one of the highest 
interest, both in relation to the various crystalline forms of 
water and the constituent particles of the various forms of 
cloud. A beam of light passing through the upper atmo- 
sphere may reveal to us, by the laws of refraction, the 
degree of congelation of vapour floating ten or twenty miles 
away. The investigation of the cirrus and cirro-cumulus 
being admittedly of the highest importance in relation to 
the movements of the great atmospheric currents, it seems 
surprising that the optical laws and phenomena bearing on 
their constitution should not have received more attention 
at the hands of meteorologists. 

Before passing on to the proper subject of this paper— 
viz., halos and parhelia—I may remark that the rainbow, 
which appears to have been so thoroughly investigated, 
exhibits at times more variety, both in form and colouring, 
than most writers seem to be aware of. ‘These varieties 
will be found—like those of the halo—to have a relation to 
the general atmospheric conditions of the time. For example, 
I have frequently noticed that the tendency to an irregular 
outline, and the appearance of double bows, &c., are mostly 
connected with stormy and squally weather. A dark day in 
autumn, with low-flying nimbo-cumulus, and driving rain, 
will sometimes exhibit, in its transient gleams of sunshine, 
most curious and unexpected forms. On such occasions, 
though the outlines are more remarkable, the colouring is 
not so brilliant and decided as in calmer weather. 

In the last “Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological 
Society,” Mr. Scott gives notes of a double rainbow, with 
reversed colours; and Mr. Lecky adds an account of a 


* Quarterly Journal of Science, No. 26. 


1874.] Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. 35 


triple one produced by reflection from the surface of water— 
seen of course in calm weather. I may add to these an 
observation of a bow, which was almost devoid of colouring, 
and divided into separate rings, four or five in number, 
concentric, and decreasing in width towards the centre,* so 
that the innermost was almost invisible. These rings were 
near together; and the originating cloud seemed of low 
altitude. 

On another occasion I have observed a bow in which the 
outline was decidedly broken and unsymmetrical. This was 
also in the cumulus cloud, and in stormy weather. 

I now pass on to the forms of halo and mock sun: two 
of the latter were seen during the winter and spring of 1872. 
The first was imperfect in definition, as seen from Aigburth, 
about 434 miles south of Liverpool. This, though not a 
brilliant form, is worthy of record from the fact of its 
having been seen at stations widely distant from each other. 
It was described in the ‘‘ Times,” as seen at Meath, in Ireland. 
On comparing notes, I found that this description agreed in 
several points with the observation made by myself. The 
mock sun as it appeared near Liverpool was of an oval 
‘form, and situated vertically over the real sun. It lay 
at the point of contact of two arcs of halos tangent to each 
other. There was no cloud in the sky, only a slight haze, 
such as occurs after heavy dew and hoar-frost. This 
occurred about g.10 on the morning of Jan. 22. There 
had been a slight frost during the night. 

The phenomenon having been observed at several places 
some hundreds of miles apart, the originating crystals must 
have been of unusual altitude and extent. In passing, I 
may remark that the height of mock suns is probably very 
inconstant. ‘Thus, in the cold weather of spring (1871), I 
was fortunate enough to take an observation of the sudden 
formation of a well defined ball of prismatic light, which 
owed its existence to the passage of a rapidly moving 
cumulus cloud. This could scarcely have been higher than 
5 or 6 miles at the most. The mock sun was very similar, 
both in form and position, to that described by me in the 
““People’s Magazine” (February, 1872)—and it appeared 
and disappeared with the cumulus cloud. The weather 
changed to heavy rain on the day following the mock sun 
oF jan, 22, 1872. 

The next instance, of which I took more careful notice, 


* The outer ring was about half the width of an ordinary rainbow, and 
the inner ones became narrower by a fixed proportion. 


36 Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. {January, 


was visible from the Mersey, at Liverpool, from about 11.50 
till 12.15 at noon, on Wednesday, April roth. (See sketch on 
next page.) It seems to me to bea very unusual form. The 
wind was nearly N. at the time, and the weather cold. As I 
have ventured to maintain that halos and kindred optical 
phenomena generally indicate a transitional state of the 
temperature or of the weather, and not, as is popularly 
supposed, an approaching storm, I draw attention to this 
case aS an important, though by no means isolated, con- 
firmation of the theory. it followed many days of wet, 
and preceded about a week’s dry weather. On referring to 
the sketch it will be seen that an arc of a halo attended the 
mock suns (which were not very brilliant), and that the 
chief peculiarity of the case lay in this—that the mock 
suns were clearly external to the halo, and at a distance of 
1° 30. or 2. The halo showed chiefly a red colour, and the 
parhelia were entirely of a light prismatic blue, very distinct 
from that of the surrounding sky. 

Exactly a week after the last mentioned phenomena were 
seen, a solar halo again occurred about I p.m., Wednesday, 
April 17, and after this the weather grew warmer and the 
sky still clearer. We shall probably not be justified in 
expecting a decided change after every appearance of these 
phenomena, for I have often observed that, in showery and 
changeable weather, two or three solar halos of varying 
degrees of definition will occur on successive days; but for 
several years I have found that, when there is anything very 
singular in the form or combinations of the circles, changes 
of a decided character often follow. 

Upon examining the recorded notices of these appearances, 
we find that there are usually more accounts of lunar than 
of solar halos, yet I have no doubt, from my own observa- 
_ tions, that more solar halos really occur, and that most of 
them are overlooked on account of the dazzling effect of 
the sun’s rays, rendering their observations somewhat 
troublesome to those who have not a strong eyesight. I 
can safely say that in the neighbourhood of Liverpool they 
greatly preponderate in number. Scarcely any change, 
indeed, from wet to fair, as well as from fair to wet, occurs 
without their appearance. Two more years’ observations 
enable me to endorse the statement concerning their 
prognostic value, which I published in spring, 1871.* I 
desire now, however, to draw attention to two peculiarities 
connected with the lunar halo which appear to be of very 


* Nature, March 23, 1871. 


1874.! Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. a7 


evil portent. M. W. de Fonvielle, in commenting on an 
appearance of very rare form of lunar halo, of which I had 
sent an account to ‘‘ Nature” (Jan. 26, 1871), makes the 
following remark :*—“‘ Il est presque inutile d’ajouter que 
Vapparition de ce halo a été suivie, comme d’ordinaire, d’une 
chate de neijes abondantes.” Of course this remark refers 
to the winter season. I am not aware, however, that any 
case is on record of a halo of go° appearing in the summer 
time. Other similar cases of equal prognostic value have 
since been observed. One of the most remarkable occurred 
during the autumn of 1871. 

This was a long horizontal band of light that proceeded 
ina straight line from the moon to a distance equal to the 
radius of an ordinary halo. At the point where this line 
would have intersected the halo there were two short bands 
of light passing through it vertically, so as to form a kind 


IGE. 


Parhelia. April, 1872. 


of cross laid horizontally in the sky. Another phenomenon, 
which, I imagine, has a kindred origin, was observed by me, 
near Liverpool, on the Sunday before Easter, 1872. On 
this occasion the cross was formed at the moon itself, and 
the bands were only two or three degrees in length, at right 
angles to each other. After these appearances I took 
particular note of the weather. In a day or two, very 
heavy rain set in, and continued for a long period. Students 
of Meteorology will long remember the summer of 1872, 
and it is remarkable that it should have begun with so 
many and such unusual optical phenomena. This fact, 
however, is particularly noteworthy—that after the great 
electrical disturbance set in, and till the termination of the 
storms, not a single instance of a well defined halo or any 


* Comptes Rendus, Fevrier 27, 1871. 


38 Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. [January, 


cognate optical appearance was seen; and equally remark- 
able was the absence during the same time of the cirrus 
and cirro-cumulus forms of cloud. It would appear that 
the amount of electricity diffused through the atmosphere 
had some influence on the congelation of vapour, or that 
the forms of cloud in question are in some way dependent 
on an electrical condition, or a relation of the upper to the 
lower stratum of vapour. During this season the electric 
cumulus, of various forms and shapes, was the prevailing 
cloud form. 

Professor Poey, in his recently published remarks on 
cloud classification, points out that, during the most 
pronounced rain seasons, the two kinds of ‘“ pallium,”’— 
viz., the high ice-pallium and the low mist-pallium—are 
separated by a neutral region of the atmosphere, and that 
the pallio-cirrus is then in a state of negative electrical 
excitement, in common with the air at the surface of the 
ground; while the pallio-cumulus and the rain that issues 
from it are in positive electrical excitement; and that 
electrical discharges continually take place between the two 
concomitantly with the pouring down of wnelectrified rain 
from the lower stratum upon the earth. 

These results are singular and interesting, though it is to 
be regretted, perhaps, that Prof. Poey has not given some 
details of the means by which they were obtained. It has 
seemed strange to me that the invention of atmospheric 
electrometers and electroscopes, in combination with the 
Captive balloon, has not been put to some praétical 
use in the prediction of weather. By placing several of 
these instruments at various altitudes, and synchronously 
noting their indications, further important results may 
perhaps be obtained. 

On referring to Buchan’s “‘ Handy Book of Meteorology,” 
I find acase of a halo intersected by twelve rectilinear bands 
of light proceeding from the sun. No remark is made on 
the origin of the bands; but experiment seems to show that 
we must attribute these to reflection, and look for the cause 
in the configuration of the terminating facets of the 
suspended crystals. This theory is corroborated by the fact 
that these bands of light are achromatic, which would not 
be the case if they were caused by refraction. 

A halo broken in its outline, and caused by well-defined 
bands of linear cirrus, is, I believe, a more certain sign of 
rain than a continuous circle. Another form that I have 
noticed before bad weather is a fleecy and irregular circle, 
wider in some parts than in others ; it is of a very evanescent 


* 
iit i i ie ne 


1874.] Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere. 39 


character, and has but little colouring. This form, which is 
very uncommon, appears sometimes when the sky is almost 
clear. 

A few notes on recent appearances of parhelia, in relation 
to the attendant halos, may not be inappropriate. ‘The 
sketch given of blue parhelia accompanying a red halo, 
and clearly external to it, illustrates, I think, a very 
uncommon case. It will also be seen that, while most mock 
suns have an elliptical or oval outline, and the major axis in 
a line with the circumference of the halo, the major axis of 
this lay in a line with the vadius of the halo, and the balls of 
light were not symmetrically placed. 

Cases of parhelia without any halo are very rare. An 
instance may be found recorded in “‘ Nature,” of an oval mock 
sun entirely within the attendant circle, and _ situated 
vertically above the real sun. Most of the cases of parhelia 
noted by me have been in a horizontal line, not a vertical 
one; and those situated above the sun have been very 
deficient both in colouring and definition of form. 

One remarkable feature of these appearances is this, that 
when the parhelia are seen in very perfect form, the halo 
that accompanies them appears only to show one colour, 
and that generally red I believe ; whereas the ordinary solar 
halo has blue for the most part predominant. 

I now pass on to consider the various media, or conditions 
of the atmosphere that give rise to these optical phenomena. 
The form of cloud denominated by Howard cirro-stratus is, 
as he himself remarked, the most frequent originator both 
of lunar and solar halos; but ordinary cirrus also often 
produces them in an imperfect form. The normal or 
‘curling’ type of cirrus seldom shows prismatic tints, 
though we know it to be stri€tly an ice-cloud ; nor does the 
form of cumulus which we may call “snow cumulus.” 
This seems strange when we consider that the halo is 
simply a result of ice refraction; but it may be explained 
upon the hypothesis that, in these two forms of clouds, the 
particles are so massed together, and the prisms and crystals 
so overlaid one upon another, that the refracted rays are 
again combined and a white line produced, as may be seen 
on a close inspection of a fresh snow-flake. 

Taking, therefore, the various forms of cloud, we find 
that halos are usually restricted to the following :— 

I. Cirro-stratus, or as it is sometimes called linear 
cirrus. 

2. Ordinary cirrus. On this form I may remark, that it is 
when somewhat thin and transparent that the halo appears. 


40 British Artillery Matériel. [January, 


It would be well, perhaps, to make distinction between the 
kind of cirrus here alluded to and the whiter and denser 
variety, which approaches in character to cirro-cumulus. 
This variety is evidently a different composition, from the 
fact of chromatic phenomena being absent. The surface is 
whiter and less marked, and the outline more distinét than 
in the halo-producing variety. 

3. Club” cirrus. I thus denominate the long narrow 
line of cloud which proceeds from a kind of tuft partaking 
of the nature of cirrus and cirro-cumulus. 

These are the commonest forms of cloud that produce halo. 
We now take plain skies. I have observed the phenomenon 
under the following conditions :— 

1. A light greyish blue. This is very unusual. 

2. A deep opaque blue. On this occasion the halo was 
entirely red, as when the parhelia appeared. 

3. High thin mist (probably floating crystals). This is 
not uncommon in frosty weather. There is a general law 
with regard to these phenomena which may be stated here, 
viz-, that, “‘the clearer the sky the more perfect is the 
colouring.” This I have verified by many cases. It may 
also be added that the more defined the clouds of the upper 
stratum, the less likely are halos to be seen. 


IV. RECENT CHANGES IN BRITISH ARTILLERY 
MATERIEL. 


By S. P. OLIVER, Capt. R.A. 
(Ce, 


I. ap sth this year experiments have been carried out 

24 both at Shoeburyness and on board H.M.S. Excellent 

with some modified 24-pounder Hale’s rockets to 

test their range, accuracy, and incendiary power in com- 
parison with the ordinary service rockets, Mark III. 

The modified rockets have the internal form of the cone 
in the composition altered and a modified tail piece. These 
alterations were expected to have the effect of greatly in- 
creasing the velocity, duration, and rapidity of rotation, 
ensuring greater range, greater accuracy, and less tendency 
to puff. The modified rockets were found to be (with one 
exception) all steady in flight, whilst all the service rockets 
puffed more or less. ‘Those fired from the Excellent’s cutter 
with Fisher’s rocket apparatus gave good results, with the 


1874.] British Artillery Matériel. AI 


exception of two, which burst prematurely in the air and 
blew their heads off. Their incendiary power was tested as 
follows:—Their heads were filled with Carcass (Valenciennes) 
composition. Four rockets of each nature were firmly fixed 
in a hole bored ina balk of timber, their heads protruding 
and butting against another balk covered with inflammable 
material. One of the rockets, after the composition had 
burnt out, burst explosively, and blew the head to pieces 
before the Carcass composition could be ignited. Mud was 
heaped upon the heads of the others while the composition 
was burning and the flame forced its way through; water 
was also poured upon the heads without extinguishing the 
flame. 

Capt. Boys, R.N., considers that the incendiary powers of 
the new modified rockets over those of the service are con- 
siderably increased—that their range is rather better. The 
deflection of both rockets is equally variable, the maximum 
of service rockets being 100 yards, and that of the experi- 
mental rocket 80 yards on either side of the target. The 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty therefore consider 
the modified rockets to be preferable for naval service; the 
defect of premature explosion can easily be remedied. 

II. The Electro-Ballistic experiments under Capt. Noble 
have been continued, and tables have been arranged showing 
the comparative probable rectangles of various ordnance, 
and the greatest velocities obtainable by different guns. 
The highest mean muzzle velocities obtained from the 
g-pounder and 16-pounder rifled muzzle-loading guns, using 
service common shells and service R. L. G. powder, were 
found to be respectively 1562 and 1466 feet per second. 

III. The report on the traversing arrangements are 
satisfactory. After practice two men can easily traverse a 
g-inch gun from right to left (arc about 110°) in 45 seconds. 
Some of the g-inch platforms are being tried with traversing 
gear on the spur- and mitre-wheel principle. 

With regard to the recoil of guns, the Elswick com- 
pressors have been found to work most satisfactorily, and 
are to be retained where already fitted to 7 and g-inch gun 
platforms. 

IV. Important experiments and results have been carried 
out and obtained by the Committee on gunpowder and other 
explosives, especially as regards battery charges. 

In determining the battery charge for any gun, the proper 
course to be followed, in the opinion of the Committee, is 
as follows :—To increase the charge gradually until disting 
wave pressures are exhibited ; the highest charge which can 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) G 


42 British Artillery Matériel. {January, 


be employed without these local pressures appearing should 
then be accepted as the battering charge. Experience has 
clearly demonstrated that, by limiting the charge in ac- 
cordance with this rule, the maximum useful effect is attained 
without any risk of undue pressures in the gun; and that if 
the charge thus fixed is exceeded, a portion of the powder is 
wasted, and the gun rendered liable to undue local pressures. 
The charge of 85 lbs. of pebble powder exceeds that which 
the above-mentioned rule would give for this gun, but to no 
dangerous extent, although the maximum useful effect of 
the charge is not obtained. 

In determining the battering charge, a comparison between 
the power of the gun with a calibre of 11 and 12 inches 
came incidentally under the notice of the Committee; the 
results of the experiments clearly demonstrated that a gun 
of 145 inches length of bore is more powerful as a battering 
weapon with a 12-inch calibre than with one of 11-inch, 
and this is still more evident when it is considered that with 
a 12-inch calibre the gun would probably consume 95 lbs. of 
powder with as good useful effect per lb. of powder, and with 
no greater pressure per square inch than it does 85 lbs. of 
powder with an 11-inch calibre. 

The detail has been published of various experiments 
with 35-ton rifled muzzle-loading gun, No. 1. Shot, 700 lbs. 

The pressures were determined by crushers fitted by 
means of a copper cup at the bottom of the bore (A), bya 
screw gauge inserted instead of the vent plug (B), and by 
a gauge screwed into the base of the projectile (C). After 
round 8 the gun was fired by an electric tube placed in the 
cartridge at 12 inches from the bottom, the wires passing - 
through a groove in the shot to the muzzle. 

The following are a few of the points elicited by these ex- 
periments, which appear of the greatest general interest :— 

1. If the powder be burned uniformly in the gun, without 
any indication of wave action, the pressure increases with 
the increase of charge, at first rapidly, but after 20 tons on 
the square inch has been exceeded, then very slowly. In the 
whole course of the Committee’s experiments a uniform 
pressure by crusher gauge of 30 tons in the powder chamber 
has never been attained; this fact appears strongly to 
corroborate the experiments carried out by Captain A. Noble, 
at Elswick, on the pressure produced by ignited powder in 
closed vessels, which indicated that the maximum pressure 
produced by ignited powder in a perfectly closed space is 
somewhat less than 40 tons to the square inch. 


1874.] British Artillery Matériel. 43 


2. When a charge of any description of powder is in- 
creased beyond a certain limit, wave or local pressures are 
set up which strain the gun unduly, without affording an 
equivalent of useful effect on the projectile. 

3. Provided the battering charge is not exceeded, the 
pressure in the gun increases steadily with the increment 
in weight of the projectile up to a certain point; beyond 
this point no material increase of pressure can be obtained 
by increasing the weight of the projectile. 

4. Proof of pebble powder of Waltham Abbey and trade 
manufacture in accordance with specification. 

This proof has been carried on with the 8-inch smooth- 
bored gun prepared for the purpose. The Committee con- 
sider the results to be on the whole very satisfactory, and 
express their unanimous opinion that the velocity and 
pressure test of powder for heavy guns should never be 
suspended, as they are satisfied it is the only proof that 
will ensure the supply of powder good and uniform in 
quality. 

Considerable difficulties have been experienced, both at 
Waltham Abbey and by the merchants, in keeping the 
powder up to the specification; this might be reasonably 
expected in the production of a newarticle. The Committee 
consider themselves justified in saying that the progress 
made is encouraging, most of the difficulties having been 
overcome. Valuable knowledge is daily acquired, and light 
thrown on many points by the system of proof adopted on 
their recommendation. 

V. Another explosive picric powder consists of only two 
ingredients, saltpetre and picrate of ammonia, the in- 
gredients being incorporated in the same way as those of 
gunpowder. 

The perfect stability of the two ingredients, per se, even if 
exposed to degrees of heat very far beyond the extremes of 
tropical temperatures, has long been fully established. 

Picric powder is certainly not more susceptible of explo- 
sion by fri¢étion or percussion than gunpowder. 

Its exploding point has been compared in several ways 
with that of gunpowder. In some instances the picric 
powder exploded at a somewhat lower temperature, or 
a little more readily, than gunpowder ; in others the reverse 
was the case. The two substances may, therefore, be con- 
sidered to have about the same exploding point. 

Samples of picric powder, prepared early in 1870, which 
have been exposed to light and preserved at ordinary atmo- 
spheric temperatures, are perfectly unchanged. 


44 British Artillery Matériel. (January, 


Samples have been exposed for several days successively 
to 212° Fahrenheit without sustaining any change. 

Samples have also been heated for several hours daily, 
during several days, to a temperature ranging from 300 to 
320 Fahrenheit. The picrate of ammonia was slowly 
volatilised from the powder by this treatment, just as the 
sulphur would be from gunpowder. In other respects the 
powder was unchanged. 

A sample of picric powder, which had not been submitted 
to pressure, was exposed in an atmosphere saturated with 
moisture for 18 days, when it had absorbed 14 per cent of 
water; it was then exposed to the open air at the ordinary 
temperature (September, 1870), and was found to have 
parted with the whole of the water absorbed. 

At the end of 20 days another sample was exposed to the 
damp atmosphere until it had absorbed 5 per cent of water 
in 6 days; upon subsequent exposure day and night to the 
air it returned to its original weight in 8 days. Its exposure 
to the open air day and night was afterwards continued for 
40 days, in the months of September and October, and its 
weight ascertained early each morning. The maximum 
increase in weight during the experiment was 6 per cent. 
On the 4oth day, as on several other days during the experi- 
ment, it had returned to its original weight, and its pro- 
perties were unchanged. 

Not the slightest indication has been obtained, in very 
searching experiments, that picric powder is in any respect 
more prone to change than gunpowder. 

Further trial of picric powder will be combined with the 
trial of gun-cotton pulp as a bursting charge for shells. 

In the opinion of the Dire¢tor of Artillery, picric powder 
has the disadvantages of gunpowder as regards danger, and, 
on the other hand, is not equal to gun-cotton as to power or 
safety. 

The quantities of picric powder already tried have been 
small, and it has not as yet developed qualities to lead 
to the conclusion that it will either supersede gunpowder or 
gun-cotton. 

Considering, therefore, that as the qualities of gunpowder 
are known, and those of gun-cotton are being developed, he 
thinks it would be premature to introduce picric powder 
into the service at present, but that it had better remain in 
an experimental stage until its actual properties and com- 
parative safety are more fully known. 

But the Director of Naval Ordnance considers it desirable 
that further experiments should be carried out with picric 


EEE 


1874.1 British Artillery Matériel. 45 


powder, as it may prove a valuable explosive for shells and 
the Harvey and outrigger torpedoes, where the amount of 
charge is limited. 

VI. The following experiments have been made by the 
Special Committee on Explosives upon an explosive sub- 
stance termed “‘ Pyrolithe,” which is being manufactured in 
the town of Middlesborough, to determine whether it is of 
such a character as to bring it within the meaning of section 
Got Act 23 and 24 Vict., c. 139 :— 


I. 1 lb. tin gunpowder canister (obtained from Messrs. 
Curtis and Harvey) filled with pyrolithe taken from 
No. I cask. 


The canister was laid upon the ground, and the material 
ignited by means of a piece of Bickford fuze placed in 
a hole in the side. 

The contents burnt with considerable violence, but 
without exploding; the solder of the case melted almost 
immediately, and the pyrolithe burnt fiercely from the 
apertures thus caused until consumed. 


2. I lb. tin gunpowder canister filled with pyrolithe taken 
from No. 2 cask. 


The nose of the canister was placed on the ground to 
prevent it from being immediately blown off, and a small 
piece of iron was placed on the canister to weight it, and to 
represent the condition of one package in a box, or under 
others. 

The material was ignited (as in the previous case), and 
exploded with a dull but decided report, and with sufficient 
force to project the canister (which was ripped open) to a 
distance of fourteen yards. 

3. r lb. tin gunpowder canister filled with pyrolithe from 

the cask not marked. 

The results were the same as those obtained in No. 1 ex- 
periment. 

4. I lb. tin gunpowder canister filled with pyrolithe from 

the cask not marked. 

This canister was placed in a fire of wood and coals laid 
in abrazier. In about four minutes the pyrolithe ignited 
and burnt fiercely, but without exploding. The solder of 
canister was melted. 

5. Small wooden keg (with a capacity to contain 5 lbs. of 

gunpowder) filled with pyrolithe from No. 1 cask and 
headed up. 


The keg was ignited by means of a piece of Bickford fuze 


46 British Artillery Matertel. (January, 


introduced through a hole in the side. On the pyrolithe 
taking fire the head of the.keg was blown out with a slight 
report, and the material then burnt rapidly away. 

6. Small wooden keg filled with pyrolithe from No. 2 
cask. 

In order to prevent the head of the keg being too readily 
blown out, and to represent the condition of barrels stacked 
one on the other, a weight of about 50 lbs. of iron was 
placed on the head. 

The pyrolithe on being ignited blew the head and the 
weight off with a decided report, and having thus found a 
vent burnt rapidly away. 

7. Quarter casks, I, 2, and 3 (containing about 20 lbs. of 
pyrolithe in each) headed up, placed in original 
packing case, and then covered over with shavings 
and wood. 


In a few minutes after the shavings and wood were 
ignited, one cask caught and burnt violently ; in about 15 
seconds more the second cask caught and the flame became 
more violent; and in about 30 seconds the third cask 
caught, and caused an almost explosive burst of flame; the 
whole then burnt with considerable fierceness until con- 
sumed. 

On full consideration of the results the Committee are of 
opinion that under conditions which might arise in con- 
nection with the manufacture, transport, or storage of 
pyrolithe, its ignition would be followed by a more or less 
violent explosion, and consequently the character of this 
substance comes within the meaning of the Act quoted. 

Samples of pyrolithe from each of the three casks were 
forwarded to the Chemist to War Department for analysis, 
and the following are the results obtained :— 


Soluble matter Composition. 


consisting of nitrates, ~ ar Paves 
Description of Sample. carbonate of soda, F ee 
and Sulphur. Saw- C&D A8© 
sulphate of soda. dust. wioisenea 
DG. Ayes oe sien’ uate Serta eyo 16°00 =613'06 g'or 
S.M. 
8C. ; : : ; 
No. 2, P.=- Spee ae 73°08 16°12 10°80 8°88 


No 3, not marked. . . +. 69°89 .16°36  Z9°7Q ee 
Old sample which mae) 
been in Major Majendie’s 70°94 16°14 12°92 3°07 
possession for some time. | 


1874.] British Artillery Matériel. 47 


VII. Complaints, it appears, are frequently made with 
regard to the irregularities in burning of Boxer wood time- 
fuzes, especially in mountain batteries, under varying 
atmospheric pressure above the sea-level. 

The whole subject of the influence of local altitude on 
the burning of time-fuzes has been carefully investigated 
both practically and theoretically,— 

Practically by Quartermaster Mitchell, in India, in 1849, 
at different altitudes, viz.: 

St. Thomas’s Mount . . . Sea level. 
Bangalore . .. s+ <- » = ooofeet: 
omeiteny 9.) 2. 255. 16500.",, 

Cctacamund 4) 4i.s “2. + +7300 


99 


Theoretically by Professor Frankland, in 1860, and subse- 
quently, practically, by the French Academy of Science, at 
altitudes, viz. :— 

Oonishi as as ets eso feet: 
eIMCEEO 2 Fs on. oe ss SOO). ,, 
@henallettis: = ours ee ORT | 


The agreement in these different and distinct observations 
was most remarkable, and from them was deduced the fol- 
lowing practical rule :— 

That the time of burning of a fuze increases in the ratio 
of ovoort of its value for each diminution of 0°0394 inch of 
barometrical pressure; or, in other words, of about 0°03 of 
its value for each variation of 1 inch pressure. Atmospheric 
pressure diminishes almost uniformly at the rate of 1 inch 
for every 1000 feet of altitude; hence the time of burning of 
a time-fuze increases 0'03 of its value for each increase of 
1000 feet of altitude, or 0°003 of its value for each variation 
of roo feet of altitude. 

Thus if a g-seconds fuze burns exactly g seconds at the 
sea level, it will burn 11°16 seconds at an altitude of 8000 feet 
above the sea. The times of burning of the fuzes at the 
sea level will, in future, be placed in the cylinders, together 
with a notification that ‘“‘ The time of burning increases 
nearly 3 per cent for every 1000 feet of altitude.” 

IX. It is most important that an efficient gas-check 
should be provided in order to prevent the erosion in the 
bores of muzzle-loading rifled guns which is caused by the 
scoring rush of gas over the top of the shot, more especially 
when firing with pebble-powders. Various tin cups and 
cow-hide wads, &c., have been tried, at present without 
success, and the service wad is discontinued as useless. 

X. Colonel Inglis’s muzzle derrick will be adopted for 


48 British Artillery Matériel. [January, 


g-inch guns and upwards when mounted in open batteries 
and en barbette. 

XI. The 400-lb. shell, common to-inch, when fired from 
the 18-ton gun, has been found sufficiently strong to pene- 
trate the sides of wooden unarmoured ships without breaking 
up; but with regard to the 7-inch projectile from the 
go-cwt. gun, the Committee come to the following con- 
clusions :— 

1. That the present experiment affords no trustworthy 
evidence of the relative destructive effect which would 
probably be produced by common shell after passing through 
the side of wooden and iron unarmoured vessels. It is 
worthy of note that after passing through the side of the 
wooden target, a shell, if it does not break up or explode at 
once, is liable to turn sideways. Under such circumstances 
the projectile would probably lodge, and might act as a mine 
in the opposite side. Exact information on this point 
cannot well be obtained without firing at a decked structure, 
or an actual vessel. 

2. So far as destructive effect is concerned, the Committee 
are unable to form any trustworthy estimate of the com- ~ 
parative value of any of the projectiles fired. 

The special 7-inch projectile has the advantage of an in- 
creased bursting charge, but this appears to entail a loss of 
strength in the shell, and, looking to the inconvenience 
of adopting a new pattern, the Committee, on the whole, 
prefer the service shell, weighing filled 115 lbs. 

3. The distance at which common shell break up or 
explode after passing through the side of a vessel, either of 
wood or of iron, depends in a great measure on the nature 
of the resistance met with. If the shell hits on a knee, 
a rib, or a diagonal iron brace, it almost invariably breaks 
up or explodes in passing through the side; if, on the other 
hand, it passes fair between two ribs in a place where the 
resistance is confined to the wood planking or iron plating, 
it may not break up or explode until it has passed from 6 to 
to feet from the side. 

Complete information on these points cannot, however, be 
obtained without practice at an actual ship. 

4. That the projectiles fired from both guns were liable to 
break up (without bursting) in passing through either of the 
targets. The shells appeared to break up whether they 
were filled with sand or with gunpowder ; in the latter case 
the bursting charge in several instances merely fired. The 
full effect of the explosion did not appear to be realised 
unless the shell struck on a part of the target where, owing 


1874.] British Artillery Matériel. 49 


to increased resistance, the onward velocity was suddenly 
checked. 

XII. The Moncrieff system of mounting guns has been 
tried successfully with guns up to 7 tons weight, can be 
applied with advantage to g-inch guns of 12 tons, and 
possibly extended to guns of 18 tons and upwards. 

The g-inch carriage subjected to trial was of the improved 
type, known as Pattern II. It differs from the original con- 
struction adopted in the case of the 20 7-inch muzzle- 
loading Moncrieff carriages made for service, and from the 
first experimental carriage for g-inch guns of 12 tons, in the 
following particulars :— 

1. The carriage proper is dispensed with, and the gun 
rests directly on the elevators. By this arrangement, the 
strain which, in the carriages of original construction, was 
received upon the rear axletree at the moment of firing, is 
now conveyed through the vertical elevating bars to a 
grooved stool bed upon which these bars slide. By this 
means the blow which previously was met directly is now 
gradually absorbed. 

2. The gun comes down into a constant position for 
loading, whatever elevation or depression it may have in 
the firing position. 

3. It is simpler and more compact, although heavier, but 
it affords greater facility for loading and elevating. 

Notwithstanding the increased cost of the Moncrieff as 
compared with the service carriage and platform, his system 
(an ordinary barbette unprotected battery always excepted) 
is considerably cheaper than any other, constructed of either 
earth or stone protected with iron shields. As compared 
with the cost of a casemated battery, with shield, as esti- 
mated for a g-inch gun of 12-tons, the balance in favour of 
the Moncrieff system would amount to about £1800 per gun, 
while, as compared with that of an open battery, with 
shield, with and without splinter-proof cover, the saving 
would be respectively £450 and £667 per gun. 

As regards economy and efficiency, therefore, the Com- 
mittee consider the Moncrieff system compares very favour- 
ably with that of the service, especially when it is considered 
that, from its extensive lateral range, one gun mounted on a * 
Moncrieff carriage may do equal work with two or more 
guns mounted behind shields. 

; The system will be found particularly well adapted 
or,— 

(1.) Mounting guns in salients, &c., of land defences, 

and— 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) H 


50 British Artillery Matériel. (January, 


(2.) Mounting guns for subsidiary defence of existing 
heavy sea batteries ; they allude more particularly to 
such works as Picklecombe, Bovisand, &c., the guns 
of which being essentially armour piercers, should 
have associated with them guns of lighter calibre for 
shell fire. 

(3.) The defence of the great commercial harbours. 


The expense of mounting a few 12-ton or possibly heavier 
guns on Moncrieff carriages would be considerably less than 
placing them behind shields or in casemates; while the in- 
creased protection afforded to the men over that of guns 
en barbette would be a matter of great importance. 

With regard to the employment of the Moncrieff system 
for mounting guns of large calibre on sea defences, the 
Committee consider that it might be resorted to with advan- 
tage, but the extent of its application necessarily depends 
upon local and other considerations, of which they can have 
no cognizance. 

Should it, however, be contemplated to project new works 
for the defence of important positions, or to supplement 
existing works by others of the present type, the Committee 
are strongly of opinion that the designs should be re-con- 
sidered with a view to the employment of the Moncrieff 
carriage. 

XIII. The manufacture of 8-inch rifled muzzle-loading 
howitzers for the service is being proceeded with. 

1. As a howitzer, this piece will be usually employed in 
destroying earth works, in breeching unseen defences, or in 
shelling buildings, ships, &c. 

In these operations the elevation will seldom exceed 20°, 
and, as a rule, high charges will be used, the shells being 
designed to burst on impact, or by means of a percussion 
fuze. 

2. As a mortar, it will be used in bombarding magazines 
or other bomb-proof buildings; in dropping shells upon the 
decks of vessels; in dislodging troops from cover, or in 
destroying matériel behind cover, &c. 

In these operations the elevation may vary from 20° to 40°, 
or even higher angles, and the charges from the highest to 
the lowest. Asa rule, however, low charges will seldom be 
used, except in dislodging troops from under cover, and 
under these circumstances a time fuze will generally be 
found most effective. 

Elongated projectiles falling at angles of 50° to 70°, or 
under conditions of vertical fire, will enter the ground for 


————— 


1874.] British Artillery Mateértel. Gi 


several feet before a percussion fuze will have time to act; 
thus the effect of the explosion will be comparatively slight 
in a lateral dire¢tion. 

The effect of shells burst in the air, over the heads of 
troops, or just in clearing the parapet, would be much more 
searching than the effect of shells which had entered the 
ground before exploding. 

Again it is an open question which nature of fuze would 
be best when firing at bomb-proof structures. 

It is possible that under these circumstances the wood 
time fuze would act percussively, but by cutting it long the 
shell might be given time to enter to its greatest depth for 
exploding ; it would thus act with the greatest advantage as 
a mine.” 

XIV. From experiments with guns fired from casemates, 
and behind shields at Picklecombe, Bovisand, and elsewhere 
it has been found— 

1. That a slight difference in protrusion of muzzle of gun 
has an immense effect with regard to concussion and smoke, 
which are much lessened. 

2. That the mantlets materially lessen the amount of 
smoke and concussion in casemate, but not sufficiently so to 
allow of many contiguous guns being worked at close interval 
when firing rapidly. 

The side pieces or wings are somewhat cumbrous to 
move; do not allow sufficient play for bringing the mantle 
up to the gun when trained at an angle; and are in the way 
of men loading when the gun is trained at any considerable 
angle. 

3. The solution of chloride of calcium to render the rope 
uninflammable answers admirably. 

XV. The experiments with the 35-ton guns have been also 
satisfactory. Some difficulties have been experienced in 
loading when the recoil is less than five feet, and it is 
necesssary for one of the gun detachment to hold up the end 
of the rammer outside the work, the leverage of the stave 
being too great for Nos. 2 and 3 to support it within. 

The shooting of the common shell of 618 lbs., with full 
charge of 85 lbs. of pebble powder, is better than that of the 
Palliser shell of 7oolbs., and battering charge of 110 lbs., 
which is principally due to the shearing of the front studs 
of the latter and consequent increase of gyration, which 
causes inaccuracy and a want of uniformity in range and 
deflection. 

Meantime improvements, both in armour-plated ships and 
armour-piercing guns, continue to be made, and whilst at 


52 Geological Survey of the Umted Kingdom. {January, 


Portsmouth the double turreted Inflexible is being built with 
20-inch plates for her citadel at Woolwich, a sixty ton 
experimental gun, with calibre of 15 inches, to throw a 
projectile of 1100 Ibs. weight, is in progress. This new gun 
we learn is fitted with a breech-loading apparatus, but no 
details have yet been published. 


V. THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE UNHE® 
KINGDOM. 


Rs the applications of science to industry are every day 


becoming more important, it may be interesting to 

review the origin and progress of our National 
Geological Survey. This institution was established for 
the purpose of arranging, in a form easily accessible to the 
public, a complete body of information respecting the 
geological structure of the British Islands, and the dis- 
position and extent of their mineral wealth. 

It was about forty years ago when Sir Henry (then Mr.) 
De la Beche proposed to the Government to publish copies 
of the ordnance maps geologically coloured. This proposal 
being acceded to, the Survey was commenced single-handed 
by him, in the year 1834. Having for some time previously 
worked at the geology of the west of England, he was the 
better prepared to issue geological maps of Cornwall, to 
which his attention was first given. Subsequently, a small 
branch of the Trigonometrical Survey (then under the 
superintendence of Colonel Colby, R.E., F.R.S.), was 
formed under the directorship of De la Beche. 

About the same time, a geological branch of the Ordnance 
Survey was formed in Ireland, and placed under the charge 
of Captain Portlock. 

In 1835, De la Beche suggested to the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer that a collection should be formed, and placed 
under the charge of the Office of Works, containing speci- 
mens of the various mineral substances used for roads, in 
constructing public works or buildings, employed for useful 
purposes, or from which useful metals were extracted. In 
1837, the sanction of the Treasury was given to this design, 
and a building in Craig’s Court was devoted to the work of 
the Office and the reception of the specimens. This was 
replaced by the more suitable building now occupied at 
Jermyn Street, the Museum of Practical Geology, which 
was opened to the public in 1851. 


1874.] Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 53 


In Ireland, the specimens were first formed into a museum 
at the Ordnance Survey Office in Belfast, and afterwards 
transferred to Dublin, where they are now placed in the 
Museum of Irish Industry. 

In 1845, the Geological Survey was transferred from the 
Ordnance Survey to the charge of the Chief Commissioner 
of Her Majesty’s Woods, Works, and Land Revenues; and 
an Act of Parliament was passed, giving the necessary 
powers to all duly appointed officers of the Survey to 
examine every portion of the country without fear of being 
prosecuted as trespassers on private property. 

Professor A. C. Ramsay was appointed the first Local 
Director for Great Britain, and Captain (now Sir Henry) 
James for Ireland, acting under De la Beche as Dire¢ctor- 
General. Meanwhile the Office of Woods and Forests was 
modified, and, on the formation of the Department of 
Science and Art in the year 1854, the Geological Survey of 
the United Kingdom was consigned to it, at first under the 
Board of Trade, and afterwards under the Committee of 
Privy Council for Education. 

Since this period, great changes have taken place in the 
direction and organisation of the Survey, while the staff has 
been largely increased. The Director-General, Sir Henry 
De la Beche, died in 1855, and was succeeded by Sir 
Roderick Murchison, who died in 1871. Professor Ramsay 
then received the appointment, and Mr. Bristow was made 
Director for England and Wales. Captain James (now 
Director of the Ordnance Survey) was succeeded in Ireland 
by Dr. Oldham (now Superintendent of the Geological 
Survey of India), Dr. Oldham by Mr. Jukes, who died in 
1869, and he by Mr. Hull. Scotland, too, has been severed 
from England, and Mr. Geikie appointed Director. 

As at present constituted, therefore, the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom is under the Diretor-Generalship 
fimeroiessor, A. C.. Ramsay, LL.D..F.R.S. Mr. -H. W: 
Bristow, F.R.S., &c., is Director for England and Wales; 
Mr. Edward Hull, M.A., F.R.S., is Director for Ireland; 
and Professor Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., for Scotland. 
The field-staff embraces two distri¢t-surveyors, eight geolo- 
gists, twenty-four assistant-geologists, and one fossil col- 
lector, in England; one distri¢t-surveyor, three geologists, 
nine assistant-geologists, and two fossil-collectors, in Ireland; 
and one district-surveyor, two geologists, six assistant-geolo- 
gists, and two fossil collectors in Scotland. In addition to 
these officers, Mr. R. Etheridge, F.R.S. (Palzontologist), 
ead rotessor I. H.- Huxley; LL.D., F.R.S- (Naturalist), 


54 Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. [January, 


with two assistants, have the naming and arranging in the 
museum at Jermyn Street of the fossils collected on the 
Geological Survey of Eagland and Wales. 

The results of the Survey operations will be learnt from 
the published maps, memoirs, and sections. ‘The following 
statistics show the present state of the progress of the 
Geological Survey. 

The whole of Wales has been completed on the one-inch 
scale, while in England twenty-five counties have been 
finished. The area which remains to be surveyed comprises 
portions of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
Durham, Yorkshire, Lancashire, the Isle of Man, Lincoln- 
shire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Cambridgeshire, 
Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. In England 
and Wales, which comprise 110 sheets, 80 complete sheets 
have been published on the one-inch scale ; while numerous 
maps on the scale of six inches to one mile have been pub- 
lished to illustrate the coal-fields of Yorkshire, Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Lancashire. A number of sheets adja- 
cent to the Yorkshire coal-field, and not intended for 
publication, are deposited for reference at the Geological 
Survey Office, where they can be seen, and (under certain 
conditions) copies may be obtained. Portions of the 
western counties, Gloucestershire and Somersetshire, have 
been re-surveyed in greater detail. 

In Ireland, which comprises 205 sheets on the one-inch 
scale, 135 sheets have been published, and what remain to 
be finished comprise portions of Galway, Mayo, Roscommon, 
Sligo, Leitrim, Fermanagh, Cavan, Monaghan, Tyrone, 
Donegal, Londonderry, Antrim, Down, Armagh, and Louth. 
All these maps were surveyed on the scale of 6 inches toa 
mile, and reduced for publication. Altogether seventeen 
counties have been completed. 

In Scotland, which comprises 120 sheets on the one-inch 
scale, 18 maps have been published, illustrating the geology 
of portions of Wigtonshire, Ayrshire, Kirkcudbright, 
Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Peeblesshire, 
Dumbartonshire, Stirlingshire, Linlithgowshire, Edinburgh- 
shire, Haddingtonshire, Berwickshire, Fife, and Kinross, 
Maps on the 6-inch scale have been published to illustrate 
the coal-fields of these counties. 

Numerous horizontal sections drawn to the scale of 6 
inches to the mile, and vertical sections, on a scale generally 
of 40 feet to an inch, have been published to illustrate the 
geological structure. 

Memoirs and Explanations, containing accounts of the 


. 
£ 
= 
, 
3 


ee Te 


1874.] Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 55 


stratigraphical relations of the rocks, their characteristic 
fossils, and notes on the mines and minerals accompany 
most of the maps. Special memoirs on large areas, and 
detailed descriptions of fossils have also been published. 

From three to four thousand square miles are annually 
surveyed in the United Kingdom. There is, however, 
much old ground to be gone over in mapping the superficial 
deposits, which not only have an important economic value 
in many instances, but are also intimately connected with 
questions of health, of drainage, and water-supply. 

The Museum at Jermyn Street well illustrates the appli- 
cations of geology, by exhibiting a series of rocks and 
minerals, and their adaptation to purposes of use and 
ornament. An extensive paleontological collection likewise 
illustrates the geological maps ; the study of fossils proving 
an important guide in the identification of strata. 

It is by studying the Maps, Se¢tions, and Memoirs 
together, that the great practical value of the Survey is 
understood. The Maps themselves will show the superficial 
extent of the different strata, whether gravel, sand, clay, 
limestone, slate, sandstone, marl, or alternations of these 
rocks, such as clay and limestone, sand and gravel. The 
colours representing these geological formations are an 
indication of position and age. To learn their thicknesses, 
mineral characters, &c., the Memoirs must be consulted; 
while to understand their underground extension, the 
Sections will prove necessary. 

Hence the applications to Agriculture, Engineering, and 
ArchiteCture, and still more to Mining, will be at once 
apparent. 

It is needless to remark upon the fruitless trials for coal 
which have been made even in recent years. The late 
Professor Jukes has stated that the money wasted in such 
searches, of which he had been personally cognisant, could 
not have been less than £150,000. The Geological Survey 
has checked much of this fruitless expenditure. 

Some of the more important results of the Survey are 
shown in the Report of the Royal Coal Commission. The 
area of the exposed coal-measures of England is estimated 
at about 2840 square miles. The investigations of Professor 
Ramsay have led him to conclude that 3141 square miles of 
coal measures are present beneath the Permian and Triassic 
strata—301 square miles more than the area of our exposed 
coal-fields ! 


1874.] (56) 


VI. GALL’S DISCOVERY OF THE PHYSIOLOG® 
OF THE BRAIN, AND ITS RECEPTION: 


By T. SyMEs PRIDEAUX. 


“ Strictly speaking you only play the part of puppets in a show; when certain cerebral organs 
are put in action, you are led according to their seat to take certain positions, as though 
you were drawn by a wire, so that we can discover the seat of the acting organs by the 
motions. I know that you are blind enough to laugh at this; but if you will take the 
trouble to observe, you will be convinced that by my discovery I have revealed to you 
more things than you were aware of.’—‘‘ GALL, in a familiar Letter to his Friend 


Baron RETZER, 1798.” 


ae 
EF we are to accept the verdict passed amidst mutual 
a congratulations by the Physiologists of the period 

assembled at Bradford, we are on the eve of obtaining 
a revelation of the physiology of the brain by the localised 
application of electricity to its surface. Facts carefully 
observed and accurately recorded must always possess an 
intrinsic value, but it is possible to err in their interpretation; 
that this has been done to some extent with reference to 
the experiments in question, and exaggerated expectations 
founded on misconception indulged in as to the amount 
and accuracy of the knowledge to be expe¢ted from this 
source, is to me abundantly clear. 

Enthusiasm in the pursuit of knowledge is doubtless 
amongst the highest of the characteristics which distinguish 
the noblest specimens of humanity from the common herd of 
mankind. As an evidence of mental activity, the jubilation 
with which the announcement of the results of applying 
electricity to the surface of the brain has been received is 
in the highest degree satisfactory. The more cordial the 
reception accorded these experiments, however, the more 
prominently the question obtrudes itself,—What are the 
distinctive differences in the path pursued to attain one 
common object by Fritsch, Hitzig, and Ferrier, and the 
method of Gall, that should occasion the results of the 
former to be welcomed with acclamation, whilst those of 
the latter were received with the hail of sneers, scoffs, 
ridicule, misrepresentation, and contumely ? Tothe student 
of the human mind the difference, or rather contrast, offers 
a curious and interesting problem. 

Can we find a partial explanation of the anomaly in the 
more purely physical character of the recent method of 
research—that the subject of attention in the one case isa 
movement visible to the senses, in the other a mental 
quality, an abstraction which presents no sensuous object to 
the mind? What is certain is, that many men have great 


i 
; 


sieieiiaeeat elite eal 


1874.] Physiology of the Brain. 57 


taste and capacity for the observation, description, and 
arrangement of material facts, who are singularly deficient 
in the power of contemplating abstract existences. The 
majority of men appear to require a physical substratum 
for their thoughts. Their ideas are almost limited to images, 
or pictures of outward objects presented by the external 
senses; or secondly, to conceptions of actions being a change 
in the relation of material objects; or thirdly, to bodily 
sensations arising from the action of the external senses. 
Hither the specialised senses—taste, smell, hearing, and sight 
—or the diffused sense of feeling, co-extensive with the 
surface of the body, and hence adopted as a generic term, 
and applied metaphorically (with its opposite poles, pleasure 
and pain) to all internal affections. They have not adequate 
power of abstraction to separate the subjective from the 
objective. Not analytical power sufficient to dig phantoms 
from their consciousness, isolate them from their surround- 
ings, and hold them continuously before their mental vision 
for contemplation. They catch a glimpse of a figure fora 
moment, but before they have time to study its features it 
dissolves away like a wreath of mist. Now the subject 
matter of Phrenology is mental qualities, not material 
objects ;. whilst, in addition to its abstract basis, it superadds 
the doctrine of the dependence of the mental functions on 
certain external relationships of form and size, successfully 
to appreciate which demands an amount of preliminary 
study hardly likely to be expended on the problem, by those 
to whom one of the factors in the equation presents the 
aspect not merely of an unknown, but of an incom- 
measurable quantity. Non omnia possumus omnes, indeed, 
it is usually those whom some predominating instinct 
prevents being too discursive and keeps in one path of 
study by whom additions to the sum of human knowledge 
are made. Let us be thankful to the student, whose range 
of thought is limited to objects of sense, for his con- 
tributions to his own department ; but do not let us regard 
him as an authority in others, nor commit the shallow 
blunder of citing his indifference to, or disbelief in, the 
invisible rays at the higher extremity of the spectrum as an 
argument for their non-existence. We have cultivators of 
the physical sciences, mathematicians, astronomers, natural 
philosophers, chemists in abundance, plenty of naturalists, 
ready to seize and describe all the peculiarities in form, 
size, weight, colour, distribution, and habits, of everything 
that has life. We have even a limited supply of meta- 
physicians and psychologists, who deal with abstractions and 
VOL. IV. (N.S.) I 


58 Physiology of the Brain. (January, 


words in contradistinction to things, and inhabit an ideal 
world of theirown. The dealers in things and the dealers 
in abstractions mostly dwell apart, and too often regard each 
others’ pursuits with ill-disguised contempt. 

Now the phrenologist requires to unite to a considerable 
extent the capacities and tastes of both classes; to combine 
the powers of mental analysis—the facility for detaining 
abstractions before the mind’s eye for study—of the meta- 
physician and psychologist, with the instinct of observation 
and quick perception of physical differences by which the 
naturalist is distinguished—and in the fact that individuals 
who combine the two phases of capacity will be less 
numerous than those who possess one of the qualifications 
singly, we see an explanation of the cause why the scientific 
cultivators of phrenology are fewer in number than either 
the physicists or the metaphysicians. 

In scanning the causes of the hostility Phrenology has so 
widely encountered, amongst others we must not omit to 
notice its close bearing on the personality of individuals. 
Men with little heads, little minds, but great vanity, rebel 
against a standard of capacity which gauges them corre¢tly. 
A science which renders it possible— 

5 : : : “A des signes certaines 
Reconnaitre le coeur des perfides humaines,” 
will always have antagonists to whom such an idea is 
distasteful. The whole of the genus humbug, the empirics 
and impostors of the day, and men conscious of being at 
bottom thoroughly dishonest and unprincipled, instin¢tively 
recoil from a system which threatens to unmask their 
moral deformities to the eyes of the world, and reveal their 
true features, despite a whole wardrobe of trappings of 
duplicity. Napoleon boasted of having greatly contributed to — 
put down Gall. His own medical attendent, Corvisart, one 
of the greatest physicians France ever produced, was an 
admirer of Gall, and vainly endeavoured to introduce him 
to the Emperor. ‘‘Corvisart,” says Napoleon, ‘‘ was a 
great partisan of Gall, and left no stone unturned (fit 
limpossible) to push him on to me, but there was no 
sympathy between us.” In short, Napoleon confessed he 
felt the greatest aversion for those ‘“‘who taught that 
Nature revealed herself by external forms.” 

Again, the bulk of mankind have no doubt been organised 
by nature to lead a life of action, to do, and not to think. In 
youth they are plastic, and readily receive the impression 
stamped by their teachers, but by mature age the receptivity 
of childhood has vanished, and the clay of which they are 


1874.] Physiology of the Brain. 59 


composed refuses all attempts to mould it afresh; and 
especially is this the case where the egotistic feelings of self- 
love and vanity outweigh the pure love of knowledge for its 
own sake. Such men may indeed imbibe newideas, and acquire 
an increase of knowledge as they grow older, but the new 
knowledge must have some points of affinity and harmony 
with the old, to be cordially welcomed. Above all, it must 
not threaten the subversion of those existing canons of 
belief which have hitherto guided them on life’s journey, or 
it will infallibly excite antipathy and antagonism. Every 
day we Have the spectacle of the direct testimony of facts 
being ignored and rejected without examination, from the 
inference that they are opposed to some cherished belief. 
Even the scientific par excellence, the professed philosophers, 
are not exempt from this human frailty; touch but the ark 
that enshrines the object of their worship, and you shall see 
the bigotry and intolerance with which they credit the 
theologian rivalled, if not outdone. As at the advent of 
Phrenology it encountered the antagonism of the religious 
world from its supposed tendency to materialism; so, at the 
present hour, many of our leading physicists shut their eyes 
to the curious phenomena of (the so-called) spiritualism, 
and open their mouths to assail its investigators, because 
they fear that these phenomena clash with that materialistic 
philosophy which constitutes the staple article of their 
scientific creed. 

How vast a portion of our present stock of scientific 
knowledge would be non-existent if no one had been found 
to ‘‘take an interest” in the phenomena of magnetism! and 
can the most bigoted apostle of the new positive-physical 
gospel venture to assert that a domain of fact as wide in 
its extent and fruitful in its result may not lie hidden, 
awaiting conquest by man in this force of source unknown, 
the conditions attending the presence of which, though 
yet undiscovered, we may be assured are governed by laws 
as definite and immutable as those of gravitation. We do 
not yet know how to multiply mediums at pleasure, as we 
do magnets, because we know neither the species of 
loadstone nor the kind of manipulation required, but all 
honour to those who are engaged in the research. 

Apparently as long as psychologists were content to frame 
theories out of their own consciousness, and confined 
themselves to abstractions, their researches created no 
antagonism in the physicists who occupied themselves with 
the study of material objects and their properties and 
functions ; but when these saw their own peculiar province 
invaded, and the physiology of the highest organ of the 


60 Physiology of the Brain. (January, 


body, to them an enigma, for the solution of which neither 
their ‘tastes nor capacities were adapted, declared to be 
unravelled by a method of study for which they had no 
proclivity, and by an individual who had altogether surpassed 
them in their own province of anatomy, their pride rebelled, 
and their wounded amour propre found vent in denunciations 
as outrageous and absurd as ever greeted the author of a 
new discovery. English metaphysicians, and immaterialist 
divines also, led by English anatomical authorities to regard 
the propounder of these new doctrines as an ignorant quack, 
were not slow in joining the chorus of detra¢tion and abuse 
against the audacious innovator, who overthrew all their 
cherished theories as to the independence of the mind on 
organisation—the former viewing the doctrines of Gall 
with profound contempt and disgust as tending to degrade 
man to the level of brutes, the latter with repugnance and 
alarm as threatening to sap the foundations of religion. 

. Dr. John Gordon, a lecturer on anatomy of great reputation 
in Edinburgh, in an article in the ‘‘ Edinburgh Review,” in 
1815, said, ‘‘ We look upon the whole doétrines taught by 
these two modern peripatetics (Drs. Gall and Spurzheim), 
anatomical, physiological, and physiognomical, as a piece of 
thorough quackery from beginning toend.” Lord Jeffrey, inthe 
same periodical, in 1826, designated the doctrines as “‘crude,” 
“« shallow,” ‘‘puerile,” ‘‘fantastic,’” ‘ dull,” “dogmatiens 
‘incredibly absurd,” “foolish,” ‘‘ extravagant,” and ‘‘ trash.” 
The ‘‘ Quarterly Review,” in their notice of Madame de 
Stael’s ‘‘L’Allemagne,” censured her for being “ by far 
too indulgent to such ignorant and interested quacks as the 
craniologist Dr. Gall,’ and in No. XXV. the same Review 
declared the new science to be ‘‘ sheer nonsense,” and 
designated Dr. Spurzheim as ‘“‘a fool.” The Rev. Thomas 
Rennell, Christian advocate at Cambridge, in his “‘ Remarks 
on Scepticism, especially as it is connected with the subjects 
Organisation and Life,’’ assures his readers that the system 
of Gall and Spurzheim ‘‘is annihilated by the commonest 
reference to fact,” spoke of “‘ its absurdities,” of this ‘‘ master- 
piece of empiricism,” and designated it as ‘“‘the flimsy 
theories of these German illuminati.’”’ Whilst as late as 1836, 
Sir CharlesBell wrote—‘‘ The most extravagant departure 
from all the legitimate modes of reasoning, although 
still under the colour of anatomical investigation, is the 
system of Dr. Gall. Without comprehending the grand 
divisions of the nervous system, without a notion of the 
distinct properties of the individual nerves, or having made 
any distinction of the columns of the spinal marrow, 


1874.] Physiology of the Brain. 61 


without having even ascertained the difference of cerebrum 
and cerebellum, Gall proceeded to describe the brain as 
composed of many particular and independent organs, and 
to assign to each the residence of some special faculty.” 

The insular ignorance of Gall’s anatomical discoveries, 
position in the scientific world, and true character displayed 
in these insulting criticisms, is no less disgraceful than 
astounding. Professor Hufeland, an anatomist and phy- 
siologist of European reputation, thus expresses himself 
concerning Gall:—‘‘It is with great pleasure and much 
interest that I have heard this estimable man himself 
expound his new doctrine. I am fully convinced that he 
ought to be regarded as one of the most remarkable 
phenomena of the 18th century, and that his doétrine 
should be considered as forming one of the boldest and 
most important steps in the study of the kingdom of nature. 
One must see and hear him to learn to appreciate a man 
completely exempt from prejudices, from charlatanism, from 
deception, and from metaphysical reveries. Gifted with a 
rare spirit of observation, with great penetration and a 
sound judgment, identified, as it were, with nature, he has 
collected a multitude of signs of phenomena which nobody 
had remarked till now—has discovered the relations which 
establish analogy between them—has learnt their significa- 
tion—has drawn consequences and established truths, 
which are so much the more valuable that, being based on 
experience, they emanate from nature herself.” 

**The worthy Reil,’’ says Professor Bischoff, ‘‘who as a 
profound anatomist and judicious physiologist stands in no 
need of my commendation, has declared, in rising above all 
the littleness of egotism, that he had found more in the 
disseCtions of the brain performed by Gall than he had con- 
ceived it possible for a man to discover in his whole 
life-time !” 

“Loder,” continues Professor Bischoff, ‘‘ who certainly 
does not yield the palm to any living anatomist, has ex- 
pressed the following opinion of the discoveries of Gall :— 
‘ The discoveries of Gall in the anatomy of the brain are of 
the highest importance, and many of them possess such a 
degree of evidence that I cannot conceive how any one with 
good eyes can mistake them. I refer to the great ganglion 
of the brain—to the passage of the corpora pyramidalia 
into the cruva of the brain and the hemispheres—to the 
fasciculi of the spinal marrow—to the crossing of the fibres 
under the pyramidal and olivary eminences—to the recurrent 
fibres of the cerebellum—to the commissures of the nerves— 


62 Physiology of the Brain. (January, 


to the origin of the motor nerves of the eyes, of the 
trijeminal nerves, of those of the sixth pair, &c. These 
discoveries alone would be sufficient to render the name of 
Gall immortal; they are the most important which have 
been made in anatomy since the discovery of the system of 
the absorbent vessels. The unfolding of the brain is an ex- 
cellent thing. What have we not to expect from it as well 
as from the ulterior discoveries to which it opens the way? 
I am ashamed and angry with myself for having, like the 
rest, during thirty years, sliced down hundreds of brains as 
we cut a cheese, and for having missed seeing the forest on 
account of the great number of trees it contained. But it serves 
no purpose to distress one’s self, and to be ashamed. The 
better way is to lend an ear to truth, and to learn what we 
do not know.’” 

Which latter piece of advice I commend to the notice of 
those little great men, the eminent compilers, who,—devoid 
of the original genius which, by perceiving relationships 
before unknown and unsuspected, confers new principles on 
science,—would fain set themselves up as physiological 
authorities on the strength of their book-making capacities. 

Not only were the great and important additions made by 
Gall and Spurzheim to the anatomy of the nervous system 
fully admitted by Cuvier, but their position as the highest 
authorities on the subject was so fully recognised in Paris, 
in 1813, that the article, ‘‘ Anatomie du Cerveau,” for the 
‘‘ Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales,” was confided to 
their care.* All English anatomists, however, have not 
followed the suit of Dr. John Gordon and Sir Charles Bell, 
in recording at once their jealousy and their ignorance by 
absurd denunciation of Gall. Mr. Grainger, the greatest 
English authority of his day on the anatomy of the brain 
and spinal cord, writes, ‘“‘The true anatomy of the cerebrum 
was perfectly unknown till the researches of Gall, and it is 
due to the character of this eminent man and of his pupil, 
Spurzheim, to state that all our knowledge of the anatomy 
of both the brain and spinal cord has resulted from their 
inspections ;” and Joshua Brookes, in his lectures, and Mr. 
Solly, in his well-known work on the anatomy of the brain, 
have done full justice to the anatomical discoveries of Gall. 


* The necessary result of the old method of dissecting the brain is thus 
pithily described in this article:—‘‘On a mis en usage une méthode de dis- 
section trés-défe@tueuse; on ne fesait que des coupes horizontales, verticales, 
ou oblique, par en haut ou par en bas et on enlevait successivement des 
tranches de cet organe. De cet maniére, on commencait pay détruire les con- 
nexions des différens appareils et on procédait sans égard pour lordre dans 
lequel les parties se suivent naturallement.” 


1874.] Physiology of the Brain. 63 


The method pursued by Gall, in seeking to ascertain the 
functions of the brain, was by comparing the power of 
manifesting particular mental faculties with the size and 
condition of particular portions of this organ. Phrenologists 
believe this method to be vastly superior to all others, and, 
in justification of this opinion, point to the rich harvest it 
has produced in contrast to the barren results which have 
hitherto been obtained by the employment of mutilations 
and the application of stimuli. Is there, at the present 
moment, a single physiologist in a position to declare that, 
after qualifying himself to judge of the development of the 
organs by the requisite study, the result of careful examina- 
tion has convinced him that the localities assigned by Gall 
to the primitive mental faculties are erroneous? Why is 
this sound and legitimate mode of studying the functions of 
the brain neglected and ignored by physiologists in general, 
‘who seem desirous of exhausting every possible variety of 
error before they will adopt it?”” Men of science are usually 
eager to avail themselves of every practicable means in 
the pursuit of knowledge, but it would appear to be a 
desideratum to discover the functions of the brain by other 
than phrenological methods. 

In addition to employing mutilations, Rolando trephined 
the cranium of various quadrupeds, and applied one of the 
poles of a voltaic pile to different portions of the brain, 
whilst the other was applied to different parts of the body. 
With reference to these experiments of Rolando, and the 
experiments by mutilation of Flourens, Gall remarked :— 

“It is a subject of constant observation that, in order to 
discover the functions of the different parts of the body, 
anatomists and physiologists have always been rather 
disposed to employ manual means than to accumulate a 
great number of physiological and pathological faéts,—to 
combine these facts, to reiterate them, or to await their 
repetition in case of need,—and to draw slowly and succes- 
Sively the proper consequence from them, and not to 
announce their discoveries but with a wise reserve. This 
method, at present the favourite one with our investigating 
physiologists, is imposing from its materiality ; and it gains 
the approbation of most men by its promptitude and its 
apparent results. But it has also been constantly observed 
that what has appeared to have been incontestably proved 
by the mutilator A., either did not succeed with the mutilator 
B., or that he had partly found in the same experiments all 
the proofs necessary to refute the conclusions of his prede- 
cessor. It is but too notorious that similar violent experi- 


64 Physiology of the Brain. |January, 


ments have become the scandal of the Academicians, who, 
seduced by the attraction of ingenious operations, have 
applauded with as much enthusiasm as fickleness the pre- 
tended glorious discoveries of their candidates. 

‘In order that experiments of this kind should be able to 
throw light on the functions of each of the cerebral parts, it 
would require a concurrence of many conditions impossible 
to be fulfilled. It would first require that we should be 
enabled to restrain all the effects of the lesion to that 
portion only on which the experiment is performed ; for if 
excitement, haemorrhage, inflammation, &c., affect other 
parts, what can we conclude? and how can we _ prevent 
these inconveniences in mutilations either artificial or 
accidental? It would be necessary that we should be able 
to make an animal whose brain has been wounded and 
mutilated—who is filled with fear and suffering, disposed to 
manifest the instin¢ts, propensities, and faculties, the organs 
of which could not have been injured or destroyed. But 
captivity alone is sufficient to stifle the instincts of most 
animals.” ; 

Have the results attained by the recent experiments of 
Fritsch, Hitzig, and Ferrier a tendency to invalidate these 
opinions of Gall, or do they not rather confirm their correct- 
ness? I presume it will hardly be pretended that the 
function of a single portion of the brain has yet been 
discovered by these means,* and I venture to think there is 
but little probability of their effeCting such a discovery in 
the future, notwithstanding the exaggerated expectations 
held out. At present it is palpable that physiologists are 
quite adrift as to the real signification of the phenomena 
elicited, the true interpretation of which must be sought in 
the discoveries of Gall, who maintained the competency of 
the surface of the brain to originate muscular movements in 
opposition to the current doctrines of physiology and the 
asserted proof to the contrary afforded by the experiments 
of Flourens, and other mutilators, and whose familiarity 
with the faét is recorded in the extract from his letter 
to Baron Retzer, in 1798, prefixed to this article. 

The explanation of the phenomena obtained by the appli- 
cation of stimuli to the surface of the brain, is found in the 
fact that those innate faculties which require the aid of the 


* A fa& conclusive on this point, and which places in a striking light the 
vagueness and want of precision of the results obtained, is the circumstance 
that that eminent compiler, Dr. Carpenter, sees in these experiments ‘‘ a remark- 
able confirmation” of his transcendently absurd and ridiculous notion,that the 
intellectual organs are seated in the back of the head. 


1874.] Physiology of the Brain. 65 


muscular system to carry out their behests have the power 
of originating the movements necessary for this purpose ; 
and hence, when Dr. Ferrier applied a galvanic current to 
the cortical surfaces of the organs of the instinét ‘‘ to take 
Pe = to seize’ prey,” “to destroy)’ (“te fight,” “to 
construct,”—movements ‘‘of mastication,” ‘‘of striking with 
the claws, or seizing with the mouth,” “of biting and 
worrying,” ‘‘of scraping, or digging,” ensued: whilst the 
stimulation of the same locality (constru¢tiveness) which 
put the fore paws and hind legs in a¢tion in the rabbit, 
would, in the beaver, superadd the motion of the incisor 
teeth and the tail. What can be more palpable than that 
the inferences to be obtained from such experiments are not 
only far more vague and indefinite than those furnished by 
the employment of the phrenological method, but absolutely 
incapable of ascertaining the shape, and defining the boun- 
daries, of the organs, as has been accomplished by Gall in 
the case of locality, the shape of which he ascertained to be 
similar in dogs to its form in man. In short, little more 
can be said on behalf of these experiments at present than 
that in a cloudy and obscure fourm they lend a vague 
general confirmation (not required) to the correctness of 
the localities assigned to the primitive faculties by phre- 
nologists. 

Amongst the many eminent men whose researches and 
discoveries have shed honour on the profession of medicine, 
Gall will assuredly by posterity be accorded a place second 
to none. Man had looked on man, and scanned the face of 
his brother in sunshine and in storm, in friendship and in 
anger, for countless thousands of years, without having suc- 
ceeded in seizing and individualising a single primitive 
faculty, much less in discovering its seat. The advent of 
Gall broke up the long night of darkness and error as to 
their own being, under which the human race had slumbered 
for ages. Sensation, perception, memory, judgment, imagi- 
nation—the idolze of the past—the stock properties of every 
psychological system from that of Aristotle downwards, 
instead of being primitive faculties, were clearly demon- 
strated by the most masterly analysis and the most un- 
answerable arguments to be simply different degrees or con- 
secutive modes of action proper to each of the elementary 
intellectual faculties, and necessarily variable in strength in 
relation to subjects specifically distinét. Gall studied the 
maximum or minimum exhibition of certain passions or 
capacities compared with the extreme or defective develop- 
ment of certain parts of the brain; and when avast number 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) K 


66 Physiology of the Brain. (January, 


of concurrent experiences had satisfied him of a connection, 
named the primitive faculty by the simplest words indicative 
of its funétion to be found in the vocabulary of every-day 
life. Hethus replaced the phantoms of the metaphysicians, 
which explained nothing, by terms which speedily asserted 
their vitality by being constantly heard in the mouths of the 
people to assist them in defining and describing their fellow- 
men, thus at once obtaining that sanction from the spon- 
taneous dictates of popular common-sense, which is the 
surest test of the truth of all fundamental ideas. 

It is a common do¢étrine that discoveries are seldom made 
by an individual greatly in advance of the scientific mind of 
the day, or without other investigators having been placed 
by the existing state of knowledge on the same track as the 
more fortunate discoverer, who is thus merely credited with 
having by a short date anticipated other investigators in 
bestowing a new fact, or idea, on mankind. With regard to 
the discovery of phrenology, however, made at the close of 
the last century by Dr. Gall, if we may judge by the fact 
that what he discovered the great mass of his contemporaries 
never succeeded in recognising, even when the locality for 
research was pointed out to them, and the means of obser- 
vation lay in profusion everywhere around, there appears 
every reason to believe, that but for the appearance of 
a man of his rare and exceptional genius, the vast contribu- 
tion to human knowledge for which the world is indebted to 
his labours would still have been slumbering in the womb of 
futurity. I venture to assert that no body of doctrines were 
ever established on a series of observations more cautiously 
condu€ted, rigorously scrutinised, and patiently verified 
than those of phrenology by Dr. Gall, who devoted his 
entire life and all his pecuniary resources to this object, 
finding his reward in the consciousness of the importance of 
his discoveries, and that prophetic vision of the future 
which placed him above contemporary jealousies, and 
caused him to exclaim in calm self-reliance, ‘‘ This is truth, 
though opposed to the philosophy of ages !” 

“‘T have always,” says Gall, ‘‘ had a consciousness of the 
dignity of my researches, and of the extended influence 
which my do¢trine will hereafter exercise on all the branches 
of human knowledge, and for this reason I remain indifferent 
to all that may be said either for or against my works. 
They differed too much from the received ideas of the 
times to be appreciated and approved at first..... My 
views of the qualities and faculties of man are not the fruit 
of subtle reasonings. They bear not the impress of the age 


1874.] Economy of Fuel. 67 


in which they originate, and will not wear out with it. 
They are the result of numberless observations, and will be 
immutable and eternal like the facts that have been 
observed and the fundamental powers which these facts 
force us to admit.” 


Vil. ECONOMY -OF FUEL: 
By FREDERICK CHARLES DANVERS, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 


has, within the last few years, attracted the attention 

of several of our learned societies, and it is one which 
cannot fail to grow in importance rather than diminish. 
Practically speaking, coal is the only fuel upon which we 
can with any certainty rely for our great manufacturing 
industries; and although this may, in some measure, be 
supplemented by a more extensive use of peat than has 
hitherto been the case, still coal must continue to be looked 
upon as the great staple upon which the chief of our manu- 
factures must continue to depend. Coal, as we have shown 
upon several former occasions, exists only to a limited ex- 
tent, and our existing resources of that fuel are not capable 
of being reproduced, as is the case with wood, and to some 
extent also with peat; and, in order to make our coal 
supply keep pace with the ever increasing demand upon it, 
one of the most important considerations now is, how so to 
economise its use in all branches of manufacture and for 
steam and domestic purposes as to minimise the amount of 
waste which at the present time takes place in the use of it. 
With the view, therefore, of pointing out what may be done 
in that direction, we purpose now to consider how far 
scientific and mechanical improvements have already suc- 
ceeded in that direction, and to what extent further economies 
may be possible. 

Each pound of coal possesses a certain number of heat 
units, and to produce any given results from its combustion 
requires the development of a given number of heat units; 
when, therefore, we find that in order to produce such results 
a considerable number of heat units are expended in excess 
of the theoretical requirements, it is very evident that a 
certain amount of avoidable waste is taking place. It is 
not to be expected that the full economic value of coal can 
ever be attained in most cases, for were such the case it 
_would necessarily follow that the escaping volumes from 


ae important question of fuel economy is one which 


68 Economy of Fuel. (January, 


combustion must only be permitted to escape when all the 
heat given out in combustion has been effectually abstracted, 
and all radiated heat would also require to be reserved for 
useful purposes. 

There can be no doubt that coal burnt under a certain 
amount of compression will yield the best results; but the 
important question is how to regulate the admission of air 
so that no more is employed in supporting combustion than 
is actually required for that purpose ; any excess above that 
amount must tend only to lower the temperature, and so 
abstract a certain amount of useful effect from the fuel. The 
air admitted for this purpose must also be so regulated as to 
ensure its complete combination with the fuel, so that no 
air in a free state shall pass away undecomposed. The 
channel for escaping vapours should also be so regulated in 
size as to give no more than sufficient space for their free 
passage in a certain state of expansion, whilst the current 
of air into the furnace must also be maintained at a rate 
sufficient for the combustion of the proper amount of fuel 
for the work to be effected. Now, in order to maintain this 
state of things, it is necessary to produce an upward current 
in the chimney, and in order to do this, the ascending vapours 
must either be forced out by mechanical means, or they must 
be allowed to escape at a temperature above that of the 
atmosphere. In either case, therefore, it is clear that a 
certain amount of heat must be developed in excess of what 
would otherwise be required for the purpose. To obtain, 
therefore, the full theoretic value of the coal burnt for any 
specific purpose must be, under these considerations, abso- 
lutely impracticable; the nearer we attain to that point, 
however, the less cause of complaint there will be of a waste 
of coal taking place in any particular case. As we shall 
presently see, the use of hot-blast in iron smelting was 
followed by a decided saving in the amount of fuel required 
to produce 1 ton of pig-iron, notwithstanding that a certain 
portion of it was consumed in first heating the air for the 
blast. It will readily be understood how the introduction 
of cold air into any furnace must have the immediate effect 
of lowering the temperature, and it is found that the amount 
of fuel necessary to heat the air before admitting it into 
the furnace is less than the amount required to maintain the 
temperature within the furnace when it is fed with cold air. 
A free current for escape of the vapours of combustion is 
followed by the escape of the more volatile portions of the 
fuel used, which are therefore absolutely lost ; whilst, witha 
strong blast, where there is a free escape—asin a locomotive— 
small particles of fuel, wholly uncarbonised, are also carried 


1874.] Economy of Fuel. 69 


away without doing any effective work. Although, in both 
these cases, the greater portion of the fuel remains behind 
until it is wholly consumed, only a small proportion of its 
effective value is retained, whilst the greater part is lost, 
representing so much waste of fuel, a great portion of which 
must be looked upon as avoidable loss. 

To turn now from generalities to the practical working of 
the question, we shall proceed to consider first the appli- 
cation of these principles in the manufacture of iron, which 
branch of industry alone consumes about one-third of the 
total amount of coal raised in the United Kingdom, and 
which, therefore, most largely affects the great coal question 
of the present day. 

Taking the results of iron manufacture in Scotland, we 
find, upon the authority of Dr. Percy, that the ton of pig- 
iron, as made in 1829 at the Clyde Iron Works, required the 
coke of 8 tons 17 cwts. of coal ; whilst in the following year, 
owing to Neilson’s invention of the hot-blast to iron furnaces, 
the introduétion of air heated to 300° F. brought down the 
consumption per ton of pig to 5 tons 34+ cwts. 8 cwts. of 
coal were consumed in heating the blast, so that the actual 
saving per ton of pig-iron was 23 tons. In 1833, when raw 
coal had come to be used instead of coke, 1 ton of pig-iron 
was made with 2 tons 53 cwts. of coal, which, with 8 cwts. 
for heating the blast, made a total of 2 tons 134 cwts. Hence 
by the application of the hot-blast, the same amount of 
fuel reduced three times as much iron, and the same amount 
of blast did twice as much work as previously. 

Subsequently to the attainment of the foregoing results 
an increase in the size of the blast-furnace has been followed 
by still further economy in fuel used in the manufacture of 
iron. The discovery of this fact is due to the iron smelters 
of Cleveland. When the first blast-furnace was ere¢ted in 
that district by Mr. John Vaughan, in 1851, the practice of 
older districts was followed, and the furnace was made 
42 feet high by 15 feet diameter at the bosh. Up to 1858 
there was a gradual increase of size, the furnaces that year 
being 56 feet in height by 16 feet bosh. ‘The results of this 
increase of size were so satisfactory that Mr. Vaughan was 
led to rebuild one of the old furnaces, increasing its size to 
61 feet high by 16 feet 4 inches bosh. This may be said to 
be the first decided step towards the great increase in size 
which followed, the comparative results being so much in 
favour of the large furnace over the original small one that 
it soon became an undoubted fact that economy was to be 
found in that direCtion. Although the scientific reasons 


70 Economy of Fuel. (January, © 


which led to a saving of fuel through an increase in size 
were at that time not clearly understood, yet the practical 
results obtained were so beneficial that they culminated in 
a revolution unparalleled in the blast-furnace history of any 
district, in which all the original furnaces and plant were 
razed to the ground, and new ones on the now established 
improved principles were built in their stead. Furnaces 
have been built over 100 feet in height, and some of them 
as wide as 30 feet in the bosh; and it is the opinion of those 
best competent to judge of the matter, that the useful 
maximum of both height and diameter have been attained, 
if not exceeded. The object of increasing the size of the 
Cleveland furnaces was twofold; first, to increase the make ; 
and, secondly, to economise fuel; a third has followed 
gratuitously, viz., improvement in quality. The saving of 
coke from this cause has been considerable, and may be 
put down at from 7 to 8 cwts. of coke per ton of iron made. 
Mr. Isaac L. Bell, in investigating the causes which led to 
this economy of fuel in the larger furnaces, discovered that 
in a furnace one or two combinations are possible—that of 
one equivalent of carbon uniting with one or with two 
equivalents of oxygen; and that in the latter case as much 
heat is developed by 20 cwts. as is done by 71°14 cwts. 
when the carbon only unites with one equivalent of oxygen. 

The cause of the saving in fuel in large furnaces is two- 
fold; first, by the interception of a considerable portion 
of the heat formerly carried away in the gases—the products 
of combustion of the old furnaces; and, secondly owing to 
a better state of oxidation or combustion of the carbon,—a 
state of things proved by a great number of chemical 
analyses of the gases themselves as they leave the furnaces. 
Mr. Bell has also proved that no subsequent additions to 
the size of the furnace, beyond a certain point, has been 
attended with anything like the saving which accompanied 
the first steps in that direction; and that this is due to the 
fact that the escaping gases have, by such increase in 
dimensions, been deprived of nearly all the heat they can 
be made to surrender for use in the furnace; and that the 
chemical action in a furnace of about 12,000 feet is as 
perfect, so far as numerous analyses of the gases could 
indicate, as it is in a furnace of 25,000 cubic feet. 

Next to the increased size of the furnace, the principal 
cause of economy in fuel in the manufacture of iron is the 
improved temperature of blast at the tuyeres, which has 
been increased up to 1400. In order to obtain this 


1874.! Economy of Fuel. 71 


temperature, heating-stoves are employed, consisting most 
generally of a series of iron pipes within a furnace, through 
which the heat for the blast is drawn. The highest tempe- 
rature and the best results have, however, been obtained 
with Whitwell’s hot-blast fire-brick stoves, by the use of 
which, at Consett, iron has been made with 17 cwts. 2 qrs. 
of coke per ton, the blast being at a pressure of 3 lbs. per 
inch, and the temperature about 1400°. With an increased 
pressure of blast to 4 lbs., and a decrease in temperature to 
I200, an increased production of pig-iron was the result, 
but the consumption of coke rose to 19 cwts. 2 qrs. per ton. 

Under the most economical system of working, with open- 
topped furnaces, an enormous amount of fuel is wasted by 
the escape of the vapours of combustion, many of them 
only half consumed at a high temperature. So early as the 
beginning of the present century (1811), the important 
practical problem of the utilisation of the waste gas of iron- 
smelting furnaces was solved in a satisfactory manner in 
France; but upwards of five and twenty years elapsed 
before it began to attract the serious attention of iron- 
masters in Great Britain or on the Continent of Europe. 
The first attempts made in this country were exceedingly 
crude, and much of the carbonic oxide was allowed to 
escape unburnt into the air, by which an enormous amount 
_of heat, capable of being developed by the combustion of 
that gas, was lost. The calorific effect of the waste gas is 
due partly to its sensible heat, and partly to the heat 
developed by its combustion in contact with atmospheric 
air. In some furnaces, the gas is taken off through several 
circular openings ata short distance below the level of the 
solid contents of the furnace, their exhaustion being effected 
by means of a high stack. In others, there is an annular 
passage or flue near the mouth, extending all round, and 
communicating with the interior by several short passages, 
and in this case, also, the aid of a stack is required for ex- 
haustion. The most general method is, however, to close 
the top of the furnace with a ‘‘ cup and cone.” 

We must not close our account of economy of fuel in the 
blast-furnace without some reference to Ferrie’s self-coking 
blast-furnace. In considering the problem of utilising the 
gases escaping from blast-furnaces worked with raw coal, it 
occurred to Mr. Ferrie that much of the difficulty would be 
overcome if the coal could be coked in the furnace in some- 
what the same way as it is coked in gas retorts. In the 
application of these ideas to a large furnace at the Monkland 
Works, the mouth of the furnace is closed by a bell and 


72 Economy of Fuel. (January, 


hopper, and the gases are led off to the blast-heating stoves 
in the usual way. The upper part of the furnace, for 
a depth of 20 feet below the space required for the bell and 
cone, is divided into four compartments by vertical walls 
supported on arches, and radiating from the centre. These 
division walls, by causing additional frictional resistance to 
be opposed to the descent of the materials, relieve the coke 
formed of a portion of its load, but their main object is to 
enable the coking of the coal to be performed in the upper 
part of the furnace. The economic results obtained with 
this furnace have been most satisfactory, and they were thus 
described by Mr. Ferrie himself to the Iron and Steel 
Institute, at their meeting in March, 1871: 

‘“‘In the Lanarkshire district, the quantity of coal 
required in the manufacture of a ton of No. I pig-iron 
ranges from 50 to 52 cwts. in the furnace, whereas, in this 
furnace, a ton of the same quality can be produced with 
32 to 36 cwts., effecting a saving in coal of nearly a ton to 
the ton of iron made. In ores, the saving in this furnace 
will be about 2} cwts. per ton of iron.” 

The quantity of gas drawn off from the furnace is found 
to be greatly in excess of that required for heating the blast 
and raising steam for the blowing engines ; but where works 
for the production of finished iron are annexed to the blast- 
furnaces, ready means may be found for utilising this excess 
of gas. 

The next subject for consideration is the economy of fuel 
hitherto attained in the manufacture of iron and steel. 
Before the introduction of the puddling process, the conver- 
sion of cast-iron into malleable or wrought-iron was always 
effected in a finery or hearth, in which the metal was melted 
in contact with the solid fuel, and so exposed to the highly 
oxidising action of a blast of atmospheric air. Dr. Siemens, 
in a lecture delivered to the operative classes of Bradford, 
on behalf of the British Association, in September last, 
remarked that in the metallurgical furnace there is great 
room for improvement, the actual fuel consumed in heating 
a ton of iron up to the welding point, or in melting a ton of 
steel, being more in excess of the theoretical quantity 
required for those purposes than is the case with regard to 
the production of steam power or to domestic consumption. 
Taking the specific heat of iron at 114, and the welding 
heat at 2700 degrees F., it would require 307 heat units 
to heat 1 lb. of iron. A pound of pure carbon develops 
14,500 units of heat, a pound of common coal 12,000, and 
therefore 1 ton of coal should bring 39 tons of iron up to the 


1874.] Economy of Fuel. 73 


welding point. In an ordinary re-heating furnace, a ton of 
coal heats only 12 tons of iron, and therefore produces 
only one twenty-third part of the maximum theoretic effect. 
In melting one ton of steel in pots, 24 tons of coke are con- 
sumed; and, taking the melting point of steel at 3600 F., 
the specific heat at o*11g, it takes 428 heat units to melt 
a pound of steel; and, taking the heat-producing power 
of common coke also at 12,000 units, I ton of coke ought 
to be able to melt 28 tons of steel. ‘The Sheffield pot steel 
melting-furnace, therefore, only utilises one-seventieth part 
of the theoretical heat developed in the combustion. 
Several methods are now in use whereby greater economy 
in fuel results, but we shall not now do more than 
give special notice to one of these, as the object of 
fac present article is not so. much to refer to all 
methods of economising fuel, but rather to point out 
to what extent economy has been attained in various 
branches of consumption. We propose here merely to 
specify the Siemens’s regenerative furnace, which is now too 
well known to require any detailed description, and by the 
use of which a ton of steel is melted with 12 cwts. of small 
coal, whereas in the ordinary furnace at Sheffield, about 
3 tons of Durham coke are necessary to accomplish the 
sameend. In this one operation, therefore, in the process 
of steel manufacture, a saving of four-fifths of the fuel 
ordinarily employed is capable of being effected. 

Turning now to Mr. Bessemer’s system of steel manufac- 
ture, we find where 33 tons of coke are ordinarily used per 
ton of steel, 3 cwts. only is required for his process; and we 
find that gentleman stating, in evidence, before the Coal 
Commission of 1871, that ‘“‘if we take the present produc- 
tion of cast steel, in this country, by my process, at 150,000 
tons a year, we should have a saving of a little over half a 
million tons of coke in that time, representing, of course, its 
proportion of coal, the amount being greater or less according 
to the purity of the coal employed.” 

In estimating the waste of fuel under steam boilers, it is 
necessary to remember that in burning 1 1b. of carbon in 
the presence of free oxygen, carbonic acid is produced, and 
14,500 units of heat are liberated. Each unit of heat is 
convertible into 774 units of force or mechanical energy ; 
and hence, 1 lb. of carbon represents really 11,223,000 units 
of potential energy ; that is to say, the mechanical energy 
set free in the combustion of 1 lb. of pure carbon is the same 
that would be required to raise 11,223,000 pounds weight one 
foot high, or as would sustain the work which we call 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) L 


74 Economy of Fuel. ‘[January, 


a horse power during five hours thirty-three minutes. 
Practically, however, the results obtained fall very far short 
of these results. An ordinary non-expansive non-con- 
densing engine requires commonly a consumption of from 
to lbs. to 12 Ibs. of coal per horse-power per hour, whereas 
a good expansive and condensing engine accomplishes the 
same amount of work with 2 lbs. of coal per hour. 
In order to attain the greatest economy of fuel, used for the 
purpose of producing mechanical action, it is first necessary 
to provide such an amount of heating surface in the boiler 
as shall absorb all the heat produced by combustion, and 
transmit it to the water. The beneficial results which are 
attained by the greater size of boiler in relation to the coal 
burnt and to the horse-power required have been proved by 
actual usage, and are not merely matters of calculation. The 
Institute of Mechanical Engineers instituted a careful inquiry, 
in 1863, into the consumption bythe best engines in the Atlan- 
tic Steam Service, and the result showed that it fell in no case 
below 43 lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour. Last year 
they assembled with the same object in view in Liverpool, 
and Mr. Bramwell produced a table, showing that the average 
consumption by seventeen good examples of compound 
expansive engines did not exceed 2} lbs. per indicated horse- 
power per hour. Mr. E. A. Cowper has proved a consumption 
not exceeding 1} lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour, ina 
compound marine engine constructed with an intermediate 
superheating vessel in accordance with his plans. Dr. 
Siemens has, however, proved that theoretical perfection 
would only be attained if an indicated horse-power were 
produced with about 41b. of ordinary steam coal per hour. 

Mr. Bramwell, in his address as President of Section G, 
at the meeting of the British Association at Brighton, in 
1872, bore testimony to the fair duty done by locomotive 
engines, which he stated to be due, first, to the fact that, 
since the introduction of coal the furnaces have been to a 
considerable extent gas furnaces, with a free admission of 
air through open fire doors to the surface of the fuel; and, 
secondly, to the fact that the boilers have large absorbing 
powers. In marine engines there has, within the last ten 
years, been an enormous saving. The old fashioned engine, 
working at 20 lb. steam and with injector condensers, is 
being abandoned for engines generally on the compound 
cylinder principle, working at 60 lb. and 70 lb. steam, highly 
expansive, and fitted with surface condensers; and the result 
is a reduction of the consumption of fuel in the same 
vessels, on the same voyages, and performed in the same 


i 


en ce En Ae 


1874.] Economy of Fuel. 75 


time, of from 40 to 50 per cent of that which was previously 
burnt. 

Irrespective, however, of other circumstances, a great 
waste of fuel may be caused by bad firing; the fire being 
kept too thick, or too thin, or irregular. If too thick, the 
carbonic acid that is generated by the combustion of the 
lower part of the fuel, with which the air first comes in 
contact, is changed in its passage through the upper part of 
the fuel into carbonic oxide, by absorbing from the fuel a 
second equivalent of carbon. If carbonic oxide gas, thus 
generated, does not meet with free atmospheric air, at a 
suitable temperature in the upper part of the furnace, it 
must remain unconsumed, and will pass through the flues 
or tubes of the boiler, and make its escape into the air, 
carrying with it the valuable unconsumed carbon of the coal 
in a gaseous form. And when it is remembered that under 
ordinary circumstances every pound of coal burnt into car- 
bonic acid is capable of evaporating about 13 lbs. of water 
from 212°, while a pound of coal converted into carbonic 
oxide is capable of evaporating only 4 lbs. of water, it will be 
seen how necessary it is that no mismanagement of the fire 
should cause a portion of the fuel thus to escape unburnt up 
the chimney. 

We have thus pointed out the extent to which, and the 
principal means by which economy of fuel has been attained 
in the manufacture of iron, and for steam purposes. The 
results hitherto attained are, however, still very far from 
what theoretically should be practicable; but there can be 
little doubt that the same influences which have been at 
work to produce established results, will continue to act in 
the same direction, and with equally beneficial effects, until 
very much better value is obtained out of coal, although it 
would be unreasonable to hope that the full theoretical 
value should ever be actually attained.; and, indeed, as has 
been already shown, such a result would be impossible. 

Lastly, a few words with reference to the waste of fuel in 
domestic consumption. Nothing could be more extravagantly 
absurd, from an economical point of view, than the present 
system of open fire-places, and the method of setting them. 
From published returns for the year 1872 it appears that, 
taking the statistics of the metropolitan district as a guide, 
on an average, 12% cwts. of coal is consumed per annum for 
each person of the population for domestic services. In the 
preceding year the average was slightly higher, but prior to 
that it was below that average; so that it appears, in the use 
of fuel for domestic purposes, so far from there having been 


76 Economy of Fuel. (January, 


any attempt at economy, the reverse has been the case, and 
this increasing extravagance has only been temporarily 
checked by recent high prices. 

The common praétice in house building is to put the fire- 
grate immediately below and within a chimney; and, as 
this chimney is formed of brickwork, by no possibility can 
more than the most minute amount of heat be communicated 
from the chimney to the room. The main part of the 
conducted heat of the fire inevitably goes up the chimney, 
and is wasted, leaving the room to be warmed principally, if 
not entirely, by the radiated heat. Besides this, it must be 
remembered that, ordinarily speaking, no provision is made 
by architeéts or builders for the proper supply of air to the 
fire-places, and hence arise smoky chimneys and other evils 
of the present system. Here, then, is room for much 
improvement, and we are glad to perceive that the Society 
of Arts is giving its attention seriously to the matter, and it 
is to be hoped that some beneficial effects may be the result. 
As an evidence of how improved efficiency may be combined 
with economy, in this respect we may refer to Captain 
Douglas Galton’s fire-grate, on which a paper was read 
before the British Association at Norwich, in 1868. ‘This 
consists in putting a flue to the upper part of the fire-grate, 
which flue passes through a brick chamber formed in the 
ordinary chimney ; this chamber being supplied with air from 
the exterior of the room by a proper channel, and then the 
air, after being heated in conta¢t with the flue in the 
chamber, escapes into the room by openings near the ceiling, 
so that the room is supplied with a copious volume of warm 
fresh air, thus doing away with all tendency to draughts 
from the doors and windows, and furnishing an ample supply 
for the purposes of ventilation and combustion. 


1874.] C77) 


wait NOTES OF AN ENQUIRY INTO THE 
PHENOMENA CALLED SPIRITUAL, 
DURING THE YEARS 1870-73. 


By WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c. 


oe 
Fhe a traveller exploring some distant country, the 
wonders of which have hitherto been known only 
through reports and rumours of a vague or distorted 
character, so for four years have I been occupied in pushing 
an enquiry into a territory of natural knowledge which 
offers almost virgin soil to a scientific man. As the traveller 
sees in the natural phenomena he may witness the action of 
forces governed by natural laws, where others see only the 
Capricious intervention of offended gods, so have I endea- 
voured to trace the operation of natural laws and forces, 
where others have seen only the agency of supernatural 
beings, owning no laws, and obeying no force but their own 
free will. As the traveller in his wanderings is entirely 
dependent on the goodwill and friendliness of the chiefs 
and the medicine men of the tribes amongst whom he 
sojourns, so have I not only been aided in my enquiry in a 
marked degree by some of those who possess the peculiar 
powers I have sought to examine, but have also formed 
firm and valued friendships amongst many of the recognised 
leaders of opinion, whose hospitalities I have shared. As 
the traveller sometimes sends home, when opportunity offers, 
a brief record of progress, which record, being necessarily 
isolated from all that has led up to it, is often received with 
disbelief or ridicule, so have I on two occasions selected 
and published what seemed to be a few striking and definite 
facts; but having omitted to describe the preliminary stages 
necessary to lead the public mind up to an appreciation of 
the phenomena and to show how they fitted into other 
observed facts, they were also met, not only with incredulity, 
but with no little abuse. And, lastly, as the traveller, when 
his exploration is finished and he returns to his old 
associates, colle¢ts together all his scattered notes, tabulates 
them, and puts them in order ready to be given to the world 
as a connected narrative, so have I, on reaching this stage 
of the enquiry, arranged and put together all my discon- 
nected observations ready to place before the public in the 
form of a volume. 
The phenomena I am prepared to attest are so extra- 
ordinary and so directly oppose the most firmly rooted 


78 Notes of an Enquiry into the [January, 


articles of scientific belief—amongst others, the ubiquity and 
invariable action of the law of gravitation—that, even now, 
on recalling the details of what I witnessed, there is an 
antagonism in my mind between reason, which pronounces 
it to be scientifically impossible, and the consciousness that 
my senses, both of touch and sight,—and these corroborated, 
as they were, by the senses of all who were present,—are 
not lying witnesses when they testify against my preconcep- 
tions.* 

But the supposition that there is a sort of mania or 
delusion which suddenly attacks a whole roomful of in- 
telligent persons who are quite sane elsewhere, and that 
they all concur to the minutest particulars, in the details 
of the occurrences of which they suppose themselves to be 
witnesses, seems to my mind more incredible than even the 
facts they attest. 

The subject is far more difficult and extensive than it 
appears. Four years ago I intended only to devote a 
leisure month or two to ascertain whether certain marvellous 
occurrences I had heard about would stand the test of close 
scrutiny. Having, however, soon arrived at the same 
conclusion as, I may say, every impartial enquirer, that 
there was ‘‘ something in it,” I could not, as a student 
of nature’s laws, refuse to follow the enquiry wheresoever 
the facts might lead. Thus a few months have grown into 
a few years, and were my time at my own disposal it would 
probably extend still longer. But other matters of scientific 
and praCtical interest demand my present attention; and, 
inasmuch as J cannot afford the time requisite to follow the 
enquiry as it deserves, and as I am fully confident it will 
be studied by scientific men a few years hence, and as my 
opportunities are not now as good as they were some time 
ago, when Mr. D. D. Home was in good health, and Miss 


* The following remarks are so appropriate that I cannot forbear quoting 
them. They occur in a private letter from an old friend, to whom I had sent 
an account of some of these occurrences. The high position which he holds 
in the scientific world renders doubly valuable any opinion he expresses on the 
mental tendencies of scientific men. ‘‘ Any intellectual reply to your facts I 
cannot see. Yet it is a curious fact that even I, with all my tendency 
and desire to believe spiritualistically, and with all my faith in your power 
of observing and your thorough truthfulness, feel as if I wanted to see for 
myself; and it is quite painful to me to think how much more proof I want. 
Painful, I say, because I see that it is not reason which convinces a man, 
unless a fact is repeated so frequently that the impression becomes like a habit 
of mind, an old acquaintance, a thing known so long that it cannot be doubted. 
This is a curious phase of man’s mind, and it is remarkably strong in scientific 
men—stronger than in others, I think. For this reason we must not always 
call a man dishonest because he does not yield to evidence for a long time. 
The old wall of belief must be broken down by much battering.” 


= oe itm th me ip ae a 


oe wtih 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 79 


Kate Fox (now Mrs. Jencken) was free from domestic and 
maternal occupations, I feel compelled to suspend further 
investigation for the present. 

To obtain free access to some persons abundantly 
endowed with the power I am experimenting upon, now 
involves more favour than a scientific investigator should 
be expected to make of it. Spiritualism amongst its 
more devout followers is a religion. The mediums, in 
‘many cases young members of the family, are guarded 
with a seclusion and jealousy which an outsider can 
penetrate with difficulty. Being earnest and conscien- 
tious believers in the truth of certain do¢trines which they 
hold to be substantiated by what appear to them to be 
miraculous occurrences, they seem to hold the presence of 
scientific investigation as a profanation of the shrine. Asa 
personal favour I have more than once been allowed to be 
present at meetings that presented rather the form of a 
religious ceremony than of a spiritualistic séance. But 
to be admitted by favour once or twice, as a stranger 
might be allowed to witness the Eleusinian mysteries, or a 
Gentile to peep within the Holy of Holies, is not the way to 
ascertain facts and discover laws. To gratify curiosity is 
one thing; to carry on systematic researchis another. Iam 
seeking the truth continually. Ona few occasions, indeed, I 
have been allowed to apply tests and impose conditions ; but 
only once or twice have I been permitted to carry off the 
priestess from her shrine, and in my own house, surrounded 
by my own friends, to enjoy opportunities of testing the 
phenomena I had witnessed elsewhere under less conclusive 
-conditions.* My observations on these cases will find their 
due place in the work I am about to publish. 

Following the plan adopted on previous occasions,—a plan 
which, however much it offended the prejudices of some 
critics, I have good reason to know was acceptable to the 
readers of the ‘‘ Quarterly Journal of Science,”’—I in- 
tended to embody the results of my labour in the form of 
one or two articles for this journal. However, on going 
over my notes, I find such a wealth of faéts, such a super- 
abundance of evidence, so overwhelming a mass of tes- 
timony, all of which will have to be marshalled in order, 
that I could fill several numbers of the ‘‘Quarterly.” I must 


* In this paper I give no instances and use no arguments drawn from these 
exceptional cases. Without this explanation it might be thought that the 
immense number of facts I have accumulated were principally obtained on the 
few occasions here referred to, and the objeéion would naturally arise of 
insufficiency of scrutiny from want of time. 


80 Notes of an Enquiry into the [January, 


therefore be content on this occasion with an outline only of 
my labours, leaving proofs and full details to another 
occasion. 

My principal object will be to place on record a series of 
actual occurrences which have taken place in my own house, 
in the presence of trustworthy witnesses, and under as 
strict test conditions as I could devise. Every faét which I 
have observed is, moreover, corroborated by the records of 
independent observers at other times and places. It will be 
seen that the facts are of the most astounding character, and 
seem utterly irreconcilable with all known theories of modern 
science. Having satisfied myself of their truth, it would be 
moral cowardice to withhold my testimony because my pre- 
vious publications were ridiculed by critics and others who 
knew nothing whatever of the subject, and who were too pre- 
judiced to see and judge for themselves whether or not there 
was truth in the phenomena; I shall state simply what 
I have seen and proved by repeated experiment and test, and 
‘“T have yet to learn that it is irrational to endeavour to dis- 
cover the causes of unexplained phenomena.” 

At the commencement, I must correct one or two errors 
which have taken firm possession of the public mind. One 
is that darkness is essential to the phenomena. ‘This is by 
no means the case. Except where darkness has been a neces- 
sary condition, as with some of the phenomena of luminous 
appearances, and in a fewother instances, everything recorded 
has taken place in the light. In the few cases where the 
phenomena noted have occurred in darkness I have been 
very particular to mention the fact ; moreover some special 
reason can be shown for the exclusion of light, or the results 
have been produced under such perfect test conditions that 
the suppression of one of the senses has not really weakened 
the evidence. 

Another common error is that the occurrences can be 
witnessed only at certain times and places,—in the rooms of 
the medium, or at hours previously arranged; and arguing 
from this erroneous supposition, an analogy has been 
insisted on between the phenomena called spiritual and the 
feats of legerdemain by professional ‘‘conjurors” and 
‘‘ wizards,” exhibited on their own platform and surrounded 
by all the appliances of their art. 

To show how far this is from the truth, I need only say 
that, with very few exceptions, the many hundreds of fa¢ts 
I am prepared to attest,—facts which to imitate by known 
mechanical or physical means would baffle the skill of a 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 81 


Houdin, a Bosco, or an Anderson, backed with all the 
resources of elaborate machinery and the practice of years,— 
have all taken place in my own house, at times appointed 
by myself, and under circumstances which absolutely pre- 
cluded the employment of the very simplest instrumental 
aids. 

A third error is that the medium must select his own 
circle of friends and associates at a séance; that these 
friends must be thorough believers in the truth of whatever 
doctrine the medium enunciates; and that conditions are im- 
posed on any person present of an investigating turn of mind, 
which entirely preclude accurate observation and facilitate 
trickery and deception. In reply to this, I can state that, 
(with the exception of the very few cases to which I have 
alluded in a previous paragraph* where, whatever might 
have been the motive for exclusiveness, it certainly was 
not the veiling of deception), I have chosen my own 
circle of friends, have introduced any hard-headed un- 
believer whom I pleased, and have generally imposed my 
own terms, which have been carefully chosen to prevent 
the possibility of fraud. Having gradually ascertained 
some of the conditions which facilitate the occurrence of the 
phenomena, my modes of conducting these inquiries have 
generally been attended with equal, and, indeed, in most 
cases with more, success than on other occasions, where, 
through mistaken notions of the importance of certain 
trifling observances, the conditions imposed might render 
less easy the detection of fraud. 

I have said that darkness is not essential. It is, however, 
a well-ascertained, fa@t that when the force is weak a bright 
light exerts an interfering action on some of the phenomena. 
The power possessed by Mr. Home is sufficiently strong to 
withstand this antagonistic influence ; consequently, he 
always objects to darkness at his séances. Indeed, except 
on two occasions, when, for some particular experiments of 
my own, light was excluded, everything which I have 
witnessed with him has taken place in the light. I have 
had many opportunities of testing the action of light of 
different sources and colours, such as sun-light, diffused day- 
light, moon-light, gas, lamp, and candle-light, electric light 
from a vacuum tube, homogeneous yellow light, &c. The 
interfering rays appear to be those at the extreme end of the 
spectrum. 

I now proceed to classify some of the phenomena which 


* See note on page 79. 
VOL: Iv. (N.S.) M 


82 Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, © 


have come under my notice, proceeding from the simple to — 
the more complex, and briefly giving under each heading an 
outline of some of the evidence I am prepared to bring 
forward. My readers will remember that, with the excep- 
tion of cases specially mentioned, the occurrences have 
taken place im my own house, in the light, and with only 
private friends present besides the medium. In the con- 
templated volume I propose to give in full detail the tests 
and precautions adopted on each occasion, with names of — 
witnesses. I only briefly allude to them in this article. 


Crass a: 


The Movement of Heavy Bodies with Contact, but without 
Mechanical Exertion. 


This is one of the simplest forms of the phenomena observed. 
It varies in degree from a quivering or vibration of the room 
and its contents to the actual rising into the air of a heavy 
body when the hand is placed on it. The retort is obvious 
that if people are touching a thing when it moves, they 
push it, or pull it, or lift it; I have proved experimentally 
that this is not the case in numerous instances, but as 
a matter of evidence I attach little importance to this class 
of phenomena by itself, and only mention them as a pre- 
liminary to other movements of the same kind, but without 
contact. 

These movements (and indeed I may say the same of 
every kind of phenomenon) are generally preceded by a 
peculiar cold air, sometimes amounting to a decided wind. 
I have had sheets of paper blown about by it, and a ther- 
mometer lowered several degrees. On some occasions, 
which I will subsequently give more in detail, I have not 
detected any actual movement of the air, but the cold has 
been so intense that I could only compare it to that felt when 
the hand has been within a few inches of frozen mercury. 


Crass II. 
The Phenomena of Percussive and other Allied Sounds. 


The popular name of ‘“‘raps”’ conveys a very erroneous 
impression of this class of phenomena. At different times, 
during my experiments, I have heard delicate ticks, as with 
the point of a pin; a cascade of sharp sounds as from an 
induction coil in full work; detonations in the air; sharp 
metallic taps; a cracking like that heard when a fri¢tional 
machine is at work; sounds like scratching; the twittering 
as of a bird, &c. 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 83 


These sounds are noticed with almost every medium, 
each having a special peculiarity; they are more varied 
with Mr. Home, but for power and certainty I have met 
with no one who at all approached Miss Kate Fox. For 
several months I enjoyed almost unlimited opportunity 
of testing the various phenomena occurring in the presence 
of this lady, and I especially examined the phenomena of 
these sounds. With mediums, generally, it is necessary to 
sit for a formal séance before anything is heard; but ,in 
the case of Miss Fox it seems only necessary for her to 
place her hand on any substance for loud thuds to be heard 
in it, like a triple pulsation, sometimes loud enough to be 
heard several rooms off. In this manner I have heard 
them in a living tree—on a sheet of glass—on a stretched 
iron wire—on a stretched membrane—a tambourine—on the 
roof of a cab—and on the floor of a theatre. Moreover, 
actual contact is not always necessary; I have had these 
sounds proceeding from the floor, walls, &c., when the 
medium’s hands and feet were held—when she was standing 
on a chair—when she was suspended in a swing from the 
ceiling—when she was enclosed in a wire cage—and when 
she had fallen fainting on a sofa. I have heard them ona 
glass harmonicon—I have felt them on my own shoulder 
and under my own hands. I have heard them on a sheet of 
paper, held between the fingers by a piece of thread passed 
through one corner. With a full knowledge of the numerous 
theories which have been started, chiefly in America, to 
explain these sounds, I have tested them in every way that 
I could devise, until there has been no escape from the 
conviction that they were true objective occurrences not 
produced by trickery or mechanical means. 

An important question here forces itself upon the attention. 
Are the movements and sounds governed by intelligence? Ata 
very early stage of the enquiry, it was seen that the power 
producing the phenomena was not merely a blind force, but 
was associated with or governed by intelligence: thus the 
sounds to which I have just alluded will be repeated a 
definite number of times, they will come loud or faint, and 
in different places at request; and by a pre-arranged code 
of signals, questions are answered, and messages given with 
more or less accuracy. 

The intelligence governing the phenomena is sometimes 
manifestly below that of the medium. It is frequently in 
direct opposition to the wishes of the medium: when a 
determination has been expressed to do something which 
might not be considered quite right, I have known urgent 


84 Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, 


messages given to induce a reconsideration. The intelligence 
is sometimes of such a character as to lead to the belief that 
it does not emanate from any person present. 

Several instances can be given to prove each of these 
statements, but the subject will be more fully discussed 
subsequently, when treating of the source of the intelligence. 


Crass. III. 
The Alteration of Weight of Bodies. 


I have repeated the experiments already described in this 
Journal, in different forms, and with several mediums. I 
need not further allude to them here. 


CLASS Ly. 


Movements of Heavy Substances when at a Distance from the 
Medium. 


The instances in which heavy bodies, such as tables, 
chairs, sofas, &c. have been moved, when the medium has 
not been touching them, are very numerous. _I will briefly 
mention a few of the most striking. My own chair has been 
twisted partly round, whilst my feet were off the floor. A 
chair was seen by all present to move slowly up to the table 
from a far corner, when all were watching it; on another 
occasion an arm chair moved to where we were sitting, and 
then moved slowly back again (a distance of about three 
feet) at my request. On three successive evenings a 
small table moved slowly across the room, under conditions 
which I had specially pre-arranged, so as to answer any 
objection which might be raised to the evidence. I have 
had several repetitions of the experiment considered by the 
Committee of the Diale¢tical Society to be conclusive, viz., 
the movement of a heavy table in full light, the chairs 
turned with their backs to the table, about a foot off, and 
each person kneeling on his chair, with hands resting over 
the backs of the chair, but not touching the table. On one 
occasion this took place when I was moving about so as to 
see how everyone was placed. 


CLASS VV; 


The Rising of Tables and Chairs off the Ground, without 
Contact with any Person. 


A remark is generally made when occurrences of this kind 
are mentioned, Why is it only tables and chairs which do 
these things? Why is this property peculiar to furniture? 
I might reply that I only observe and record facts, and do 
not profess to enter into the Why and Wherefore ; but indeed 


1874.} Phenomena called Spiritual. 85 


it will be obvious that if a heavy inanimate body in an 
ordinary dining-room has to rise off the floor, it cannot very 
well be anything else but a table or achair. That this pro- 
pensity is not specially attached to furniture, I have abundant 
evidence ; but, like other experimental demonstrators, the 
intelligence or power, whatever it may be, which produces 
these phenomena can only work with the materials which 
are available. 

On five separate occasions, a heavy dining-table rose 
between a few inches and 14 feet off the floor, under special 
circumstances, which rendered trickery impossible. On 
another occasion, a heavy table rose from the floor in full 
light, while I was holding the medium’s hands and feet. On 
another occasion the table rose from the floor, not only when 
no person was touching it, but under conditions which I had 
pre-arranged so as to assure unquestionable proof of the 
fact. 

Cxiass VI. 


The Levitation of Human Beings. 


This has occurred in my presence on four occasions in 
darkness. ‘The test conditions under which they took place 
were quite satisfactory, so far as the judgment was con- 
cerned ; but ocular demonstration of such a fact is so 
necessary to disturb our pre-formed opinions as to “‘ the 
naturally possible and impossible,” that I will here only 
mention cases in which the deductions of reason were con- 
firmed by the sense of sight. 

On one occasion I witnessed a chair, with a lady sitting 
on it, rise several inches from the ground. On another 
occasion, to avoid the suspicion of this being in some way 
performed by herself, the lady knelt on the chair in such 
manner that its four feet were visible to us. It then rose 
about three inches, remained suspended for about ten 
seconds, and then slowly descended. At another time two 
children, on separate occasions, rose from the floor with their 
chairs, in full daylight, under (to me) most satisfactory con- 
ditions ; for I was kneeling and keeping close watch upon the 
feet of the chair, and observing that no one might touch them. 

The most striking cases of levitation which I have 
witnessed have been with Mr. Home. On three separate 
occasions have I seen him raised completely from the floor 
of the room. Once sitting in an easy chair, once kneeling 
on his chair, and once standingup. On each occasion I had 
pull opportunity of watching the occurrence as it was taking 
place. 


86 Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, 


There are at least a hundred recorded instances of Mr. 
Home’s rising from the ground, in the presence of as many 
separate persons, and I have heard from the lips of the three 
witnesses to the most striking occurrence of this kind—the 
Earl of Dunraven, Lord Lindsay, and Captain C. Wynne— 
their own most minute accounts of what took place. To re- 
ject the recorded evidence on this subject is to reject all human 
testimony whatever; for no fact in sacred or profane history 
is supported by a stronger array of proofs. 

The accumulated testimony establishing Mr. Home’s 
levitations is overwhelming. It is greatly to be desired 
that some person, whose evidence would be accepted as 
conclusive by the scientific world—if indeed there lives 
a person whose testimony im favour of such phenomena 
would be taken—would seriously and patiently examine 
these alleged facts. Most of the eye-witnesses to these 
levitations are now living, and would, doubtless, be willing 
to give their evidence. But, in a few years, such direct 
evidence will be difficult, if not impossible, to be obtained. 


Crass -VaL. 


Movement of Various Small Articles without Contact with any 
Person. 


Under this heading I propose to describe some special 
phenomena which I have witnessed. I can do little more 
here than allude to some of the more striking facts, all of 
which, be it remembered, have occurred under circum- 
stances that render trickery impossible. But it is idle to 
attribute these results to trickery, for I would again remind 
my readers that what I relate has not been accomplished at 
the house of a medium, but in my own house, where pre- 
parations have been quite impossible. A medium,walking into 
my dining-room, cannot, while seated in one part of the 
room with a number of persons keenly watching him, by 
trickery make an accordion play in my own hand when I hold 
it keys downwards, or cause the same accordion to float 
about the room playing all the time. He cannot introduce 
machinery which will wave window-curtains or pull up 
Venetian blinds 8 feet off, tie a knot in a handkerchief and 
place it ina far corner of the room, sound notes on a distant 
piano, cause a card-plate to float about the room, raise a 
water-bottle and tumbler from the table, make a coral neck- 
lace rise on end, cause a fan to move about and fan the 
company, or set in motion a pendulum when enclosed in a 
glass case firmly cemented to the wall. 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 87 


Crass VIII. 
Luminous Appearances. 


These, being rather faint, generally require the room to be 
darkened. I need scarcely remind my readers again that, 
under these circumstances, I have taken proper precautions 
to avoid being imposed upon by phosphorised oil or other 
means. Moreover, many of these lights are such as I have 
tried to imitate artificially, but cannot. 

Under the strictest test conditions, I have seen a solid 
self-luminous body, the size and nearly the shape of a 
turkey’s egg, float noiselessly about the room, at one time 
higher than any one present could reach standing on 
tiptoe, and then gently descend to the floor. It was 
visible for more than ten minutes, and before it faded away 
it struck the table three times with a sound like that 
of a hard, solid body. During this time the medium 
was lying back, apparently insensible, in an easy chair. 

I have seen luminous points of light darting about and 
settling on the heads of different persons; I have had 
questions answered by the flashing of a bright light a 
desired number of times in front of my face. I have 
seen sparks of light rising from the table to the ceiling, and 
again falling upon the table, striking it with an audible 
sound.- I have had an alphabetic communication given by 
luminous flashes occurring before me in the air, whilst my 
hand was moving about amongst them. I have seen a lumi- 
nous cloud floating upwards to a picture. Under the strictest 
test conditions, I have more than once had a solid, self- 
luminous, crystalline body placed in my hand by a hand which 
did not belong to any person in the room. In the light, I 
have seen a luminous cloud hover over a heliotrope on a 
side table, break a sprig off, and carry the sprig to a lady; 
and on some occasions I have seen a similar luminous cloud 
visibly condense to the form of a hand and carry small 
objects about. These, however, more properly belong to the 
next class of phenomena. 


CLASS LX: 


The Appearance of Hands, either Self-Luminous or Visible by 
Ordinary Light. 


The forms of hands are frequently felt at dark séances, or 
under circumstances where they cannot be seen. More 
rarely I have seen the hands. I will here give no instances 
in which the phenomenon has occurred in darkness, but will 


gy 


88 Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, 


simply select a few of the numerous instances in which I 
have seen the hands in the light. 

A beautifully-formed small hand rose up from an opening 
in a dining-table and gave me a flower; it appeared and 
then disappeared three times at intervals, affording me 
ample opportunity of satisfying myself that it was as real 
in appearance as my own. ‘This occurred in the light in 
my own room, whilst I was holding the medium’s hands and 
feet. 

On another occasion, a small hand and arm, like a baby’s, 
appeared playing about a lady who was sitting next to me. 
It then passed to me and patted my arm and pulled my 
coat several times. 

At another time, a finger and thumb were seen to pick the 
petals from a flower in Mr. Home’s button-hole, and lay 
them in front of several persons who were sitting near 
him. 

A hand has repeatedly been seen by myself and others 
playing the keys of an accordion, both of the medium’s 
hands being visible at the same time, and sometimes being 
held by those near him. 

The hands and fingers do not always appear to me to be 
solid and life-like. Sometimes, indeed, they present more 
the appearance of a nebulous cloud partly condensed into 
the form of a hand. This is not equally visible to all 
present. For instance, a flower or other small object is 
seen to move; one person present will see a luminous cloud 
hovering over it, another will detect a nebulous-looking 
hand, whilst others will see nothing at all but the moving 
flower. I have more than once seen, first an object move, 
then a luminous cloud appear to form about it, and, lastly, 
the cloud condense into shape and become a perfectly- 
formed hand. At this stage, the hand is visible to all present. 
It isnot always a mere form, but sometimes appears perfectly 
life-like and graceful, the fingers moving and the flesh appa- 
rently as human as that of any in the room. At the wrist, 
or arm, it becomes hazy, and fades off into a luminous 
cloud. 

To the touch, the hand sometimes appears icy cold and 
dead, at other times, warm and life-like, grasping my own 
with the firm pressure of an old friend. 

I have retained one of these hands in my own, firmly 
resolved not to let it escape. There was no struggle 
or effort made to get loose, but it gradually seemed to re- 
solve itself into vapour, and faded in that manner from my 


grasp. 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 89 


Crass X. 
Direct Writing. 


This is the term employed to express writing which is not 
produced by any person present. I have had words and 
messages repeatedly written on privately-marked paper, 
under the most rigid test conditions, and have heard the 
pencil moving over the paper in thedark. The conditions— 
pre-arranged ‘by myself—have been so strict as to be equally 
convincing to my mind as if I had seen the written 
characters formed. But as space will not allow me to enter 
into full particulars, I will merely sele¢t two instances in 
which my eyes as well as ears were witnesses to the opera- 
tion. 

The first instance which I shall give took place, it is true, 
at a dark séance, but the result was not less satisfactory on 
that account. I was sitting next to the medium, Miss Fox, 
the only other persons present being my wife and a lady rela- 
tive,and I was holding the medium’s two hands in one of mine, 
whilst her feet were resting on my feet. Paper was on the 
table before us, and my disengaged hand was holding a 
pencil. 

A luminous hand came down from the upper part of the 
room, and after hovering near me for a few seconds, took the 
pencil from my hand, rapidly wrote on a sheet of paper, 
threw the pencil down, and then rose up over our heads, 
gradually fading into darkness. 

My second instance may be considered the record of a 
failure. ‘‘ A good failure often teaches more than the most 
successful experiment.”” It took place in the light, in my 
own room, with only a few private friends and Mr. Home 
present. Several circumstances, to which I need not further 
allude, had shown that the power that evening was strong. 
I therefore expressed a wish to witness the actual production 
of a written message such as I had heard described a short 
time before by a friend. Immediately an alphabetic com- 
munication was made as follows—‘‘ We will try.” A pencil 
and some sheets of paper had been lying on the centre of the 
table ; presently the pencil rose up on its point, and after 
advancing by hesitating jerks to the paper fell down. It 
then rose and again fell. A third time it tried, but with no 
better result. After three unsuccessful attempts, a small 
wooden lath, which was lying near upon the table, slid towards 
the pencil, and rose a few inches from the table; the pencil 
rose again, and propping itself against the lath, the two 
together made an effort tomark the paper. It fell, and then 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) N 


go Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, 


a joint effort was again made. After a third trial the lath 
gave it up and moved back to its place, the pencil lay as it 
fell across the paper, and an alphabetic message told us 
—‘‘ We have tried to do as you asked, but our power is 
exhausted.” 


CLASS 0. 
Phantom Forms and Faces. 


These are the rarest of the phenomena I have witnessed. 
The conditions requisite for their appearance appear to be 
so delicate, and such trifles interfere with their produétion, 
that only on very few occasions have I witnessed them under 
satisfactory test conditions. I will mention two of these 
Cases. 

In the dusk of the evening, during a séance with Mr. Home 
at my house, the curtains of a window about eight feet from 
Mr. Home were seen to move. A dark, shadowy, semi- 
transparent form, like that of a man, was then seen by all 
present standing near the window, waving the curtain with 
his hand. As we looked, the form faded away and the 
curtains ceased to move. 

The following is a still more striking instance. As in the 
former case, Mr. Home was the medium. A phantom form 
came from a corner of the room, took an accordion in its hand, 
and then glided about the room playing the instrument. 
The form was visible to all present for many minutes, 
Mr. Home also being seen at the same time. Coming rather 
close to a lady who was sitting apart from the rest of the 
company, she gave a slight cry, upon which it vanished. 


Crass Scia. 


Special Instances which seem to point to the A gency of an Exterior 
Intelligence. 


It has already been shown that the phenomena are 
governed by an intelligence. It becomes a question of im- 
portance as to the source of that intelligence. Is it the 
intelligence of the medium, of any of the other persons in 
the room, or is it an exterior intelligence? Without 
wishing at present to speak positively on this point, I may 
say that whilst I have observed many circumstances which 
appear to show that the will and intelligence of the medium 
have much to do with the phenomena,* I have observed 


* I do not wish my meaning to be misunderstood. What I mean is, not 
that the medium’s will and intelligence are actively employed in any conscious 
or dishonest way in the production of the phenomena, but that they sometimes 
appear to act in an unconscious manner. 


q 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. gI 


some circumstances which seem conclusively to point to the 
agency of an outside intelligence, not belonging to any 
human being in the room. Space does not allow me to 
give here all the arguments which can be adduced to prove 
these points, but I will briefly mention one or two circum- 
stances out of many. 

I have been present when several phenomena were going 
on at the same time, some being unknown to the medium. 
I have been with Miss Fox when she has been writing a 
message automatically to one person present, whilst a mes- 
sage to another person on another subject was being given 
alphabetically by means of “‘ raps,” and the whole time she 
was conversing freely with a third person on a subject 
totally different from either. Perhaps a more striking 
instance is the following :— 

During a séance with Mr. Home, a small lath, which I 
have before mentioned, moved across the table to me, in the 
light, and delivered a message to me by tapping my hand; 
I repeating the alphabet, and the lath tapping me at the 
right letters. The other end of the lath was resting on the 
table, some distance from Mr. Home’s hands. 

The taps were so sharp and clear, and the lath was 
evidently so well under control of the invisible power which 
was governing its movements, that I said, ‘‘ Can the intel- 
ligence governing the motion of this lath change the 
character of the movements, and give me a telegraphic 
message through the Morse alphabet by taps on my hand?” 
(I have every reason to believe that the Morse code was 
- quite unknown to any other person present, and it was only 

imperfectly known to me). Immediately I said this, the 
character of the taps changed, and the message was con- 
tinued in the way I had requested. ‘The letters were given 
too rapidly for me to do more than catch a word here and 
there, and consequently I lost the message; but I heard 
sufficient to convince me that there was a good Morse 
Operator at the other end of the line, wherever that 
might be. 

Another instance. A lady was writing automatically by 
means of the planchette. I was trying to devise a means 
of proving that what she wrote was not due to ‘ uncon- 
scious cerebration.” The planchette, as it always does, 
insisted that, although it was moved by the hand and arm 
of the lady, the intelligence was that of an invisible being 
who was playing on her brain as on a musical instrument, 
and thus moving her muscles. I therefore said to this 
intelligence, ‘‘Can you see the contents of this room ?” 


92 Notes of an Enquiry into the |January, 


“Yes,” wrote the planchette. ‘‘ Can you see to read this ) 


newspaper?” said I, putting my finger on a copy of the 
Times, which was on a table behind me, but without looking 
at it. ‘‘ Yes’’ was the reply of the planchette. ‘* Well,” 
I said, “‘if you can see that, write the word which is 
now covered by my finger, and I will believe you.” The 
planchette commenced to move. Slowly and with great 
difficulty, the word ‘‘ however” was written. I turned 
round and saw that the word ‘‘ however” was covered by the 
tip of my finger. 

I had purposely avoided looking at the newspaper when 
I tried this experiment, and it was impossible for the lady, 
had she tried, to have seen any of the printed words, for she 
was sitting at one table, and the paper was on another table 
behind, my body intervening. 


Crass XIII. 
Miscellaneous Occurrences of a Complex Character. 


Under this heading I propose to give several occurrences 
which cannot be otherwise classified owing to their complex 
character. Out of more than a dozen cases, I will select 
two. ‘The first occurred in the presence of Miss Kate Fox. 
To render it intelligible, I must enter into some details. 

Miss Fox had promised to give me a séance at my house 
one evening in the spring of last year. Whilst waiting for 
her, a lady relative, with my two eldest sons, aged 
fourteen and eleven, were sitting in the dining-room where 
the séances were always held, and I was sitting by myself, 
writing in the library. Hearing a cab drive up and the 
bell ring, I opened the door to Miss Fox, and took her 
directly into the dining-room. She said she would not 
go upstairs, as she could not stay very long, but laid her 
bonnet and shawl on a chair in the room. I then went 
to the dining-room door, and telling the two boys to go 
into the library and proceed with their lessons, I closed the 
door behind them, locked it, and (according to my usual 
custom at séances) put the key in my pocket. 

We sat down, Miss Fox being on my right hand and the 
other lady on my left. An alphabetic message was soon 
given to turn the gas out, and we thereupon sat in total 
darkness, I holding Miss Fox’s two hands in one of mine the 
whole time. Very soon, a message was given in the following 
words, ‘‘ We are going to bring something to show our 
power ;” and almost immediately afterwards, we all heard 
the tinkling of a bell, not stationary, but moving about in 


1874.} Phenomena called Spiritual. 93 


all parts of the room: at one time by the wall, at another 
in a further corner of the room, now touching me on the 
head, and now tapping against the floor. After ringing 
about the room in this manner for fully five minutes, it fell 
upon the table close to my hands. 

During the time this was going on, no one moved and 
Miss Fox’s hands were perfectly quiet. I remarked that it 
could not be my little hand-bell which was ringing, for I left 
that in the library. (Shortly before Miss Fox came, I had 
occasion to refer to a book, which was lying on a corner of a 
book-shelf. The bell was on the book, and I put it on one 
side to get the book. ‘That little incident had impressed on 
my mind the fact of the bell being in the library.) The gas 
was burning brightly in the hall outside the dining-room 
door, so that this could not be opened without letting light 
into the room, even had there been an accomplice in the 
house with a duplicate key, which there certainly was not. 

I struck a light. There, sure enough, was my own bell 
lying on the table before me. I went straight into the 
library. A glance showed that the bell was not where it 
ought to have been. I said to my eldest boy, ‘‘Do you 
know where my little bell is?” ‘‘ Yes, papa,” he replied, 
“there it is,” pointing to where I had left it. He looked up 
as he said this, and then continued, ‘‘ No—it’s not there, but 
it was there a little time ago.” ‘‘ How do you mean ?—has 
anyone come in and taken it?” ‘‘ No,” said he, ‘no one 
has been in; but I am sure it was there, because when you 
sent us in here out of the dining-room, J. (the youngest boy) 
began ringing it so that I couid not go on with my lessons, 
and I told him to stop.” J. corroborated this, and said that, 
after ringing it, he put the bell down where he had found it. 

The second circumstance which I will relate occurred 
in the light, one Sunday evening, only Mr. Home and 
members of my family being present. My wife and I had 
been spending the day in the country, and had brought 
home a few flowers we had gathered. On reaching home, 
we gave them to a servant to putthem in water. Mr. Home 
came soon after, and we at once proceeded to the dining- 
room. As we were sitting down, a servant brought in the 
flowers which she had arranged in a vase. I placed it in 
the centre of the dining-table, which was without a 
cloth. ‘This was the first time Mr. Home had seen these 
flowers. 

After several phenomena had occurred, the conversation 
turned upon some circumstances which seemed only ex- 
plicable on the assumption that matter had actually passed 


94 Notes of an Enquiry into the [January, 


through a solid substance. Thereupon a message was given 
by means of the alphabet: ‘‘It is impossible for matter to 
pass through matter, but we will show you what we can do.” 
We waited in silence. Presently a luminous appearance 
was seen hovering over the bouquet of flowers, and then, in 
full view of all present, a piece of china-grass 15 inches 
long, which formed the centre ornament of the bouquet, 
slowly rose from the other flowers, and then descended 
to the table in front of the vase between it and Mr. Home. 
It did not stop on reaching the table, but went straight 
through it, and we all watched it till it had entirely 
passed through. Immediately on the disappearance of the 
grass, my wife, who was sitting near Mr. Home, saw a hand 
come up from under the table between them, holding the 
piece of grass. It tapped her on the shoulder two or three 
times with a sound audible to all, then laid the grass on the 
floor, and disappeared. Only two persons saw the hand, 
but all in the room saw the piece of grass moving about as 
I have described. During the time this was taking place, 
Mr. Home’s hands were seen by all to be quietly resting on 
the table in front of him. ‘The place where the grass dis- 
appeared was 18 inches from his hands. The table wasa 
telescope dining-table, opening with a screw; there was no 
leaf in it, and the junction of the two sides formed a narrow 
crack down the middle. The grass had passed through this 
chink, which I measured, and found to be barely 3th inch 
wide. The stem of the piece of grass was far too thick to 
enable me to force it through this crack without injuring it, 
yet we had all seen it pass through quietly and smoothly ; 
and on examination, it did not show the slightest signs of 
pressure or abrasion. 


THEORIES TO ACCOUNT FOR THE PHENOMENA OBSERVED. 


First Theory—The phenomena are all the results of 
tricks, clever mechanical arrangements, or legerdemain; the 
mediums are impostors, and the rest of the company fools. 

It is obvious that this theory can only account for a very 
small proportion of the facts observed. I am willing to 
admit that some so-called mediums of whom the public 
bave heard much are arrant impostors who have taken 
advantage of the public demand for spiritualistic excitement 
to fill their purses with easily earned guineas ; whilst others 
who have no pecuniary motive for imposture are tempted 
to cheat, it would seem, solely by a desire for notoriety. I 
have met with several cases of imposture, some very ingenious, 
others so palpable, that no person who has witnessed the 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 95 


genuine phenomena could be taken in by them. An enquirer 
into the subject finding one of these cases at his first initia- 
tion is disgusted with what he detects at once to be an im- 
posture ; and he not unnaturally gives vent to his feelings, 
privately or in print, by a sweeping denunciation of the whole 
genus ‘‘medium.” Again, with a thoroughly genuine medium, 
the first phenomena which are observed are generally slight 
movements of the table, and faint taps under the medium’s 
hands or feet. These of course are quite easy to be imitated 
by the medium, or anyone at the table. If, as sometimes 
occurs, nothing else takes place, the sceptical observer goes 
away with the firm impression that his superior acuteness 
detected cheating on the part of the medium, who was 
consequently afraid to proceed with any more tricks in his 
presence. He, too, writes to the newspapers exposing the 
whole imposture, and probably indulges in moral senti- 
ments about the sad spectacle of persons, apparently intel- 
ligent, being taken in by imposture which he detected at once. 

There is a wide difference between the tricks of a pro- 
fessional conjurer, surrounded by his apparatus, and aided 
by any number of concealed assistants and confederates, 
deceiving the senses by clever sleight of hand on his own 
platform, and the phenomena occurring in the presence of 
Mr. Home, which take place in the light, in a private room 
that almost up to the commencement of the séance has 
been occupied as a living room, and surrounded by private 
friends of my own, who not only will not countenance the 
slightest deception, but who are watching narrowly every 
thing that takes place. Moreover, Mr. Home has frequently 
been searched before and after the séances, and he always 
offers to allow it. During the most remarkable occurrences 
I have occasionally held both his hands, and placed my feet 
on his feet. Onno single occasion have I proposed a modifi- 
cation of arrangements for the purpose of rendering trickery 
less possible which he has not at once assented to, and 
frequently he has himself drawn attention to tests which 
might be tried. 

I speak chiefly of Mr. Home, as he is so much more 
powerful than most of the other mediums I have experi- 
mented with. But with all I have taken such precautions 
as place trickery out of the list of possible explanations. 

Be it remembered that an explanation to be of any value 
must satisfy all the conditions of the problem. It is not 
enough for a person, who has perhaps seen only a few of 
the inferior phenomena, to say “I suspect it was all 


cheating,” or, ““I saw how some of the tricks could be 
done,” 


96 Notes of an Enquiry into the (January, 


Second Theory.—The persons at a séance are the victims of 
a sort of mania or delusion, and imagine phenomena 
to occur which have no real obje¢tive existence. 

Third Theory.—The whole is the result of conscious or 
unconscious cerebral action. 

These two theories are evidently incapable of embracing 
more than a small portion of the phenomena, and they are 
improbable explanations for even those. They may be 
dismissed very briefly. 

I now approach the ‘‘ Spiritual’ theories. It must be 
remembered that the word ‘“‘ spirits’ is used in a very vague 
sense by the generality of people. 

Fourth Theory.—The result of the spirit of the medium, 
perhaps in association with the spirits of some or all of 
the people present. 

Fifth Theory—The actions of evil spirits or devils, 
personifying who or what they please, in order to undermine 
Christianity and ruin men’s souls. 

Sixth Theory.— The actions of a separate order of beings, 
living on this earth, but invisible and immaterial to us. 
Able, however, occasionally to manifest their presence. 
Known in almost all countries and ages as demons (not 
necessarily bad), gnomes, fairies, kobolds, elves, goblins, 
Puck, &c. 

Seventh Theory.—The actions of departed human beings— 
the spiritual theory par excellence. 

Eighth Theory.—(The Psychic Force Theory).—This is a 
necessary adjunct to the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th theories, 
rather than a theory by itself. 

According to this theory the ‘‘ medium,” or the circle of 
people associated together as a whole, is supposed to 
possess a force, power, influence, virtue, or gift, by means of 
which intelligent beings are enabled to produce the phe- 
nomena observed. What these intelligent beings are is a 
subject for other theories. 

It is obvious that a ‘‘medium’” possesses a something 
which is not possessed by an ordinary being. Give this 
something aname. Call it “x” if you like. Mr. Serjeant 
Cox calls it Psychic Force. ‘There has been so much mis- 
understanding on this subject that I think it best tu give the 
following explanation in Mr. Serjeant Cox’s own words :— 

‘“The Theory of Psychic Force is in itself merely the recog- 
nition of the now almost undisputed fact that under certain 
conditions, as yet but imperfectly ascertained, and within a 
limited, but as yet undefined, distance from the bodies of 
certain persons having a special nerve organisation, a Force 
operates by which, without muscular contact or connection, 


1874.] Phenomena called Spiritual. 97 


action at a distance is caused, and visible motions and audible 
sounds are produced in solid substances. As the presence 
of such an organisation is necessary to the phenomenon, it 
is reasonably concluded that the Force does, in some manner 
as yet unknown, proceed from that organisation. As the 
organism is itself moved and directed within its structure by 
a Force which either is, or is controlled by, the Soul, 
Spirit, or Mind (call it what we may) which constitutes the 
individual being we term ‘the Man,’ it is anequally reason- 
able conclusion that the Force which causes the motions 
beyond the limits of the body is the same Force that pro- 
duces motion within the limits of the body. And, inasmuch 
as the external force is seen to be often dire¢ted by Intelli- 
gence, it is an equally reasonable conclusion that the directing 
Intelligence of the external force is the same Intelligence 
that directs the Force internally. This is the force to which 
the name of Psychic Force has been given by me as 
properly designating a force which I thus contend to be 
traced back to the Soul or Mind of the Man as its source. 
But I, and all who adopt this theory of Psychic Force as 
being the agent through which the phenomena are produced, 
do not thereby intend to assert that this Psychic Force may 
not be sometimes seized and directed by some other Intelli- 
gence than the Mind of the Psychic. The most ardent 
Spiritualists practically admit the existence of Psychic Force 
under the very inappropriate name of Magnetism (to which 
it has no affinity whatever), for they assert that the Spirits 
of the Dead can only do the acts attributed to them by using 
the Magnetism (that is, the Psychic Force) of the Medium. 
The difference between the advocates of Psychic Force 
and the Spiritualists consists in this—that we contend 
that there is as yet insufficient proof of any other directing 
agent than the Intelligence of the Medium, and no proof 
whatever of the agency of Spirits of the Dead; while the 
Spiritualists hold it as a faith, not demanding further proof, 
that Spirits of the Dead are the sole agents in the production 
of allthe phenomena. ‘Thus the controversy resolves itself 
into a pure question of fact, only to be determined by a 
laborious and long-continued series of experiments and an 
extensive collection of psychological facts, which should be 
the first duty of the Psychological Society, the formation of 
which is now in progress.” 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) fs) 


98 Notices of Books. [January, 


NOTICES OF .BOOES: 


Lectures on Light. Delivered in America in 1872-1873. By 
Joun Tynpatt, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in the Royal Institution. London: Longmans, 
Green, and Co. 1873. 8vo., 268 pp. 

WE are all more or less familiar with the history of Dr. Tyndall’s 

recent visit to America. We know that he was invited to that 

country to give a course of lectures on Natural Philosophy in 
the principal cities of the States, and that he was received 
everywhere with open arms. The thirst of the Americans for 
science is prodigious ; a considerable scientific taste and literature 
is springing up amongst them; their enterprise induces them to 
constantly reprint our large works on science; and it will be 
remembered that these very lectures of Dr. Tyndall’s were printed 
in broadsides, illustrated, and issued, in a newspaper-like form, 
at the cost of afewcents. The subject chosen was Light, and, 
in the work before us, we have the course of six lectures on that 
subject, which Dr. Tyndall delivered in the principle centres of 

American thought and progress. 

Dr. Tyndall has adopted the plan of giving a history of the 
Science of Light, and illustrating each fact as it was discovered. 
Thus early in the first lecture we find an account of the law, that 
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection; of 
Snell’s Law of the Refraction of Light (1621), sometimes called 
‘Descartes’ Law;’ and of Rcemer’s Determination of the 
Velocity of Light (1676). ‘Snell’s Law of Refracton,” says our 
author, ‘“‘is one of the corner stones of optical science, and 
its applications to-day are millionfold. Immediately after its 
discovery, Descartes applied it to the explanation of the rainbow. 
A beam of solar light falling obliquely upon a raindrop is 
refracted on entering the drop, and, on emerging, is again 
refracted.” Here follows an explanation of the rainbow, and 
the means by which Descartes proved its origin. Next we have 
an account of Newton’s Discovery of the Decomposition and 
Recomposition of Light, and many illustrations of the discovery ; 
then of Achromatism, and the Theory of Colours. 

In the second lecture we are introduced to the once rival 
conjectures concerning the nature of light:—The ‘* Emission 
Theory,” and the ‘‘ Undulatory Theory ;” and here Dr. Tyndall 
introduces some very pertinent remarks regarding the conception 
of a physical theory, and the necessary use of the imagination 
in that form of conception :—‘‘ This conception of physical theory 
implies, as you perceive, the exercise of the imagination. Do 
not be afraid of this word, which seems to render so many 
respectable people, both in the ranks of science and out of them, 


1874.] Notices of Books. 99 


uncomfortable. That men in the ranks of science should feel 
thus is, I think, a proof that they have suffered themselves to be 
misled by the popular definition of a great faculty, instead of 
observing its operation in their own minds. Without imagination 
we cannot take a step beyond the bourne of the mere animal 
world, perhaps not even to the edge of this. __ But, in speaking 
thus of imagination, I do not mean a riotous power which deals 
capriciously with facts, but a well ordered and disciplined power, 
whose sole function is to form conceptions which the intellect 
imperatively demands. Imagination thus exercised never really 
severs itself from the world of fact. This is the storehouse from 
which all its pictures are drawn; and the magic of its art consists, 
not in creating things anew, but in so changing the magnitude, 
position, and other relations of sensible things, as to render them 
fit for the requirements of the intellect in the subsensible world.” 
The growth of the rival theories is then traced, and the use of 
imagination by those who favoured one or the other; we were 
unaware that Sir David Brewster did not adopt the undulatory 
theory, and certainly unaware that he permitted sentiment to 
interfere with his acceptation of a physical theory, as the fol- 
lowing passage indicates :—‘‘ In one of my latest conversations 
with Sir David Brewster, he said to me that his chief objection 
to the undulatory theory of light was, that he could not think the 
Creator guilty of so clumsy a contrivance as the filling of space 
with ether in order to produce light. This, I may say, is very 
dangerous ground, and the quarrel of science with Sir David on 
this point, as with many estimable persons on other points, is, 
that they profess to know too much about the mind of the 
Creator.” The elaborate and most due praise which Tyndall, 
and Helmholtz, and many others have ‘bestowed upon Thomas 
Young here reappears. But when Dr. Tyndall tells us that 
Young was but alittle lower in the intellectual scale than Newton, 
and greater than any man of science between Newton’s time and 
his own, we cannot, with all possible love for our country and 
countrymen, hold with him. For he practically makes Newton 
the greatest man of science of all time, and Young second 
only to the greatest. Elsewhere he says ‘‘ we trace the progress 
of astronomy through Hipparchus and Ptolemy ; and after a long 
halt, through Copernicus, Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler; 
while from the high table-land of thought raised by these men 
Newton shoots upward like a peak, overlooking all others from 
his dominant elevation.” And we would invite comparison 
_ between the great and glorious Leonardo da Vinci and the great 
and glorious Dr. Thomas Young—men who had many remarkable 
points of contact. If no more, at least they should be “bracketed 
together” in the list of illustrious men, but we incline to the 
greater exaltation of Leonardo da Vinci. 

The third lecture treats of the double refracton and polarisation 
of light. We may particularly call attention to Fig. 27, and the 


100 Notices of Books. (January, 


admirably clear explanation which is given of the cause of 
refraction by a prism, and of the change of wave-front. The 
polarised beam of light is compared, in the matter of its two- 
sidedness with the two-endedness of a magnet. The subject of 
polarisation, and the chromatic phenomena which accompany it, 
is continued in the fourth lecture; and the many admirable 
experimental illustrations with which Dr. Tyndall has made us 
familiar at the Royal Institution are freely introduced to develope 
the subject more clearly. 

The fifth lecture takes us into Dr. Tyndall's more special 
domain of radiant heat, and the consideration of its relationship 
to light. The subject of Fluorescence is fully discussed, and 
the usual solution of sulphate of quinine, and the recently 
discovered Thallene of Prof. Morton used to illustrate it. Then 
we have an interesting paragraph relating to what is now called 
‘Potential Light.” ‘‘ Fluor-spar,and some other substances, when 
raised to a temperature still under redness, emit light. During 
the ages which have elapsed since their formation, this capacity 
of shaking the ether into visual tremors appears to have been 
enjoyed by these substances. Light has been potential within 
them all this time; and, as well explained by Draper, the heat, 
though not itself of visual intensity, can unlock the molecules so 
as to enable them to exert the power of vibration which they 
possess.” The observations of Dr. Bence Jones appear to have 
proved the existence of a fluorescent substance in the human 
body, notably in the lens of the eye. Thus, if the eye be 
plunged into the ultra-violet rays, it becomes conscious of a 
‘‘whitish-blue shimmer” filling the space before it; and, ac- 
cording to Dr. Tyndall, the crystalline lens of the eye, if it be 
then viewed from without, is seen to gleam vividly. An account 
of calorescence, and of the effects of the non-luminous ultra- 
red rays is next given, and, near the end of the lecture, of the 
refraction, polarisation, and magnetisation of heat. We cannot 
completely understand the connection between the ultra-red rays 
and certain phenomena in Nature (described on pp. 176 and 177, 
and could almost imagine that a page or paragraph had been 
omitted. We can find nothing in the text to prove that the 
invisible ultra-red rays produce the warming and consequent 
evaporation of the tropical oceans, and hence, indirectly, our 
rains and snows. Again, a large flask containing a freezing 
mixture, and coated with hoar-frost, was placed at an intensely 
luminous focus of electric light, an alum-cell being interposed ; 
the frost was not melted: when, however, an iodine-cell, which 
cut off all the light, was interposed, and the alum-cell withdrawn, 
the hoar-frost was melted. ‘Hence,’ says our author, ‘‘ we 
infer that the snow and ice which feed the Rhone, the Rhine, and 
other rivers which have glaciers for their sources, are released 
from their imprisonment upon the mountains by the invisible 
ultra-red rays of the sun.” Why hence? The experiment 


1874.] Notices of Books. IOI 


indeed proves, that if you cut off all the heat rays, the luminous 
rays possess no warmth; while, if you cut off all the luminous 
rays, the heat rays exercise great power; but it does not prove 
to us that luminous heat plays no part in the phenomena of 
Nature. A word or two of amplification, which considerably 
simplify this part of the lecture. 

The sixth and final lecture is devoted to the important and 
rapidly growing subject of Spectrum Analysis, to which we need 
not very specially refer. This lecture is terminated by no less 
than nineteen pages of summary and conclusion. From this we 
may with advantage note here and there, of necessity somewhat 
desultorily, a remark or a generalisation. Dr. Tyndall speaks of 
Newton’s emission theory in the following terms: ‘ For a 
century it stood like a dam across the course of discovery ; but, 
like all barriers that rest upon authority and not upon truth, the 
pressure from behind increased, and swept the barrier away.” 
Of the undulatory theory, he says, ‘It had been enunciated by 
Hooke, it had been applied by Huyghens, it had been defended 
By euler. But they made no impression. ... . . It first 
took the form of a demonstrated verity in the hands of Thomas 
Young. . . . After him came Fresnel, whose transcendent 
mathematical abilities enabled him to give the theory a generality 
unattained by Young. He grasped the theory in its entirety ; 
followed the ether into the hearts of crystals of the most com- 
plicated structure, and into bodies subjected to strain and 
pressure. He showed that the facts discovered by Malus, 
Arago, Brewster, and Biot, were so many ganglia, so to speak, 
of his theoretic organism, deriving from it sustenance and 
explanation.” 

In his concluding remarks, Dr. Tyndall has addressed to the 
Americans some admirable remarks concerning the so-called 
practical scientific man and the original investigator. He has 
begged them not to confound the two, not, as is too often the 
case, to attribute the discoveries of the original worker to the 
man who applies them to the practical good of mankind. And 
he has besought them to endeavour to foster and cultivate 
original research. ‘‘ Your most difficult problem will be not to 
build institutions, but to discover men. You may erect labora- 
tories and endow them, you may furnish them with all the 
appliances needed for enquiry; in so doing you are but creating 
opportunity for the exercise of powers which come from sources 
entirely beyond yourreach. You cannot create genius by bidding 
forit. . . . . . You have scientific genius amongst you— 
not sown broadcast, believe me, it is sown thus nowhere—but 
still scattered here and there. Take all unnecessary impediments 
out of its way. Keep your sympathetic eye upon the originator 
of knowledge. Give him the freedom necessary for his researches, 
not overloading him either with the duties of tuition or of 
administration, not demanding from him so-called practical 


102 Notices of Books. (January, 


results—above all things avoiding that question which ignorance 
so often addresses to genius, ‘ What is the use of your work ?” 
Let him make truth his object, however unpractical for the 
time being, that truth may appear. If you cast your bread thus 
upon the waters, then be assured it will return to you, though 
it may be after many days.” 

We trust our American cousins, or, as we should prefer to call 
them ‘brothers, speaking the same dear mother tongue,” will 
lay all this to heart, and let it bear good fruit. We rejoice to 
know that one of our own scientific men has been received by 
the Americans, as Dr. Tyndall has been received, and we trust 
that the establishment of these social relationships will do 
much to bind together the two great countries into still closer 
union. 


The Spectroscope and its Applications. By J. Norman Lockyer, 
F.R.S. Macmillan and Co. London: 1873. 8vo., 117 pp. 
Illustrated. 

Tuis is the first volume of a series of popular works on Science, 

to be called the Nature Series, because the subject-matter is first 

printed in ‘‘ Nature.’ Eight of these books are already announced, 
and some two or three will no doubt be ready by next October. 

The design is good, and the books will probably supply a want 

which is being felt in this country and America. Judging from 

the present volume, the series will resemble Messrs. Hachette’s 

Librarie des Merveilles more closely than any other works in our 

language. The general appearance, as to externals, is altogether 

prepossessing—the book is well printed on thick paper, profusely 
illustrated, and very neatly bound. 

The present volume consists of three lectures on the Spectro- 
scope, delivered before the Society of Arts in 1869. They here 
appear in a revived and somewhat expanded form, and the subject 
has, as far as possible, been brought up to the day of issue. 

The first lecture regards the matter from an historical and 
descriptive point of view. The broad points of interest con- 
nected with the history of the spectroscope are clearly discussed. 
The proof that lights which differ in colour differ in refrangi- 
bility; that the light of the sun consists of rays possesssing 
different refrangibilities ; the decomposition and recomposition 
of light. Newton, in his experiments, had used a round hole in 
a shutter for the admission of a beam of light ; while Wollaston, 
in 1802, made what our author calls ‘‘a tremendous step in 
advance,” by substituting a slit instead of a circular hole. This 
simple modification of Newton’s experiment permitted a spectrum 
of considerable purity to be obtained for the colours, instead of 
overlapping, were now seen more distinctly side by side, and 
with only their edges overlapping. In this spectrum Wollaston 
found breaks of continuity, not observed by Newton; he dis- 
covered the black lines at right angles to the length of the 


1874.] Notices of Books. 103 


spectrum, which we now call “ Fraiinhofer’s lines.” Ten years 
later, in 1812, the German optician, Fraiinhofer mapped no less 
than 576 of these lines, and lettered the principal ones A, B, C, 
D; he discovered, moreover, that in the spectrum of certain 
stars, the black lines do not hold by any means the same position 
which they hold in the spectrum of the sun. In 1830, the next 
great improvement in the spectroscope was made. In addition 
to the simple prism and slit, Mr. Simms, the optician, placed a 
lens in front of the prism and another lens near the eye, so as 
to magnify the spectrum. By this means the black lines could 
be studied with far greater readiness than by the naked eye. 
“You may imagine the enormous mystery—the wonderful 
reverence almost—with which this question of the Fraiinhofer’s 
lines was approached until they were thoroughly understood ; 
and recollect that we owe the discovery of them, by which we 
are enabled now to determine the pressures acting in the atmo- 
spheres of the most distant stars, simply to the fact that Dr. 
Wollaston, instead of drilling a round hole, used a slit; and to 
the other additional fact, that Mr. Simms, instead of using that 
slit with a mere prism, used a lens, and made the beam parallel, 
and then aliowed that parallel beam, after it had passed through 
the prism, to pass into another telescope, and form an image of 
the slit for each ray. You see how closely connected are the 
grandest discoveries with the skill and suggestiveness of those 
who supply different instruments for our use.” Thus the principal 
incidents in the history of the spectroscope, as an instrument, 
are (a) Newton’s application of the prism to optical purposes, in 
1675; (8) his observation that the prism should be used at the 
angle of minimum deviation; (y) the addition of the slit by 
Wollaston in 1812; (6) the collimating lens added by Simms in 
1830. The author next describes various forms of spectroscopes 
with one, two, or more prisms. Capital figures are given of 
Steinheil’s four-prism spectroscope, used by Kirchhoff; of 
Huggins’s star spectroscope, and of direct vision spectroscopes 
with three or four prisms. 

The second lecture treats of the applications of the spectro- 
scope, specially of those which depend upon the investigation of 
light radiated from bodies. Thus applied, the instrument enables 
us to distinguish between solids, liquids, and gases; and between 
gases and vapours existing at different pressures. The various 
methods of obtaining spectra are here discussed; the use of the 
Bunsen burner, the induction coil, and the voltaic arc. A coloured 
plate at the commencement of the volume shows, among other 
things, two spectra of great interest; the one of hydrogen at a 
high pressure, the other of hydrogen at a low pressure. It is 
here seen that, in the former instance, the spectrum is much 
more continuous than in the latter. In fact, in the vacuous 
tube, the hydrogen spectrum dwindles down to one or two very 
sharply defined and thin lines. On the other hand, Frankland 


104 Notices of Books. (January, 


has proved that the spectrum of incandescent hydrogen existing 
under very great pressure is entirely continuous. For inter- 
mediate pressures we have intermediate spectra. ‘* We may 
state generally,” says the author, “that beginning with any one 
element in its most rarefied condition, and then following its 
spectrum, as the molecules come nearer together, so as at last to 
reach the solid form, we shall find that spectrum become more 
and more complicated as this approach takes place, until at last 
a vivid continuous spectrum is reached.” The latter part of 
this lecture treats of the application of the spectroscope to the 
investigation of the nature of various heavenly bodies, the sun, 
stars, and nebule, at the hands of various physicists and astro- 
nomers. The third and concluding lecture mainly discusses 
absorption-spectra. It is here shown that it easy to detect 
different substances by noticing their absorption ; by introducing 
the substance between the source of light and the prism, and 
noticing the resulting spectrum, side by side with a continuous 
spectrum. We may discriminate between two solutions, the 
one of blood, the other of magenta dye, exactly similar in 
colour and general appearance. Again, Mr. Sorby has proved 
that, by means of the spectrum-microscope, a blood spot so 
small that it contains only one-thousandth of a grain of blood 
may be detected. Some very interesting and comparatively new 
matter is given near the end of this lecture relating to the 
probably constitution of sun spots, the spectroscopic examination 
of which seems to prove that they are due to ‘ general absorp- 
tion, plus special absorption in some particular lines.” The 
observed widening of the sodium line in the spectrum of a sun 
spot is traced to difference of pressure :—‘‘ If we take a tube 
containing some metallic sodium sealed up in hydrogen, and 
pass a beam of light from the electric lamp through it, by 
decomposing this beam with our prisms we shall obtain an 
ordinary continuous spectrum without either bright or dark 
lines; but by heating the metallic sodium in the tube, which is 
placed in front of the slit, we really fill that tube with the vapour 
of sodium; and as the heating will be slow, the sodium vapour 
will rise very gently from the metal at the bottom, so that we 
shall get layers of different densities of sodium vapour filling 
the tube. Immediately the sodium begins to rise in vapour, a 
black absorption-line shows itself, in one spectrum, in precisely 
the same position as the yellow line of sodium, and you will find 
that the thickness of the sodium absorption line will vary with 
the density of the stratum of vapour through which it passes. 
Thus, from the upper part of the tube we obtain a fine delicate 
line, which gradually thickens as we approach the bottom of the 
tube, and thus we produce the appearance in the spectrum of the 
spot where the layers of sodium vapour are very dense, and the 
very fine delicate line of the sodium vapour when thrown up into 
the sun’s chromosphere.’ Thus, in fact, it seems to be undoubted 


1874.] Notices of Books. 105 


that, just as the hydrogen line widens as the surface of the sun 
is approached, indicating increase of pressure, so, in the sun- 
spot, the pressure of the incandescent sodium vapour increases 
as we go deeper into the sun-spot cavity. Finally we have an 
account of the velocity of solar storms, calculated from the 
shifting of the F line, to be something like a hundred miles in a 
second. 

Altogether the work is very readable, and it will form a useful 
introduction to larger works, such as that of Roscoe or Schellen. 
It shows, however, frequent evidence of haste, both in style of 
composition and in arrangement of subject-matter, and several 
somewhat abstruse subjects receive rather slight treatment. We 
regret also to notice the comparatively slight mention of foreign 
investigators, and of our own Miller, Brewster, and Herschel. 
But we must bear in mind that the subject is vast, and three 
hours of exposition are very insufficient for a detailed account of 
only one branch of it. We commend the work to all who 
are interested in one of the most prominent branches of optical 
science of our day, and remind them that it is the work of one 
who has done good service to science by his own researches. 


Light Science for Leisure Hours. Second Series. Familiar 
Essays on Scientific Subjects, Natural Phenomena, &c., 
with a Sketch of the Life of Mary Somerville. By Ricuarp 
A. Proctor, B.A., Cambridge, Honorary Secretary of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, &c. London: Longmans, 
Green, and Co. 1873. 

Some years ago a caricature portrait of Alexandre Dumas was 

published in Paris, in which the brilliant novelist was pictured 

with a bunch of hands attached to each arm, and each hand 
carrying a pen that was scribbling furiously. The flood of 
books, magazine articles, controversial and other correspondence, 
besides communications and hard secretary’s work to the Royal 

Astronomical Society, which, during the last few years, have 

poured from the pen of Mr. Proctor, render a similar caricature 

almost justifiable, but it demands some modification. Instead of 
merely a bunch of supplementary hands, the artist would, in this 
case, require to depict an efflorescence of supplementary brains, 

Mr. Proétor’s work having been something considerably beyond 

the efforts of a mere book-maker. He has specially attacked the 

grandest and heaviest of the sciences, and made it the leading 
subject of his popular teaching; but, instead of re-baking the old 
dishes of his predecessors, he has laid before his readers the most 
recently discovered facts, generalisations, and speculations of 
modern astronomy; a large proportion of which, according to 
the old method of dishing up astronomical handbooks, would 
have remained during another generation or so buried in the 
Transactions of learned societies, or in the unread volumes 
VOL. Iv. (N.S.) P 


106 Notices of Books. (January, 


of those who might be so simple-minded as to publish, on their 
own account, important contributions to astronomical science, 
under the delusion that they would be studied during their own 
lifetime. 

Mr. Proctor has the high merit—very rare among avowedly 
popular teachers—of digging, with his own hands, into these 
depths of astronomical literature, and of directly presenting to 
readers of all classes judiciously selected and well displayed 
examples of their treasures. 

The second series of ‘‘ Light Science for Leisure Hours” is 
one of the latest of these collections of nuggets (that is up to 
this moment of writing; we cannot tell what may happen during 
the short time that will elapse before this is published), and is 
fully equal in interest and value to its predecessors. 

A considerable portion of the volume is devoted to meteoro- 
logical problems, and the interminable ‘‘ Gulf Stream” discussion, 
into the lists of which tournament Mr. Proctor has valiantly 
entered, the device on his shield being surface evaporation over 
large tropical areas. He repeats Maury’s demonstration of the 
insufficiency of Herschel’s trade wind explanation, and Herschel’s 
refutation of Maury’s and Humboldt’s variation of the specific 
gravity theory, and then proceeds to show that Dr. Carpenter’s 
lump of ice, at one end of a rectangular aquarium trough, is a 
fallacious representation of the arctic ice in arctic waters, 
inasmuch as the ar¢tic area is so much smaller than the tropical 
that the trough should have been v-shaped, with the ice at the 
angle, in order to be at all representative. There can be no doubt 
that this simple quantitative difficulty is fatal to Dr. Car- 
penter’s large estimate of the potency of the arctic ice-cold 
stream. 

Taking a cool outside view of this controversy, it presents one 
very interesting feature, namely that each combatant succeeds in 
refuting the sufficiency of his opponents explanation, but (as far 
as those above-named are concerned) all have failed to refute its 
actuality. Hence we may venture to conclude that the errors on 
all sides are quantitative only, and that the actual oceanic 
circulation is due to the combined, or rather co-operating action, 
of all the forces on behalf of which the champions are 
respectively combating. We say no more, lest the infection of 
the fight should come upon us and deform our critical impar- 
tiality. 

The other essays are on “ The Coming Transit of Venus ” of 
course, ‘‘ The Ever Widening World of Stars;’’ Movements in 
the Star Depths,” ‘*The Great Nebula in Orion,” ‘*The Sun’s 
True Atmosphere,” ‘‘ Something Wrong with the Sun,” ‘* News 
from Herschel's Planet,’ ‘‘ The Two Comets of 1868,” ‘* Comets 
of Short Period,” ‘‘The Climate of Great Britain,’ ‘‘ The Low 
Barometer of the Antarctic Temperate Zone.” 

We cannot of course describe or discuss the contents of such 


a tga bal 


1874.] Notices of Books. 107 


aseries. They are all written with Mr. Proctor’s usual graphic 
clearness, and carry the reader forward with the latest steps 
in the progress of those departments of science which they 
treat. 

Besides these, there is a critical sketch of the life and 
works of Mrs. Somerville. 

In his preface Mr. Proctor invites special attention to the essay 
on the Transit of Venus, and expresses his practical conclusion 
on this subject in unmistakable and uncompromising terms, in 
italics, thus, that ‘“‘there is great risk that, for want of an 
adequate number of southern stations, the whole series of 
observations, by all countries engaged in the work, will result in 
failure,” and he adds in a note that, ‘since this was written, I 
have received letters from the greatest master of mathematical 
astronomy this country has produced since Newton’s day, 
strongly confirming my views as to the extreme importance of 
providing many southern stations for applying Halley’s method 
in 1874, and urging me, moreover, to appeal to America to take 
part in this special work, for which she is peculiarly fitted, 
because of the bravery and enterprise of her seamen, the skill 
and ingenuity of her astronomers and physicists, and her 
singular liberality as a nation in all scientific matters.” 


Electricity and Magnetism. By FLEEMING JENKIN, F.R.SS. 
L. & E., M.I.C.E., Professor of Engineering in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. (Text-Books of Science.) London: 
Longmans, Green, and Co. 1873. 

Or the great and increasing value of the series of text-books 
published by Messrs. Longmans, there cannot be the remotest 
doubt. Not only are the contents of each little work valuable to 
the student, but it becomes a pleasure to the proficient to see the 
principles of his science advanced so clearly and cleverly by the 
best expounders. Professor Fleeming Jenkin has done ably by 
electrical science in the above volume of the series; and par- 
ticularly does he make clear the difficult subject of contact 
electricity. We commend the work to the notice of our readers 
interested in electrical science. 


Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By T. E. THorpe, Ph., D., 
F.R.S.E. Professer of Chemistry, Andersonian Institution, 
Glasgow. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 

Tuis work forms another of the “series of text-books of science, 

adapted for the use of artisans and students in public and other 

schools.” Its speciality is that the ‘examples chosen” have 


108 Notices of Books. (January, 


been selected to a great extent ‘‘on account of their practical 
utility.” In other words, the work has a technological character, 
which, without unfitting it for students of other classes, makes 
it particularly suited for artisans. It is divided into five sections. 
The first of these is a full and carefully compiled treatise on 
chemical manipulation, as far as qualitative analysis is concerned. 
The instructions on the use of the balance are admirable, and it 
would not be easy to point out any necessary precaution which 
the author has omitted to press on the attention of his readers. 
Indeed it might be suggested that mention of the method of 
weighing by vibrations, with the accompanying mathematical 
formule, are not somewhat out of place in such a work. ‘There 
is also an attempt at determining by algebraical calculations the 
amount of wash-water, and the minimum number of washings 
required to bring any precipitate to a state of purity. The use 
of the filter-pump is explained at full length. The action of the 
solvents employed upon the apparatus in digestions, evapora- 
tions, &c., is pointed out as a possible, though generally 
overlooked, source of error. In short, not merely students—in 
the common sense of the term—but not a few chemists of old 
standing might find their advantage in a careful perusal of this 
section. 

The remainder of the work consists of a graduated series of 
examples in simple gravimetric analysis; of a section on 
volumetric operations; of an account of the methods used in 
the valuation of ores, minerals, and industrial products; and 
lastly, of a special section on organic analysis. 

Turning to the assay of pyrites, we find that the author directs 
the sulphur to be oxidised by means of chlorate of potassa, and 
not hydrochloric acid—as a certain standard work advises, with 
the ordinary result of a small explosion—but nitric acid, which 
works safely and well. The subsequent expulsion of the nitric 
acid, the rendering all silica insoluble, the removal of the last 
traces of sulphate of lead which may possibly be present, are all 
duly pointed out as needful. The addition of a little tartaric acid 
to prevent the precipitation of iron, along with the sulphate of 
baryta, is a sound precaution. We have seen precipitates of 
sulphate of baryta which, though thrown down from decidedly 
acid solutions, had a very tawny look. The digestion with 
acetate of ammonia to remove traces of nitrate of baryta which 
may remain entangled in the precipitate is also useful. 

Turning to the separation of phosphoric acid from iron and 
alumina, we find that the author recommends the tin process 
(Reynoso’s) to the exclusion both of the bismuth and of the 
molybdenum method, the latter of which we certainly prefer, 
whenever a comparatively small amount of phosphoric acid has 
to be determined in prescence of a large proportion of iron and 
alumina. The molybdenum process is, however, described and 
recommended for the determination of phosphorus in irons and 


ee eo 


1874.] Notices of Books. 10g 


iron ores. It is remarkable how generally chemists overlook the 
fact that, when a substance has been ignited to remove organic 
matter, its phosphoric acid will be to a great extent converted 
into pyrophosphoric acid. Unless special precautions are taken 
for its re-conversion, the amount of phosphoric acid found will be 
decidedly erroneous. 

The analysis of copper ores is very fully and clearly explained. 
Now methods so accurate, convenient, and rapid as the ‘‘ Mans- 
field”? and ‘‘ Luckow’s”’ are known, the question arises why the 
Cornish dry assay, which gives tolerably correct results only in 
the case of rich ores, should still be recognised ? 

Space will not permit us to examine this work at greater 
length. But although on certain points we should differ to some 
extent from the author, we can conscientiously recommend the 
work, not merely as a text-book for the student, but as 
a useful manual of reference to advanced and experienced 
chemists. 


Workshop Appliances; including Descriptions of the Gauging 
and Measuring Instruments, the Hand-Cutting Tools, Lathes, 
Drilling, Planing, and other Machine Tools used by Engi- 
neers. By C. P.*B. SuHELLey, C.E., Honorary Fellow of 
and Professor of Manufacturing Art and Machinery in 
King’s College, London. London: Longmans, Green, and 
Co. 1973: 


Turis also forms one of the series of Text-Books of Science, in 
course of publication by Messrs. Longmans, Green, and Co.; the 
subject embraced is, however, far too vast to be properly com- 
prised within the pages of a single volume. As a text-book for 
novices, it may be of some value; and that part which relates 
to the use of hand tools will be found instructive, but it is the 
only portion of it which possesses any originality. The first 
chapter, ‘“‘On Measures of Length, and Methods of Measuring,” 
is almost a reprint from another source, but it is interesting, and 
forms a good introduction to the subjects subsequently treated 
of. The description of ‘“‘ wire gauges” is defective, inasmuch 
as no mention is made of Mr. Latimer Clark’s proposed gauge, 
with which the author should be well acquainted. The latter 
half of the book, which relates to machine tools, is of but little 
use; the descriptive part is deficient, the mechanical details are 
insufficiently explained, and many of the illustrations are from 
old worn-out blocks which we recognise as having repeatedly 
seen in manufacturers’ illustrated trade circulars. This portion 
might well have formed the subject-matter for a separate volume, 
and no doubt, if more space had been available for the purpose, 
Mr. Shelley would have done it fuller justice than he has been 
able to do within the limits to which he appears to have been 
confined. 


I10 Notices of Books. (January, 


Sanitary Engineering : a Guide to the Construction of Works of 
Sewerage and House Drainage; with Tables for Facilitating 
the Calculations of the Engineer. By BaLtpwin LaTHam, 
C.E., M. Inst. C.E. London: E. and F. N. Spon. 1873. 


Mr. BALDWIN LaTHAM is a well-known authority on all matters 
relating to Sanitary Engineering, and his experience in the con- 
struction of town sewers and the disposal of sewage has been 
such as to enable him to write from actual experience upon the 
subjects treated of in the volume now before us. Much of the 
information given in this book has appeared piecemeal elsewhere, 
having formed the subject of papers read before the Society of 
Engineers, and of pamphlets previously published by the author; 
but these are so scattered as not to be always available—or, 
indeed, convenient for reference—to anyone desirous of studying 
the important question of Town Sanitation. In ‘ Sanitary 
Engineering,” these previous writings by Mr. Latham have 
been collated and published, with the addition of a considerable 
amount of further information and experience, which together 
form one of the most valuable publications we have met with 
upon this important subject. In dwelling upon the importance 
and necessity of sanitary measures, the whole community is 
appealed to in a way easy to be understood by the non-scientific 
world, whilst in dealing with the manner in which such measures 
can best be carried out, Mr. Latham’s experience cannot fail to 
prove of considerable value to future labourers in the same field 
of engineering science. At various times and places, earth, air, 
fire, and water have respectively been advocated as the best 
means of disposing of fcoecal matter from towns, but, from 
a comparison of London with other great centres of population, 
where different methods have been applied, it is argued that 
water-carriage ‘‘is the best adapted to the varied requirements 
of a town population for effecting the speedy removal of the 
principal matter liable to decomposition.” 

In carrying into effect the works necessary for the sewerage of 
a town, three distinct operations have to be performed, viz. :— 
(1) The drainage of the surface; (2) The drainage of the 
subsoil; and (3) The removal of foecal and other liquid refuse. 
In these several operations, the mode of dealing with the rainfall 
of districts comes under the first heading, and this is compre- 
hensively dealt with, having due regard for varying situations, 
the geological character and the physical outline of different 
districts. On the subject of sewers—their form and relative 
capacity—the information afforded is most complete, accom- 
panied as it is by tables of discharge, &c. The course and 
sectional form of sewers is well explained; but, perhaps, the 
most valuable portion of the book for engineers is that which 
relates to their construction under varying circumstances and in 
passing through different geological formations, not the least 
important part of the subject being that which relates to 


1874.1 Notices of Books. III 


the construction of sewers through sand and water-bearing 
strata. The flushing and ventilation of sewers occupies a con- 
siderable portion of the work, proportionate to its importance ; 
whilst the concluding pages are devoted to the various forms of 
water-closets, &c., having special reference to the best means of 
connecting house-drainage with sewers. On the whole, this is a 
work of considerable merit, and the author has dealt with his 
subject in a clear and comprehensive manner, leaving little if 
anything to be desired. 


Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1872. Edited by 
SPENCER F. Barrp. New York: Harper, Bros. London: 
Sampson, Low, and Co. 

THE second yearly volume of this work has just reached us. It 

reminds the reader, in some respects, of the well-known * Year- 

Book of Facts,” but it takes a wider range, and enters more into 

detail. The ‘‘ General Summary of Scientific and Industrial 

Progress during the Year,’ which is placed as an_intro- 

duction, is carefully and fairly compiled, and gives a clear 

view of the course of scientific discovery during the past twelve 
months. The references to the various Transactions, journals, 

&c., quoted, are made on a novel and, we think, useful system. 

Each is designated by a letter and a number, the former 

signifying the country where it is published, and the latter the indi- 

vidual paper. An “Index to the References ” gives the explana- 
tion. Thus, Ai signifies the ‘Chemical News.” ‘The number of 

German scientific periodicals is significant, exceeding as it does 

that of the English and French taken together. The authorities 

quoted vary very much in value, and to some of the paragraphs 
the editor has prefixed a judicious “‘it is said.” An extract 
from a German journal recommends the addition of ammonia to 
lessen the amount of sugar required in preserving acid fruits. 

An excess of ammonia, we are told, can be remedied by the 

introduction of a little vinegar. As the salts of ammonia. 

especially the acetate, have a decidedly nauseous flavour, we 
hope no lady will be persuaded to try this method. 

Sanitary science is treated at great length. We notice para- 
graphs calling attention to the danger of using soaps made from 
putrescent animal matters, and extracts from Mr. Husson’s 
paper on the milk of cows suffering from cattle-plague. A para- 
graph on the comparative value of antiseptics, taken from the 
‘“‘Academy,” assigns to benzoic acid a higher power than to 
carbolic. ‘‘ Metallic salts,” such as sulphate of copper, occupy 
the highest place, whilst ‘‘ inorganic salts,” with the exception 
of bichromate of potash, ‘“‘have but little power.’ These two 
statements seem scarcely reconcilable. General Scott’s process 
for utilising, or, rather, for wasting sewage is described at length 


112 Notices of Books. (January, 


in an extract from the ‘English Mechanic.” We also meet 
with the “recommendation” of the Rivers’ Pollution Com- 
missioners. We trust that this is a ‘‘last appearance”’ prior 
to its departure for that “limbo large and broad,” of which 
Milton sings. There are many interesting paragraphs in this 
book to which we may recur on a future opportunity. The work 
further contains a list of eminent scientific men who have died 
within the year, and concludes with an elaborate index. 

The appearance of this volume is a proof of the increasing 
demand for scientific literature on the other side of the Atlantic. 
It is not improbable that in the course of a few years America 
may occupy as prominent a position in chemical science and in 
chemical manufactures as she has already done in the mecha- 


nical arts. 


Report on Béton Aggloméré; or Coignet-Béton, and the Materials 
of which it is Made. By O. A. Gititmore, Major Corps 
of Engineers, Brevet Major-General, U.S.A. Washington: 
Government Printing Office. 1873. 

Practical Treatise on Limes, Hydraulic Cements, and Mortars 
By Q. A. Gittmore, A.M., Brigadier-General of U.S. 
Volunteers. Fourth Edition, revised and Enlarged. New 
York: D. Van Nostrand. 1873. 

‘‘ Beton Aggloméré” is a term presumably unknown to the major 

portion of mankind; ‘ Béton,” however, under its synonym of 

‘‘concrete,” is to us dwellers in towns a well-known material. 

Béton aggloméré is a concrete of superior quality, an artificial 

stone, in fact, prepared under certain conditions from given 

materials. The conditions are the use of the best materials; 
the use of only sufficient water to convert the matrix of lime or 
cement into a stiff, viscous paste; the incorporation of the solid 
ingredients, as sand, with the matrix bya thorough or prolonged 
mixing or trituration, producing an artificial stone paste, inco- 
herent in character until compacted by pressure, by which every 
grain of sand and gravel is completely coated with a thin film of 
the paste; and, finally, this béton, or artificial stone, is formed 
by thoroughly ramming the stone paste, in thin, successive 
layers, with iron-shod rammers. The materials employed in 
making this béton are sand, common fat, or hydraulic lime, or 

Portland cement. Having given a concise statement of par- 

ticulars and conditions favourable and unfavourable to the 

formation and induration of this new artificial stone, General 

Gillmore proceeds to consider, in a lengthy course of actual ex- 

periment, its merit and demerit. This consideration is accom- 

panied by a detailed description of the mortar-mixing mills, the 
proportion of materials employed in, and the tensile strength 
and other properties of the result of, the process. To complete 
the means of comparison a series of experiments and abstracts 


1874.] Notices of Books. II3 


of experiments on Ransome’s siliceous concrete, the Frear stone, 
the American building-block, the Sorel artificial stone, and Port- 
land stone, are added. For the results, the reader—and even the 
general reader will derive much useful information from the 
work—be he builder, architect, or engineer, should refer to the 
actual description of the experiments. A sample of the work, 
however, may be epitomised from the chapter on artificial 
Portland cement, and its production by the English wet and the 
German dry processes. In the wet process we are told that the 
works in the vicinity of London employ both white and grey 
chalks of the neighbourhood, and clay procured from the shores 
of the Medway and the Thames. ‘The clay and the chalk are 
mixed together in the proportion of about one to three by weight, 
and when a thorough mixture is effected in the wash-mill, the 
liquid, resembling whitewash in appearance, is conducted to 
large open reservoirs called bocks, where it is left to settle. 
When the raw cement mixture has attained the consistency of 
butter, it is shovelled out of the bocks, removed to stoves heated 
by flues, and dried. When dry, it is burnt with gas-coke in per- 
petual kilns. The cement-clinkers formed during the burning 
are ground into the powder known commercially as cement. By 
the dry process, the chalk, or marl and clay are kiln-dried, mixed 
in suitable proportions, and reduced to powder. ‘This powder is 
moulded into bricks from a stiff paste; the bricks are dried, 
burnt, and ground, as in the wet process. ‘These processes, 
described in four or five pages, including the proportions giving 
best results, are supplemented by remarks which will be useful 
to every practical engineer. General Gillmore’s work next 
quoted in our list is equally full of information, but deals with 
the class of hydraulic limes and cements only thus admitting 
more general detail. Both works are likely to be of much prac- 
tical utility to the builder or engineer. 


Mind and Body: the Theories of their Relation. By ALEXANDER 
Bain, LL.D., Professor of Logic in the University of 
Aberdeen. Second Edition. Henry S. King and Co. 
1873. 

ProFessor Bain is well known as the author of a work on 

Logic, and of various papers in the “Fortnightly Review,” one 

of which, ‘‘On the Theories of the Soul,” is printed as the con- 

cluding chapter of the volume before us. He is also known as 

a prominent member of the Rationalistic school. We fear the 

fact that this volume has reached a second edition in a very 

short space of time is a sign that Rationalistic literature is 
eagerly read in this country, and that the attitude of mind which 
it develops is largely on the increase. 
The subject which Professor Bain discusses in this volume is 
the precise connection between the mind and the great nervous 
VOL. IV. (N.S.) Q 


114 Notices of Books. (January, 


centre, the brain. He seeks to answer the question, ‘* What has 
Mind to do with brain substance, white or grey? Can any facts 
or laws regarding the spirit of man be gained through a scrutiny 
of nerve fibres and nerve cells?” He reminds us, in the first 
place, of the very intimate connection existing between mind 
and body; the dependence of our frame of mind upon hunger, 
fatigue, bodily illness, stimulants, &c. ‘‘ Bodily affliction,” he 
remarks, ‘‘is often the cause of a total change in the moral 
nature.” A little reflection will enable us to see that, although 
the mind is influenced more or less directly by other organs, the 
brain is the chief mental organ, and the mind is influenced 
through it. The brain is a very large and complicated organ ; 
it is computed to receive no less than one-fifth of the entire 
amount of blood in the organism, which circulates through it, 
and this surely indicates some considerable activity. Physiolo- 
gists have proved that the brain is indispensable to thought, 
feeling, and volition. Clever men usually have large brains, or 
brains with numerous and deep convolutions. Thus, while the 
average European brain weighs 49°5 ounces, that of Gauss 
weighed 52°6, De Morgan 52°75, Dr. Abercrombie 63, and 
Cuvier 64°5 ounces. We should like also to know the brain- 
weights of Descartes, Humboldt, Mozart, and Sir Walter Scott. 
Among idiots, brain-weights as low as 15, 13, and even 8’5 ounces 
have been found. An ordinary man, Professor Bain remarks, 
could not retain in his memory more than one-third or one-fourth, 
perhaps even less, of the facts remembered by Cuvier. ‘‘ There 
would be no exaggeration in saying that while size of brain 
increases in arithmetical proportion, intellectual range increases 
in geometrical proportton.” 

An interesting account of the minute structure of the brain is 
given in the third chapter, from which we learn that the grey 
matter of the brain is composed of nerve-fibre mixed with small 
pear-shaped corpuscles, with prolongations to connect them with 
the nerves. The average diameter of the fibres is one six-thou- 
sandth of an inch, while the corpuscles range from one three- 
hundredth to one three-thousandth of an inch in diameter. The 
number of nerve-fibres constituting the optic nerve is very large, 
—probably there are as many as one hundred thousand. A few 
useful woodcuts accompany these descriptions. 

In the next chapter we find, among other things, a physical 
theory of pleasure and pain, and in a long note (p. 75), we have 
the author’s views regarding corporal and capital punishment. 
In place of hanging, he advocates an electric shock, and in place 
of flogging (which is revolting to the spectator, and inflicts per- 
manent damage to the tissue), a succession of sufficiently severe 
magneto-electric shocks. The fifth chapter treats of the intellect, 
and at the outset destroys the long-existent idea that thought 
may be conducted in a region of pure spirit, unassociated with 
anything material. This is disproved by the fact that thought 
exhausts the nervous system, just as bodily exercise exhausts 


ts tanh lh 3 ep alin Nir Ee ee 


1874.] Notices of Books. Er5 


the muscles. Have we not even heard of people thinking them- 
selves hungry? ‘The ‘ physical seat of ideas” is discussed in 
this same chapter, where we also find a physical treatment of 
memory, retention, or acquisition, which is defined as ‘the 
power of continuing in the mind impressions that are no longer 
stimulated by the original agent, and of recalling them at after- 
times by purely mental forces.” Professor Bain explains 
memory as an effect produced by the continuation in a weaker 
form of the original impression which evoked the original nerve- 
current. Just as when we hear the last clang of a bell an after- 
impression of a feeble kind remains on the ear. But surely we 
cannot imagine, in the case of memory, that the nerve-currents 
are always flowing; if so, why is the effort of memory ever 
necessary? If so, again, have we not motion produced from 
nothing, or at least an original impulse producing indefinitely 
continuous impulses, after the manner of perpetual motion ? 

The book is full of sound logic; it is the work of an accurate 
and active mind. It is a physico-metaphysical treatise, and to 
the man of science sadly lacks the absoluteness of the experi- 
mental fact. It is most pleasurable to read this book, yet we 
confess that when we arrive at the last page we find ourselves 
just as wise (or rather, ignorant) as we were before, in regard to 
the nature of mind. 


On the Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects. By Sir Joun 
Lupsock, M.P., F.R.S. Illustrated. Macmillan and Co. 
London; 1874. 108 pp., crown 8vo. 

SIR JOHN LuBBOCK is well known to the world as an archeologist 

and anthropologist, and perhaps less well as an entomologist. 

Yet he has contributed no less than thirty-five papers to the 

Royal Society, and to various magazines, on entomology during 

the last twenty years; and, as he is not yet forty, we perceive 

that he must have studied the subject at a very early age. His 
first paper, ‘‘On Labidocera,” appeared in the ‘‘ Annals and 

Magazine of Natural History” for 1853. 

The little work before us embodies in a popular form many of 
the more interesting results of his observations condensed from 
the above-mentioned memoirs. The articles have already 
appeared in ‘“ Nature,” and the work forms the second volume 
of the Nature Series of books, which Messrs. Macmillan are now 
publishing. 

The main subjects discussed are the classification, origin, and 
the nature of the different metamorphoses of insects; various 
views are traced, from the old standard “‘ Entomology ” of Kirby 
and Spence, one of the Bridgewater treatises, to the more recent 
memoirs of Miiller, Agassiz, and Packard. ‘The intelligence of 
insects comes out in a remarkable light. Many of our readers 
will remember Sir John’s tame wasp at a recent meeting of the 
British Association, He remarks ‘we are accustomed to class 


116 Notices of Books. (January, 


the anthropoid apes next to man in the scale of creation, but if 
we were to judge animals by their works, the chimpanzee and the 
gorilla must certainly give place to the bee and the ant.” For 
example (p. 11), the larve of certain insects require animal food — 
as soon as they are hatched, and the mother-inse¢ct consequently 
provides them with caterpillar and beetles, by burying them in a 
cell side by side with the unhatched larva. But here a difficulty 
arises: ‘‘if the Cerceris were to kill the beetle before placing it in 
the cell, it would decay, and the young larva, when hatched, would 
only find a mass of corruption. On the other hand, if the beetle 
were buried uninjured, in its struggles to escape it would be 
almost certain to destroy the egg.’ Look then at the wonderful, 
but diabolical, instinct of the creature. ‘‘The wasp has the 
instinét of stinging its prey in the centre of the nervous system, 
thus depriving it of motion, and let us hope of suffering, but not 
of life; consequently, when the young larva leaves the egg, it 
finds ready a sufficient store of wholesome food.” A certain 
species of ants keeps Aphides in bondage, just as we do cows, 
for the sake of the honey-dew which they collect ; a certain kind 
of red ant is indolent, and keeps black ants to do work for it. 
Once more, there is a kind of beetle which is blind and helpless 
usually found in ant’s nests; the ants care for all their wants and 
nurse them tenderly. These things, and much more, of the lives 
of insects are told us in popular language in Sir John’s book, 
which we recommend, not alone to the entomologist, but to the 
general reader. 


Ozone and Antozone: their History and Nature. By C.B. Fox, 
M.D. London: J. and A. Churchill. 


Ir, as Dr. Fox not unjustly remarks, ‘to the philosopher, the 
physician, the meteorologist, and the chemist there is perhaps no 
subject more attractive than that of ozone,” it must be conceded 
that there are few subjects in experimental science more fraught 
with difficulties and involved in doubts. Since Schonbein first 
announced his discovery more than thirty years of research and 
observation have elapsed, yet the very existence of ozone is little 
more than generally conceded. As to the laws of its occurrence 
and distribution, its properties and functions, the means for its 
recognition, and its artificial production, there is a singular 
amount of discrepancy in the results of different observers. 

As to antozone, it is still regarded by many chemists—in 
England at least—as little better than mythological. Such being 
the case, there is evidently room and need for a work like the 
present. Dr. Fox has undertaken the laborious task of giving a 
digest of the most important facts connected with ozone and 
antozone, comparing and, as far as practicable, harmonising, the 
views of former investigators. He endeavours to ‘‘point out the 
circumstances, and the manner in which, and the reason why, 
ozone is observed in the atmosphere,” and finally gives the 
results of his own observations, 


1874.] Notices of Books. 117 


The concluding section, on the methods of observing and 
detecting ozone in the atmosphere in the air, is without doubt 
the most interesting and valuable. The author concludes that 
iodised litmus and simple iodide of potassium are the only tests 
that can be considered trustworthy. For the precautions to be 
observed in their employment we must refer to the book itself. 
We are bound to declare that, in our conviction, Dr. Fox has 
merited well at the hands of the scientific public for the elaborate 
and well-arranged digest of facts which he has placed at their 
disposal, and we join him in the hope that his labours will furnish 
a sound basis for future investigations. 


Elementary Treatise on Physics, Experimental and Applied, for 
the Use of Colleges and Schools. ‘Translated and Edited 
from Ganot’s ‘“‘ Eléments de Physique.” By E. ATKINson, 
Ph:D:, F.C.S., Professor of Experimental Science, Staff 
College, Sandhurst. Sixth Edition, revised and enlarged. 
London: Longmans and Co. 1873. 


THE most prominent enlargements to this edition consist in further 
elucidation of the laws of the polarisation of light, a description 
of Gramme’s continuous magneto-electric generator, and a 
further development of the theory of heat as recently advanced. 
We are glad also to notice an extension of fundamental formule. 
Nothing need be said in further praise of so eminently a standard 
work. 


A Treatise of Medical Electricity, Theoretical and Practical ; 
and its Use in the Treatment of Paralysis, Neuralgia, and 
other Diseases. By Jurius’Artuaus, M.D., M.R.C.P: 
Lond. Third Edition, enlarged and revised, with 147 
illustrations. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1873. 


In religious dogma everyone knows the old saying that described 
orthodoxy as ‘my own peculiar doxy,” and heterodoxy as 
“‘everybody else’s doxy.” But dogma (taken in its sense of 
enforced opinion) is not peculiar to religious discussion ; the next 
elder science, that of medicine, has been full of it from the days 
of Asculapius and Galen till now. Even now we are not free 
from the error of recording opinion instead of fact. And such 
a view is impressed upon all students of electro-medical 
science. The opinions held in contrast with the facts ascertained 
and stated without bias, are in overwhelming proportion. Indeed, 
the proportion is so great, that the influence of error is per- 
ceptible upon the minds of the public, who are too apt, perhaps, 
to regard electro-medical practitioners with not a little undue 
severity. It is then the duty of a scientific serial to uphold the 
careful chronicle of facts, and discourage the register of mere 
opinion, founded, if of any foundation, upon incomplete observa- 
tion of fact. Thus it is our duty to commend to those who may 
be about to become interested in electro-medical science the 


118 Notices of Books. (January, 


perusal of Dr. Althaus’s book, and to express congratulation 
upon the attaining of a third edition. But not only will the 
reader in search of medical knowledge find here what he re- 
quires, but the general electrician will find also complete record 
of observations as to the action of electricity upon physiologically 
organic substances. 


A Treatise on Acoustics in Connection with Ventilation, and an 
Account of the Modern and Ancient Methods of Heating 
and Ventilation. By ALEXANDER SAELTZER, Architect. 
New York: D. Van Nostrand. 


Mr. SAELTZER has given his subject great attention, and this 
attention has led him to some highly original views upon the 
relation of the propagation of sound to the density of the air, 
and the propagation of sound waves across strata of different 
density. Given the air and the propagation of sound waves 
across strata of different density, the author shows how it is 
that the voice of a speaker, whether proceeding from pulpit, 
platform, or proscenium, may be so reflected by the surface of 
the different air-strata as to be inaudible or confused to the 
hearers above or below the strata in which he speaks. Mr. 
Saeltzer next recounts the experiments that have led him to 
adopt certain principles of ventilation as aids in developing the 
acoustical properties of public buildings, by breaking up the 
air-strata. The book should be read, not only by the architect, 
but by every professional man whose duty it is to speak in public. 


Experimental Research on the Causes and Nature of Catarrhus 
Estivus (Hay-Fever, or Hay-Asthma). By C. H. BLacktey, 
M.R.C.S. Eng. London: Bailliére, Tindal, and Cox, 
King William Street, Strand. 


Mr. Blackley may be fairly congratulated on having produced 
a work which is not merely a valuable contribution to our medical 
literature, but which will be read with interest by many scientific 
men not connected with the profession. 


Long-Span Bridges. By B. Baker, Assoc. Inst. C.E. Revised 
Edition. London: E. and F. N. Spon. 1873. 

To the student or to the engineer who desires to investigate the 
comparative theoretical and practical advantages of the various 
adopted or projected types of bridge construction, whether in- 
cluding box-plate, lattice, or bowstring girders, ribs, or sus- 
pension, we cordially commend this little work, as readable as it 
is accurate. The work really includes two sections, relating 
respectively to long- and to short-span bridges, and is illustrated 
with diagrams of type form built upon the long-span system. 


1874.] ( 119 ) 


PROGEESS: IN. SC LENCE 


MINING. 


STATISTICS of considerable interest in connection with the coal-produce of 
this country have been published during the past quarter. The official returns 
furnished by the twelve Government Inspectors to the Home Office show that 
in 1872 there were 3016 collieries at work in Great Britain. In the previous 
year the number of mines was 3100. But in 1871 the number of coal-miners 
employed reached 418,088, whilst in 1871 the colliers numbered only 
370,881. It appears that during 1872 the amount of coal raised was 
123,393,853 tons, compared with 117,439,251 tons during the preceding year. 
This gives a decrease in the amount of coal raised per man; for whilst the 
average quantity gotten by each miner in 1872 was 295 tons, it amounted to 
316 tons per manin 1871. As to the accidents, we note an increase in their 
number, but a slight decrease in the resulting deaths. Thus, in 1872 there 
occurred 894 separate fatal accidents, resulting in the loss of 1060 lives; in 
1871 there were only 826 similar casualties, but they represented a sacrifice of 
1075 lives. As usual only a small proportion of the deaths could be traced to 
explosions of fire-damp; indeed, out of the ro60 deaths in 1872 only 154 were 
due to such explosions. 


It is not long since we called attention to some investigations on the 
connection between colliery explosions and the state of the weather, under- 
taken by Mr. R. H. Scott, F.R.S., of the Meteorological Office, and Mr. W. 
Galloway, who is now Assistant-Inspector of Mines in Scotland. These 
observers have since extended their researches, and have recently published 
an analysis of the catalogue of accidents which occurred during the year 1871. 
On the whole there were 207 explosions of fire-damp, of which 52 were attended 
with fatal consequences. It is believed that 113 of these explosions, or55 per cent 
may be traced to the low state of the barometer: and that 39, or 1g per cent, 
are referable to a rise of temperature; whilst the remainder are unexplained 
by either of these meteorological causes. The paper contains some valuable 
instructions respecting the method of recording barometric and thermometric 
observations ; these, of course, deserve careful study by the miner, especially 
now that the Coal Mines’ Regulation A& of 1872 requires that ‘after 
dangerous gas has been found in any mine, a barometer and thermometer shall 
be placed above ground in a conspicuous position near the entrance to the 
mine.” With regard to atmospheric pressure, the authors remark that 
if the barometer, after having remained nearly stationary for several days, 
descend half an inch or an inch during the next two or three days, the miner 
may expect to find fire-damp in greater quantity than usual in cavities in the 
roof and in the higher parts of the workings, and it may also appear where it 
had not been previously detected. If the temperature rise to 55° or upwards, the 
ventilating current is likely to be retarded. A sudden fall of the barometer— 
an inch in twenty-four hours or so—or a further fall after it has been unusually 
low for a day or two, points to the possible escape of gas, and calls for in- 
creased ventilating power, especially if the diminution of pressure be coupled 
with a rise of temperature. 


We may observe that Mr. Galloway obtained the first of the prizes offered 
by Mr. Hermon, M.P., for Essays on the Prevention of Colliery Accidents. 
This Essay, which has recently been published in the “‘ Mining Journal,” is 
worthy of attentive study by those who have charge of our coal-mines. 

Coal-cutting machinery received a fair share of attention in the Mechanical 
Section of the British Association at the late Meeting. Mr. Firth, of Leeds, 
well known for his zeal in promoting the use of such machines, read a paper 
“On the Introdu@tion of Working Coal-Cutting Machinery in Mines.” In 
this communication he described in detail his own form of coal-cutter, worked 


120 Progress in Science. (January, 


by compressed air ; and during the meeting he gave many of the members an 
opportunity of seeing it at work in his pits at West Ardsley. Mr. Firth’s 
machine has already been described in this Journal, and we have also noticed 
his efforts to promote the introduction of coal-getting machinery by offering 
some time ago a premium for the best form of machine. 


At the same meeting, Dr. W. J. Clapp described the ‘“ Universal Coal- 
Cutting Machine,” used at Nant-y-glo; this machine is driven by compressed 
air, but has the action of a borer rather than that of a pick. Mr. J. Plant, of 
Leicester, read a paper ‘‘On the Burleigh Rock Drill,” and two examples of 
the drill were actively at work in the yard of the Church Institute, close to 
the room occupied by the Mechanical Section. 


A new form of safety-lamp has been described before the North of England 
Institute of Mining Engineers, by Mr. Emerson Bainbridge, of Sheffield. 
The light is protected by a cylinder of glass below and of brass above, so that 
wire-gauge is scarely used in its construétion. 


‘‘ The Application of Compressed Air to Underground Haulage” was the 
title of a paper lately read before the Dudley Institute of Mining Engineers, 
by Mr. A. J. Stevens, of Newport, Monmouthshire. After comparing the cost 
of using steam-power underground with that of applying the steam to the 
compression of air, he described a small and apparently simple winding- 
engine, which he has recently patented, with the view of dispensing with 
animal power for underground haulage. 


Deposits of coal, almost unrivalled in magnitude, are described by Baron 
Von Richtofen as existing in certain provinces in China. Whilst in the 
maritime provinces the coal-measures have been in some places completely 
removed by denudation, and in others only imperfe&ly preserved, some of the 
inland provinces are singularly favoured, and exhibit fine exposures of their 
coal-bearing rocks. The province of Shansi contains at least 30,000 square 
miles of coal-producing ground, occupied partly by a fine bituminous coal and 
partly by anthracite. Some of the coal-seams are said to attain a thickness 
of 30 feet. In fact China offers to the miner coal-fields which are said to 
rival, if not to surpass, even those of the United States. 


A description of the iron-ores of the Bidasoa, in the Pyrenees, by Dr. 
Rohrig and Mr. Haas, has appeared in a recent number of the ‘‘ Chemical 
News.” The mineral seems to be chiefly spathose ore, or carbonate of iron, 
superficially changed by atmospheric influences into a brown iron ore, or 
hydrous peroxide. From the published analyses the ores appear to contain 
more or less manganese; and, as no phosphorus is recorded, they would 
probably produce a pig-iron remarkably well adapted for conversion into 
Bessemer steel. The ores occur in highly-inclined lodes, coursing for the 
most part through syenite, though some of the lodes are found in adjacent 
Silurian rocks and others in Triassic limestones. 


In the Island of Anglesey a valuable deposit of copper-ore has long been 
worked at the Parys Mountain, but it is a disputed point whether this 
represents the only great treasury of mineral wealth in that island, or whether 
copper-lodes sufficiently rich to be worked are not widely distributed. It 
consequently becomes a matter of interest to notice any local vestiges of old 
copper workings in this island. The Hon. W. O. Stanley has communicated 
to the Royal Archzological Institute some interesting notes on this subject. 
It is hardly to be doubted that copper was exported from Anglesey prior to 
the landing of the Romans, and, indeed, the mineral wealth of Mona may 
have attracted the Romans thither. About the year 1640 a cake, or massa, of 
smelted copper was discovered, bearing the inscription ‘‘ Socio Rome.” It is 
said to have been found at Caerhén, the ancient Conovium. In 1840 a second 
cake was discovered in Llangwyllog, and in 1869 three cakes were found at 
Castellor. Two years later three cakes were dug up at Bryndon, Amlwch, 
and passed into the hands of Mr. T. F. Evans, who has described them in a 
recent number of “Iron.” One of the cakes is remarkable for being stamped, 
on two hunches, with the letters IV L S. They are curious relics, which may 


1874.] Metallurgy. 121 


have been smelted for use in making the bronze weapons and implements 
known to have been used at an early epoch of civilisation. 


METALLURGY. 


Some valuable researches on alloys, especially on those of copper and tin, 
have been conducted at the Paris Mint by M. Alfred Riche, who has recently 
published his results in the “ Annales de Chimie et de Physique.’? The 
fusibility of the alloys was determined by means of Becquerel’s thermo- 
ele&tric pyrometer, with platinum and palladium wires, constructed by 
Ruhmkorff. The author finds that most alloys of copper and tin suffer 
liquation at the moment of solidification, and hence it is almost impossible to 
obtain their true melting-points. Exceptions, however, are furnished by those 
alloys whose atomic constitution corresponds to the formule SnCu; and 
SnCu,; these alloys are not liquated, and the former of them possesses 
peculiar properties, differing in colour, for example, from all others of this 
class. Tempering increases the density of bronzes rich in tin, and annealing 
diminishes the density of tempered bronze. Whilst steel is hardened by being 
suddenly cooled, bronze is softened by this treatment. Yet the bronze is not 
sufficiently soft to be readily worked; and it has long been a vexed question 
how the Chinese manage to work their tam-tams and other instruments of 
bronze. Experiments made many years ago at the Ecole des Arts et Métiers, 
at Chalons, showed that such objects might, though with much trouble, be 
wrought in cold-tempered bronze; but the process was too difficult to be 
employed industrially. It was afterwards asserted by St. Julien that the 
Chinese worked their bronze at a red heat; yet it was difficult to understand 
this, since bronze is extremely brittle at high temperatures. M. Riche appears 
to have settled the difficulty by showing that although bronze cannot be 
readily worked either cold or at a bright red heat, yet it is easily manipulated 
at intermediate temperatures. Taking advantage of this fact, M. Riche and 
M. Champion have succeeded in imitating the Chinese tam-tams. 


With respec to unalloyed copper, Riche finds that its density when alter- 
nately submitted to mechanical treatment, tempering and annealing, is 
variously affected according as the metal is protected from or exposed to access 
of air; in the former case the mechanical action increases, and in the latter 
case diminishes the density. The introduction of a small proportion of iron 
gives considerable tenacity and hardness to copper. The author has also 
studied a number of alloys of copper and zinc. 


Within the last year or two considerable attention has been dire@ed to the 
so-called ‘* Phosphor-Bronze,” an alloy of copper and tin, with more or less 
phosphorus, according to the purposes for which it is intended. Messrs. 
Montefiore-Levi and Kiinzel have brought this alloy to great perfection, and 
have applied it to a great variety of industrial uses, whilst in this country it 
has been prominently brought forward by the Phosphor-Bronze Company. 
When the proportion of phosphorus is large the alloy is extremely fluid, and 
therefore well adapted for castings; whilst its fine colour and close texture 
recommend it for decorative work. Certain forms of the bronze are charac- 
terised by great ductility and malleability; and may be readily rolled, drawn, 
or embossed; whilst other varieties are as hard as soft steel, and may be 
worked into tools and cutting instruments for use in gunpowder mills. It has 
been much recommended for ordnance and small arms; whilst the miner has 
used it for the wire ropes of his winding machinery, and the iron-smelter for 
the tuyeres of his blast-furnace. Numerous experiments on the mechanical 
properties of phosphor-bronze have been made at Berlin and Vienna, and by 
Mr. Kirkaldy in this country. 


A detailed account of some experiments on Swedish steel, conducted by 
Mr. Kirkaldy, at his Testing Works at Southwark, has lately been published. 
The specimens tested were manufactured at the Fagersta Works by Mr. 
Christian Aspelin, and have been exhibited at Vienna. The enquiry was 
directed to the behaviour of the steel under the action of tensile, compressive, 


122 Progress in Scrence. [Januaty, 


transverse, twisting, and shearing stresses; in fact, to all such strains as 
actually occur in engineering works. 


A new mode of tempering steel has been suggested by M. Caron. His plan 
is to plunge the red-hot metal into water heated to about 55° C., and he also 
proposes to restore ‘‘ burnt iron” by a similar process. 


The nature and uses of modern steel formed the text of Mr. Barlow’s 
address as President of the Mechanical Section at Bradford; and although it 
naturally dealt chiefly with mechanical questions, it is yet deserving of the 
metallurgist’s attention. To the same section Mr. Joseph Wilcock con- 
tributed a paper on the Bowling Iron Works at Bradford, in which he traced 
the history of iron-making in this distri@, and gave an excellent description 
of these extensive works. The Bowling and the Low Moor Iron Works, 
both celebrated for the manufacture of boiler-plates, were visited by many of 
the members of the British Association. 


Sir Francis C. Knowles has recently laid before the Society of Arts a de- 
scription of his method of refining and converting cast-iron into either 
malleable iron or steel. His obje& is to effet the conversion without the 
waste of heat and material which attends puddling and other converting pro- 
cesses now in use. Sir Francis employs as his source of heat the combustion 
of gases rich in carbonic oxide, and mixed in due proportion with atmospheric 
air heated to 500°C. Having melted the pig-iron in a cupola with coke or 
anthracite, he collects the gases, frees them if necessary from carbonic 
anhydride, enriches them by addition of free carbonic oxide, and is thus 
enabled to produce by their combustion a temperature of 2500°C. If higher 
heat and greater rapidity be required, he uses the cupola-gases for heating 
his retorts, and employs pure carbonic oxide specially generated, and thus 
obtains a temperature of 2979° C. In either case the mixture of carbonic 
oxide and air is blown into the molten metal, thus producing carbonic 
anhydride and nitrogen at a high temperature ; but this heat may be readily 
utilised, whilst the products of combustion are passed through kilns or retorts, 
containing anthracite or coke, and the carbonic anhydride is thus reduced to 
carbonic oxide, which is again available for combustion. The finery or con- 
verter used in this process is peculiarly constructed, with the view of with- 
standing the high temperature to which it is subjected, and the interior is 
lined with a mixture of protoxide of iron, manganese, emery, bauxite, and 
caustic soda; a highly basic preparation is thus obtained for the lining, as it 
is considered desirable that the cinder should also be basic, not containing more 
than 30 percent of silica. To eliminate the sulphur and phosphorus, caustic 
soda and rich oxide of iron or manganese are employed; and when superior 
iron and steel are to be prepared the use of nitrate of soda or permanganate 
of soda is recommended. It will thus be seen that, so far as the oxidising 
agents are concerned, the process is only a modification of the Heaton process. 


MINERALOGY. 


Two distiné& minerals are known in jewellery as Cat’s-Eye; the one being 
an opalescent quartz enclosing asbestiform fibres, which, lying in parallel 
directions, give the appearance of a fibrous structure to the quartz; whilst 
the other mineral, sometimes called for distin&tion sake, “oriental cat’s-eye,” 
is a fibrous chrysoberyl. Some very fine cat’s-eyes have been received within 
the last year or two from the Cape of Good Hope. These stones are 
generally of a rich brown colour, but occasionally blue, red, and white. Some 
authorities have regarded the Cape cat’s-eye as a form of crocidolite, whilst 
others have supposed that it is only a coloured fibrous quartz; but its true 
character appears to have been determined by Dr. Wibel, of Hamburg. After an 
attentive study of the chemical and microscopical properties of the mineral 
in question, he comes to the conclusion that it is not strictly fibrous quartz, 
but a pseudomorph of quartz after fibrous crocidolite. He shows that the 
so-called brown fibrous quartz, originally described by Klaproth, is merely a 
mixture of pure white quartz with goethite, or hydrous peroxide of iron; 


1874.] Engineering. 123 


whilst the blue variety is essentially a mixture of white quartz and crocidolite. 
The fibrous character is, in both cases, due to the replacement of fibrous 
crocidolite by quartz; the brown variety being the product of a perfe& and 
slow alteration, whilst the blue is the result of an imperfect and rapid alteration. 


Among the ejections from the eruption of Vesuvius in 1872, there occurred 
certain minute crystals, which were described by Scacchi as a new species 
under the name of Microsommite. This species has recently received attentive 
study by Vom Rath, who, in spite of the unusually small size of the crystals, 
has had the patience and acuteness to examine them crystallographically. 
About 1500 of these little crystals, weighing together only ~,th of a gramme, 
have passed through his hands. The crystals are colourless hexagonal prisms, 
striated vertically, and terminated by dull basal planes. The hardness is 
about equal to that of felspar; and the specific gravity is 26. An analysis of 
the very small quantity at Vom Rath’s disposal yielded:—Silica, 33; 
alumina, 29; lime, 11'2; potash, 11°53 soda, 87; chlorine, 9°1; sulphuric 
acid, 1°7.. The following expression is given as the probable formula :— 

(2K,0,3CaO),A1,03,2Si02-+ NaCl+ 4,Ca0.SO3. 
The origin of microsommite may be traced to, the reaction of steam, charged 
with chloride of sodium, on the volcanic minerals leucite and augite. 


Under the name of Horbachite a new ore of nickel has been described by 
Dr. Knop, of Carlsruhe. In the neighbourhood of Horbach, near St. Blasien, 
in the Black Forest, there occurs a deposit of this ore, which has at different 
times invited exploration. The ore has been described as anickeliferous magnetic 
pyrites, but analyses of the pure mineral show that it is really a distin@ species. 
The mean of several analyses gives:—Sulphur, 45°87; iron, 41°96; nickel, 
1r‘98. From this result we may deduce the formula 4Fe2S3+Ni2S3. Knop 
calls attention to this association of sulphides as unique, no metallic sesqui- 
sulphides having previously been known to occur in a native state. 


Some recent observations by Dr. Schrauf, of Vienna, show that Brookite, 
one of the three native forms of oxide of titanium, must be referred to the 
oblique or monoclinic system. The crystals affect, however, a decidedly 
prismatic habit ; hence the reason why previous observers have placed this 
species in the prismatic system. Schrauf recognises three distinct types of 
crystal in brookite. 


Prof. Rammelsberg has laid before the German Geological Society some 
papers on mineral arsenides and sulphides. In one of these he discusses the 
mutual relations and the chemical constitution of the compounds of arsenic 
and antimony which occur native. He is led to regard the metallic arsenides 
not as true chemical compounds, like the sulphides, but as isomorphous 
mixtures of metal and arsenic; whilst the sulpharsenides are mixtures of 
these with bisulphides. What he says with respect to the compounds of 
arsenic applies also to those of antimony. 


Some beautiful crystals of Torbernite, or uranium-mica, have been recently 
raised in Cornwall, we believe from the neighbourhood of Redruth. They 
are notable for exhibiting an unusual development of the pyramid, so that 
the crystals are very different in general appearance from the common tabular 
forms. 


A preliminary description of the meteoric stone which fell, some years ago, 
at the Barratta Station, near Deniliquin, in Australia, has recently been 
published by Mr. Archibald Liversidge, of the University of Sydney. 


Nefediewite is a new Russian mineral, described by Pusirewsky. It seems 
to be an amorphous substance, resembling lithomarge. 


ENGINEERING—CIVIL AND MECHANICAL. 


Harbour Works.—On the 25th November last, Mr. L. F. Vernon Harcourt 
read a paper before the Institution of Civil Engineers on the construction and 
maintenance of Braye Bay Harbour, Alderney. This harbour was designed 
by the late Mr. James Walker, C.E., and the works in connection with its 
construction were commenced in 1847. The Admiralty intended, in the first 


124 Progress in Science. [January, 


instance, to make only a small harbour, but subsequently gave directions for 
the enlargement of the scheme. In 1856, the design, then in course of con- 
struction, consisted of a harbour of 150 acres, with a depth of water of 
3 fathoms and upwards, sheltered to the west and east by two breakwaters. 
The western breakwater, about 4700 feet in length, had been constructed, but 
the eastern breakwater was abandoned; and the harbour was consequently 
exposed to winds blowing from any quarter between N.N.E. and E.S.E. The 
western breakwater was exposed to the whole force of the Atlantic, and the 
effect of the fury of the storms was increased at Alderney by the rapidity of 
the tides near the island, occasioned by a peculiar confluence of currents in 
the bay of St. Malo. The breakwater was constructed on the “‘ pierres 
perdues”? system—a mound of rubble-stone being deposited in the line of 
the proposed work from hopper barges towed out by steam-tugs. As soon as 
the mound was sufficiently consolidated, it was surmounted by the super- 
structure, consisting of a sea wall and of a harbour wall 14 feet and 12 feet 
thick respectively, flooded at first at the level of low water, and built without 
mortar, the intermediate spaces being filled up with rubble, the batter of the 
sea wall being g inches and of the harbour wall 4 inches to1foot. To protec 
the lower or quay level, a promenade wall, 14 feet high, was built on the sea- 
side, consisting of two masonry walls set in mortar, with filling between. In 
1860, when the superstructure had been carried out 2700 feet from the shore, 
the design was somewhat modified. The breakwater was narrowed by 
reducing the width of the quay to 20 feet, the batter on the sea face was 
altered to 4 inches in a foot, solid masonry was substituted for the concreted 
hearting, and the foundations of the harbour wall were commenced at the 
same level as the sea wall. The head was built in 1864. The foundations 
were laid 24 feet below low water level, across the whole width of the break- 
water. The first nine courses, each 3 feet thick, consisted of concrete blocks 
faced with granite headers; the upper portion was built of masonry in cement. 
The most exposed face stones were joggled and dowelled together, and several 
of the corner quoins were further secured by iron bars and diagonal straps. 
Two red leading lights on the shore mark the entrance to the harbour at night. 
The cost of the works of construction and maintenance to 1872 amounted to 
£1,274,200, of which £57,200 was expended in repairs. 


Water Supply.—With a view to improving the water supply of Paris, the 
Montsouris Reservoir is now in course of construction to receive the waters of 
the Vanne. It occupies an area of 54,000 square metres, or 13} English acres, 
and will contain 300,000 cubic metres, or 66,000,000 gallons of water, being 
the amount of three days of the normal flow of the canal which supplies it. 
The entire work is constructed of stone and cement, the exterior walls being 
strengthened by oblique arches having a thickness of 3 metres. The bottom 
is level except at the approaches to the wall, where is a series of sumpts of 
little depth, separated by partitions in order to form a number of arches which 
support the interior gallery. In front of each of the recesses thus formed are 
pillars, carried up to support the vaults of the arches which form the top of 
the building. The river Vanne is expected to afford daily a supply of about 
100,000 cubic metres, or 22,000,000 gallons of excellent water. Hitherto the 
daily supply of water to Paris per head, as a mean, has been but 24 gallons; 
with the addition of the Vanne water, this will be raised to about 34 gallons. 


Sewage.—The great development of the industries of the town of Rheims, 
and its consequent increase of population, having led to the necessity of pro- 
viding facilities for the disposal of the sewage, a commission was appointed to 
investigate the subject, and it was decided, in 1870, to establish on a large 
scale a system of chemical purification, and a dire@ application of the sewage 
to agricultural purposes. Two processes have been tried—purification direc 
by chemical means, and irrigation. The Suvern agent, composed of chloride 
of magnesia, of lime, and of tar, was tried without effect, and the application 
of sulphate of alumina was equally unsuccessful. The latter process did, 
however, produce a certain effe@, but an imperfect one, and that at an enormous 
cost. The most successful trial was that made with a mixture proposed by 


1874.] Engineering. 125 


MM. Houzeau and Devédeix, composed of a combination of lime and 
aluminous lignites, which latter are found in abundance in the vicinity of 
Rheims. MM. Houzeau and Devédeix’s process was subjected to an extensive 
trial, and 2,500,000 cubic feet were thus treated in 1872. The cost for the 
purifying mixture per cubic foot was very trifling, and from the experience 
gained from the experiments, it was found that for treating the whole of the 
sewage waters of Rheims in this manner, the outlay would amount to £7000 
a year, besides the interest on capital expended; and the operation would 
produce about 33,000 tons of manure of an inferior value. Although, then, 
this agent of MM. Houzeau and Devédeix purified the water well, but at a 
high cost, the process could be considered in certain special cases as a com- 
plement to irrigation; but taken alone, it was evidently too costly. Irrigation 
was next tried, and, in consequence of the results obtained, the Sanitary 
Commission has recommended the acquisition of about 450 acres of suitable 
land. The estimated cost of works, &c., is £40,000, and the annual cost of 
maintenance and working about £3800. 


Boilers.—At the recent Vienna Exhibition, M. J. C. C. Meyn exhibited two 
of his patent high pressure boilers. This boiler consists externally of two 
cylinders, of which the upper is the smaller. The furnace is half internal and 
half external, and requires but little building. There is no bridge to the grate, 
which communicates dire@tly through a short vertical flue with a central com- 
bustion-chamber. This chamber is traversed by 76 flattened vertical water- 
tubes, which form one of the principal features of the boiler. They are 
wrought-iron welded tubes, with horizontal channels across their sides. 
Through these tubes the water circulates from the lower part of the boiler, 
and between them the flame must pass. From the roof of the combustion- 
chamber a double ring of tubes leads up to the upper part of the lower shell, 
the upper cylindrical shell being of such a diameter that it stands inside these 
rings of tubes. This upper shell is enclosed in a smoke-box of the same 
diameter as the lower shell, and made of sheet iron. ‘The ordinary water-level 
is two-thirds up the height of the upper tubes, and the upper shell, therefore, 
serves as a steam dome of large capacity, and has apparently been really 
effettual in preventing priming. The steam is led away from the top of the 
boiler through a pipe which forms atriple ring round it in the smoke-box before 
it is allowed to escape. 


A paper on the ‘Strength of Boiler Shells’? has recently appeared in the 
columns of the “‘ Nautical Magazine,”’ in which it is stated that the Board of 
Trade Surveyors have all along recognised as a fundamental principle of their 
practice the following opinion, expressed by Sir William Fairbairn, in 1854, 
viz. :—‘* Steam boilers of every description should be constructed of sufficient 
strength to resist eight times the working pressure, and no boiler should be 
worked, under any circumstances whatever, unless provided with at least 
two—I prefer three—sufficiently capacious safety-valves.” It appears the 
“*Galloway’s rule”? is most common amongst these surveyors, the rationale of 
which is that in the absence of tests witnessed by an officer of the Board of 
Trade, the strength of iron is assumed to be 48,000 lbs. per square inch in 
plates and rivets ; this includes the effect of fri€tion at the joints, and supposes 
the holes to be drilled, the strain to be applied lengthwise to the plate, and 
the rivets to be Lowmoor, or equal to that in quality. When the rivets are 
subjected to double shear, or where the strain is applied crosswise to the plate, 
only 43,000 lbs. is allowed as the strength per square inch of the rivet, or of 
the plate respectively. The section of the shell is taken as the length of the 
boiler by the thickness of the plate; but pradtically, the length of the section 
will be greater than the length of the boiler on account of the doubling of the 
plates at the circumferential seams. When the double rivetting is zigzag, as 
it should always be in boiler shells, the section is increased about 7 per cent 
by this extra material. To give effet to this, the 48,000 lbs. was increased 
about 7 per cent, or to 51,520 lbs., or 23 tons. A great deal of very valuable 
information and calculations are given in this paper, relative to the proper 
strength of boiler shells, but space will not admit of our following out the 
subje& further at present. 


126 Progress in Science. (January, 


Railways.—A new line of railway 154 miles in length was opened early in 
September between Bristol and Redstock. It joins the Great Western Railway 
at Bristol, and is laid on the narrow gauge system. At present only a single 
line of rails has been laid, but the arches are wide enough for a double line if 
necessary at any future time. 


The remaining portion of the Devon and Somerset Railway, between 
Wiveliscombe and Barnstaple, 36 miles in length, has recently been completed. 
Owing to the line running at right angles to the principal valleys and water- 
courses of the district, the works are in some places very heavy, involving, in 
addition to deep cuttings and high embankments, several tunnels passing 
through the ridges between the valleys, and some large river viaducts. One of 
these, crossing the valley of the river Tone, near Wiveliscombe, is 110 feet 
high, and has four spans, each too of feet. The construction adopted being 
lattice girders carried on stone abutments and piers. Another viaduét across 
the valley of the river Bray, in Castle Hill Park, is 100 feet high, and has six 
spans, each of 100 feet. The construction being similar to that adapted for 
the Tone valley viadu@; and there is also a large iron bridge over the river 
Exe, near Dulverton. 


The list deposited this year at the Private Bill Office of projects for con- 
sideration during the coming session embraces 395 notices, of which, how- 
ever, only 244 are accompanied by plans. Amongst these 121 relate to railway 
schemes, 7 to tramways, and 65 bills belong to the miscellaneous class, which 
includes docks, harbours, gas and water-works, reclamation schemes, street 
extensions, and local improvements. Amongst the railway projects are the 
following :—A proposition to complete the Inner Circle of the Metropolitan 
Railway by means of a line from Aldgate to the Metropolitan Distri& Railway 
at Cannon Street. The construction ofa Metropolitan Inner Circle Completion, 
and Eastern Extension Railway, by which it is proposed to form a line from 
the Metropolitan District Railway in Queen Victoria Street to the Metropolitan 
Railway at Aldgate, with extensions to Mile End and Bow, and junétions 
with the North London and East London Railways. It also includes a new 
street from King William Street to Fenchurch Street, and the widening of 
the latter street. Besides these there are the following schemes affecting the 
Metropolis, viz., the Metropolitan and South-Western Junction Railway 
Company’s project for a line in Fulham between the authorised Hammersmith 
Extension Railway at North End-Road, and their own authorised line at a 
point near where it crosses the river; the Wandsworth, Fulham, and Metro- 
politan Railway scheme for a line from the Wandsworth Bridge to the 
authorised Metropolitan and South-Western Junction Railway at Fulham ; 
the Ealing, Acton, and City Railway, which will unite the Hammersmith and 
City Railway with the Great Western and Brentford line; and the Acton and 
Hammersmith Railway to unite the North and South-Western Junction and 
Hammersmith Extension Railways. There are several projects for improved 
communication with the Crystal Palace; and most of the principal lines of 
railway propose improvements in the shape of short lines and junctions 
whereby increased facilities will be afforded to the travelling public. 


GEOLOGY. 


Physical Geology.—Baron Von Richthofen has recently described the exten- 
sive sheet of mud-like strata which extends over Northern China. It is called 
“Loess,” from its resemblance to the river-loam of Germany, and has a 
thickness varying from 1000 to 2000 feet. There is not a trace of this forma- 
tion in Southern China, and its occurrence in the northern parts produces 
quite a different class of physical scenery. ‘The expanse of loess is cut up by 
vast chasms, a thousand feet in depth, along whose bottoms the streams flow. 
As regards its origin, after showing that it extended from the sea-level to an 
altitude of 12,000 feet, the Baron stated that it must have been formed where 
it is now seen, and by sub-aérial agencies. Of these, one of the chief had 
been the wind and the fine dust-storms, which often lasted for many days 
together, Rains also were great agents in the accumulation, He had 


1874]. Geology. 127 


examined hundreds of sections of the loess, and had never found any fresh- 
water shells, but myriads of uninjured land shells. 


Mr. W. T. Blanford has brought forward evidence of glacial action in Tropical 
India in early geological times. Some peculiar beds, possibly of carboniferous 
age, consisting of large boulders, embedded in a fine silt, were considered by 
him as evidence of glacial action; the deposition of the boulders being due to 
the agency of ice. 

Professor Von Baer has recently written a memoir on the Caspian Sea, to 
which Dr. Carpenter has drawn attention. Instead of the Caspian being 
intensely salt, like the Dead Sea, its waters had only about one-third of the 
usual saltness of ordinary sea-water. This was due to the precipitation of 
the salt in the lateral lagoons, where great beds were forming. These salt 
pans drained off the saline substances, and thus left the water pure. 


Professor Herschel and Mr. G. A. Lebour have made some experiments 
upon the conducting power for heat of certain rocks. Of all the rocks ex- 
perimented upon, shale resisted heat the most, whilst the metamorphic rocks 
were the best conductors. The experiments showed that the rates of conduc- 
tivity of heat through rock-masses depended on the structure of the latter. 
A thick bed of shale would arrest it. Hence, denudation of rocks, if carried 
on to any great degree, would alter the quantity of heat conduded from the 
interior of the earth to the surface. The experiments threw considerable 
light on underground temperatures. 


The Rev. O. Fisher, in‘a note on the “ Origin of the Estuary of the Fleet, in 
Dorsetshire,” expresses his opinion that it is the eastern half of a submerged 
valley, similar to, though on a larger scale than, the one which now forms the 
Weymouth Backwater, its former western side having been encroached upon 
and destroyed by the waves of the Weat Bay. ,; 


Mr. G. H. Kinahan has lately described the Water Basin of Lough Derg, in 
Ireland, and discussed the method of its formation. He points out that the 
bays and all wide stretches across the basin conform with the strike of lines 
of breaks or displacements in the adjoining country, while the minor features 
of the coast lines are due to the weathering along minor breaks, joint systems, 
or lines of bedding. It seems that in this basin all the changes in the 
bearings of the different lines of deeps are connected with the strikes of the 
different faults in Slieve Bernagh and Slieve Aughta, and that the islands, 
rocks, and shallows are on the upthrow sides of these lines of faults. 


It appears, from a despatch of the British Vice-Consul at Rhodes, that a 
volcanic outburst has taken place in the island of Nissiros, one of the 
Sporades, in which there existed a volcano supposed to be extin@&. Shortly 
before the roth June, 1873, new craters opened in this volcano, and from them 
ashes, stones, and lava were ejected; many fissures, from which hot water 
flowed, were produced in the mountain, and the island was daily shaken by 
violent earthquakes. From Rhodes, at a distance of about 50 miles, the smoke 
rising from the new craters could be seen. 

Stratigraphical Geology.—Mr. W. Whitaker (assisted by J. B. Jordan) has 
prepared a large block-model of London and its neighbourhood on a scale of 
6 inches to 1 mile, coloured to show the geology of the area, which includes 
Hampstead, Wimbledon, Great Ilford, and Shooter’s Hill. All the superficial 
deposits are represented, and the subterranean geology to a depth of 1100 feet 
is shown on the sides of the model, which is divided into nine pieces. This 
model is placed in the museum at Jermyn Street. 

Perhaps the Sub-Wealden Exploration is the most important topic in British 
geological circles. Commenced in 1872, the depth at present reached is a 
little over 300 feet. The boring commences about 230 feet down in the known 
Purbeck Beds, the thickness of which previously known in Sussex was some- 
what over 300 feet ; according to Mr. Topley, about 230 additional feet of strata 
have been made known by the boring, and in this series are some valuable 
beds of gypsum. Professor Phillips has communicated the latest intelligence 
in regard to the boring, stating that the lowest beds now reached are of marine 


128 Progress in Science. [January, 


origin, that a specimen of Lingula ovalis, a shell of the Kimeridge clay, has 
been examined by him, so that the beds reached are already below the Purbeck. 
He remarks that the great upper clays of the oolites have been touched 
without encountering shore sands or shelly oolites,—no Portlandian rocks 
have appeared. Clay deposits may be found for a considerable depth; there 
may be no triassic beds, and he thinks that the paleozoic rocks may be reached 
at no enormous depth, and with no unusual difficulty. 


Mr. Whitaker has recorded the discovery of Thanet Sand on the northern 
outcrop of the London Basin, near Sudbury, where it had not previously been 
observed. 


Palzontology.—Dr. Von Mojsisovics has published the first part of his 
geological investigation of the neighbourhood of Hallstatt, in which he 
describes the remains of Cephalopoda obtained from the Zlambach and 
Hallstatt beds. He indicates repeatedly, especially in connection with the 
genera Lytoceras, Pinacoceras, Sageceras, and Arcestes, that he can by no 
means arrange the Goniatites as a distin& generic series in opposition to the 
Ammonites. The triassic representatives of the above-mentioned genera are 
most closely related in all essential peculiarities of organisation and habit to 
Goniatitic predecessors; the Ammonites from the Permian sand-stone of 
Artinsk, Waagen’s Permian Ammonite from the salt range of the Punjab, and 
certain triassic forms partially bridge over the gap which still exists between 
the older Goniatites and the Ammonites of the Trias. By far the greater part 
of the genera of Ammonites occurring in the Alpine Trias have their roots in 
the Palzozoic Goniatites ; and some of them may apparently even be traced 
back into the Upper Silurian formations. The greater part of these Paleozoic 
genera become extiné& in the Upper Trias, when they attain the height of 
their development, but at the same time show signs of senile degradation, 
analogous to the phenomena observed during the gradual extinction of the 
later Ammonitic types in the Cretaceous period. 


Professor W. H. Flower has described a new species of Halitherium from 
the Red Crag of Suffolk. It is of especial interest as furnishing the first 
recorded evidence of the existence in Britain of animals belonging to the order 
Sirenia. This new species presents many characters common to the Manati 
and the Dugong. 


PHYSICS. 


Microscopy.—A new freezing microtome, for facilitating the cutting of thin 
sections of soft tissues, has been contrived by Dr. William Rutherford, Pro- 
fessor of Physiology in King’s College, London. The construction of the 
machine will be easily understood by reference to the cuts. Fig. 2: A, hole in 
the brass plate (B); c, tube; D, screw; E, indicator; F, screw for fixing the 
machine to a table; G, box for holding the freezing mixture; H, tube for per- 
mitting the water to flow from the melting ice. Fig. 3: Vertical section. 
The hole A is shown containing a piece of tissue, and the box G containing the 
freezing mixture; K, a movable bottom to the hole A; R, transverse section of 
the knife used in making the se@tions: the other letters the same as in Fig. 2. 
The tissue to be frozen and cut is placed in the tube (A). The section is made, 
as in the ordinary instrument for cutting wood sections, by gliding a knife 
horizontally through the tissue projecting above the level of the plate (Bs). 
The thickness of the section is regulated by the indicator (gE). The machine 
may be employed for two objeé&ts :—For cutting tissues hardened in the ordi- 
nary way, by chromic acid, &c.; and second, for cutting tissues hardened by 
freezing. The second method of using the machine will be more readily com- 
prehended after a description of the first, which is simply this:—Place a 
portion of hardened tissue in the hole a, and pour around it a mixture of 
paraffin (5 parts) and hog’s lard (1 part), melted by the aid of a gentle heat. 
Or the paraffin mixture may be first poured into the hole, and the piece of 
tissue afterwards introduced, and held in any desired position, by means of 
forceps, until the paraffin becomes sufficiently hard. In order that the paraffin 
may fairly support the tissue, it is necessary that the surface of the latter be 


1874.| Physics. 129 


dry. This is easily accomplished by leaving it exposed to the air for some 
time, either with or without previous immersion in spirit. When the machine 
is used for the second obje&—that is, for freezing—the following directions are 
to be attended to:—Surround the freezing-box with two or three layers of 
flannel, and screw the machine to atable. Unscrew the movable bottom, or 


Fie. 2. 


Gr tes rated MEE PPLE, 


Paz 


Poy han OW 
AW Ase cae 


AS 2 


TOD 


wats 
OTEG 


DMG, 


plug (k, Fig. 3), and pour methylated spirit into the tube (c); oil the side of 
the plug; replace it, and screw it down to any desirable extent, and there 
leave it. The objeét of this is to prevent the screw from becoming fixed by 
_the freezing. The spirit which has come above the plug (xk) must be thoroughly 


VOL. Iv. (N.S.) 


130 Progress in Science. (January, 


removed by means of a towel, and the small slit at the margin of the plug 
carefully closed by means of hog’s lard, which should be spread in a thin layer 
around the entire margin of the plug, to prevent the spirit from in any way 
reaching the cavity above the plug. The screw (p) must not be touched until 
after the freezing is completed, in case this accident occur. The tissue to be 
frozen, together with an imbedding fluid, are placed in the hole. For ordinary 
purposes a solution of gum arabic may be employed, prepared in the following 
manner :—Add to 1o ounces of water, 2 drachms of camphorated spirit and 
5, ounces of picked gum arabic; when the gum has dissolved, strain the fluid 
through calico, and preserve for use in a corked bottle. The gum when frozen 
can be sliced as easily as a piece of cheese. The gum or other fluid should 
be first placed in the hole of the machine, and when a film of ice has formed 
at the periphery the tissue should be introduced and held against the advancing 
ice until it becomes partially frozen. In this way a portion of tissue may be 
secured, in any position, for the process of section. Lay a piece of gutta- 
percha upon the brass plate (B) so as to cover the cavity containing the tissues 
and prevent the entrance of heat, and the accidental entrance of salt from the 
freezing mixture. Place in the freezing-box (c) alternate quantities of finely 
powdered ice and of salt, and take care they are pushed round the tube of the 
machine, and also that the tube (H) is kept open, in order to permit of the con- 
stant egress of the water from the melting ice. The freezing can be most 
rapidly effected by the addition, at short intervals, of ice and salt, and by 
repeatedly stirring the mixture, in order that the escape of water may be 
facilitated. It is possible, especially in winter, to have the tissue frozen too 
hard to permit of its being readily cut. It splinters when it is too hard. 
This is prevented by discontinuing the further addition of the freezing mixture, 
or by dropping water or a three-quarter per cent salt solution, at the ordi- 
nary temperature, on the surface of the frozen tissue, or by heating the razor 
slightly. With regard to the cutting tool, it may be stated that a razor 
answers perfectly well for all ordinary purposes. ‘The blade should always be 
hollow on both surfaces (R, Fig. 3). It is a mistake to employ a flat knife, for 
it is scarcely possible to keep the surface of the brass table of the machine 
smooth enough to permit of the knife lying quite flat. The knife should be 
pushed obliquely through the tissue, which should be cut at one sweep. This 
is not possible with a frozen tissue, if the ice be too hard. For an unfrozen 
tissue embedded in the paraffin the knife should be wetted with methylated 
spirit. Inthe case of freezing it is not necessary to wet the knife, for the 
melting ice does so readily. The machine has been made by Mr. Baker, of 
High Holborn. 


Mr. John Barrow* recommends naphthalin as a material for embedding soft 
tissues for the purpose of cutting sections. The advantages claimed for 
naphthalin over wax and other substances are—A low fusing-point, absence of 
contraction, the minimum of injury to the edge of the knife, and very ready 
solubility after cutting in benzol or spirit, so that the substance is at once 
removed from the section without injury. 


Mr. F. H. Wenham, at the October meeting of the Royal Microscopical 
Society, exhibited, under the microscope, a roughed pattern on a piece of 
glass produced by the American ‘‘ sand-blast,”’ remarking that the microscopi- 
cal appearance of the “ greyed”’ surface is quite distin& from that of ordi- 
nary ground glass. Observations under a low power give some insight into 
the modus operandi, It was stated, at the late meeting of the British Associ- 
ation, in the discussion that followed the description of the process, that a 
large crystal of corundum was speedily perforated with ordinary sea-sand and 
a blast-pressure of 300 lbs. per square inch. Corundum is several degrees 
beyond emery in hardness, approaching near to that of the diamond. But it 
was further stated that, under the conditions named, diamond itself became 
speedily worn away. At first sight it seems extraordinary that the hardest 
known material should quickly be destroyed by one considerably softer. The 


* Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Microscopical and Natural History 
SeGtion, April 21, 1873. 


1874 Physics. 131 


microscope indicates that this is caused by the force and velocity of impaé@ ; 
it is not a grinding process at all, but a battering action, similar to that of 
leaden bullets against a block of granite. A polished glass surface exposed 
for an instant to the sand-blast shows an aggregation of points of impad, 
from which scales of fractured glass have broken away in an irregular radial 
direction. It appears as if a pellet of glass had been driven in by the collision 
of the sand, and the wedge-like action thus set up had driven away the sur- 
rounding glass. All these spots or indentations, when tested by the polari- 
scope, show a coloured halo round each, proving that the glass surface is 
under strain and ready to yield to further fracture. The action therefore is 
not so much due to the hardness of the striking particles as to the force and 
velocity of impact. This is sufficiently great to destroy the cohesion of the 
surface of the material operated upon. ‘The external layer is carried against 
the under stratum, and the material is crushed and disintegrated by a portion 
of its own body. : 
Mr. William Webb, whose minute writings on glass are so well known 
to microscopists, disputed the reality of the finer bands of lines on 
Nobert’s test-plate, on the ground of the tool cutting away the surface 
of the glass, and leaving, as he showed by certain diagramatic sections, irre- 
gular jagged furrows. Dr. Woodward, of the Army Medical Museum, Wash- 
ington, in reply, reminds the readers of Mr. Webb’s paper, that there is a 
physical reason which compels us to believe that the first fifteen bands, at 
least, of the nineteen-band plate are composed of real and distiné lines, and 
that the distance apart of these lines must approximate very closely to what 
was intended by Nobert. When the bands of Nobert’s plate are illuminated 
by oblique light, and are looked upon from above with a low power (too low 
to show any of the lines), each band appears as a smooth coloured stripe. 
From the known wave-length of the colour seen, and the angle of the incident 
pencil, the distance which the lines of any band must a@tually be apart can 
be computed by the well-known formula for the spectrum of gratings enunci- 
ated by Frauenhofer, and the distance thus obtained agrees with that at which 
Nobert ruled the lines. On the other hand, the angle of the incident pencil 
being known, and Nobert’s given distance being assumed to be true, a table of 
wave-lengths for the different colours may be calculated, and the wave-lengths 
thus deduced agree substantially with those computed by other means. 
Nobert has discussed the whole matter in the 58th volume of ‘ Poggendorff’s 
Annalen” (1852). His discussion leaves, in the opinion of Dr. Woodward, 
no room for the possibility of a doubt of the objective reality of the lines up 
to the fifteenth band. Dr. Woodward calls attention to the fa& that this 
reason is altogether independent of our ability to resolve the lines with the 
microscope. In fad, it enabled Nobert to know that his plates were corre@ly 
tuled long before the resolution of any but the coarsest bands had been 
effe@ted. Asno spectral colour is obtained in the bands finer than the fifteenth, 
the formula of Frauenhofer cannot be applied tothem. In fac, the formula 
demonstrates that if these bands are actually ruled, as claimed, they can give 
no spectral colour. Dr. Woodward has no hesitation in expressing the opinion 
that the four higher bands (sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth) 
have also an objective reality. He bases this opinion upon the comparison 
of their optical appearances, as seen with the best glasses, with the appear- 
ances of the lower bands (especially those from the ninth to the fifteenth). 
These appearances are quite the same in both cases, and, as similar results 
follow similar causes, he infers the existence of real lines in the four higher 
bands, since he knows they exist in the others. Dr. Woodward has recently 
examined two new test-plates by Nobert,—the first ruled for Professor Barnard, 
of Columbia College, the second for the Army Medical Museum,—in which 
the maker has attempted to rule lines twice as fine as those of the nineteenth 
band. These plates have twenty bands. The first ten correspond respectively 
to the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, thirteenth, fifteenth, seven- 
teenth, and nineteenth of the old plate. The lines in the second group of ten 
bands purport to be ruled at the following distances apart:—The eleventh 
band, ,y$y5th of a Paris line; the twelfth band, y,},5,th; and so on up to the 


Fic. 4. 


Fia. 5. 


132 Progress in Science. (January, 


twentieth band, lines of which are said to be y3,,th of a Paris line apart. 
These new bands have not at present been resolved. 


Mr. J. J. Monteiro, ina letter to the “‘ Chemical News,”* gives some account 
of the habits of the ‘plantain eaters” (Turacus albo-cristatus), the birds 
from the feathers of which the colouring matter turacin was extracted by 
Professor Church, and which is distinguished by its remarkable two-banded 
spectrum. These birds are common on the West Coast of Africa, and in the 
part known to the writer, viz., from Loango, in 5° S. lat., to Fish Bay, in 15° 
S. lat., they abound. Over the whole country mentioned, and for a consi- 
derable distance inland, copper is found, most abundantly distributed, as mala- 
chite or green carbonate; specks of the green mineral are everywhere to be 
found. Mr. Monteiro considers it highly probable that the birds swallow 
small particles of the cupreous substance with the gravel, &c., so commonly 
taken by all birds. This may account for the large quantity of copper disco- 
vered by Professor Church in the feathers of these birds. Mr. Sidney Lupton 
also remarks+ that two green love birds (Melopsittacus undulatus) were in the 
habit of pecking at the bars of their cage or any brass-work accessible to them. 
The feathers of these birds also yielded traces of copper. The spectrum of 
the green feathers had not been examined. The lower band of the turacin 
spectrum (Fig. 5) corresponds in position, although not in extent, with the band 
of ruby glass (Fig. 4): extent of absorption, however, is in many cases de- 


IRE 


pendent upon the intensity of the coloured medium, many bands, as those of 
the aniline dyes, being easily made to absorb to a greater or less extent, ac- 
cording to the amount of dilution or the thickness of coloured medium through 
which the light is allowed to pass. (The bands between the Frauenhofer 
lines, extending half-way across the upper spectrum, are those of nitrate of 
didymium, and, from their sharpness and convenient distribution, are conye- 
nient in mapping spedtra by artificial light). 


ELectricity.—Mr. Casselberry, of St. Louis, has been experimenting for 
several years with voltameters. He finds as the result that two voltametric 
apparatus (of the ordinary kind) connected together, not in series, but with 
their oxygen and hydrogen eletrodes attached by wires, the oxygen electrodes 
to the positive, and the hydrogen electrodes to the negative pole of a battery, 
that there is then generated in each voltameter an equal quantity of gas to 
that generated in only one voltameter with the same battery. The experi- 
ment is borne out by the law of derived circuits, the second yoltameter being 


* “ Chemical News,” vol. xxviii., p. 201. 
+ Ibid, vol. xxviii., p. 212. 


—————F 


1874.] Physics. 533 


in effe@t a derived ele@trolytic circuit to the first. Should the experiments (and 
they are most carefully recorded) stand the test of general experience, the 
sequence of great importance in the practical deposition of metals would 
appear to follow naturally and immediately. 

The experiments were repeated with a magneto-eleftric machine, with 
results precisely similar to those obtained with the battery. 


The electric current has again been utilised for the purposes of ascertaining 
longitude, this time of Harvard observatory. The results show the difference 
of time between Harvard and Greenwich to be for the following years :— 


Hrs. Mins. Secs. 
IGS167) Go you) ote sop 4 44 31°00 
WSO. ag hd vod. po 4 44 31°05 
UT 56 folo 4 Boe OC 4 44 30°99 


The mean of which is 4 hrs. 44 mins. 3r‘or secs. The close agreement of 
these results indicates a very near approximation to the truth, and this funda- 
mental longitude may now be considered as settled. Adding to the above 
value the difference in time between the Washington and Harvard observatories, 
23 mins. 12°12 secs., we get for Washington 5 hrs. 8 mins. 12°12 secs. 


In America interesting le@ures upon the system of fire, burglar, and other 
alarms as laid down by the American Distri&t Telegraph have been delivered. 
Particulars will be found in the ‘‘ Journal of the Franklin Institute.” 


In natural science electricity has again made progress. Dr. Burdon- 
Sanderson has investigated the ele&trical phenomena which accompany the 
contractions of the leaf of Dionea muscipula, and he has demonstrated their 
collateral character with those of nerve and muscle. 


INVESTIGATION OF THE FLUORESCENT AND ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF THE 
URANIUM SALTS.—President Morton and Dr. Bolton, after briefly noticing 
the labours of their predecessors in this department of research, describe the 
methods employed, which do not differ from those of Stokes and Becquerel, 
except in small details, and the means at their disposal for securing accuracy 
in the measurements.' A variety of uranium compounds were specially pre- 
pared, and their spectra, both of fluorescence and absorption, were carefully 
mapped out and measured. Illustrations are given showing some of the most 
charaéteristic of these spectra. Very charaéteristic differences were found 
between the spectra of certain salts, and in a number of cases one body can 
be readily discriminated from another by this means. Indeed,inthis investiga- 
tion impurities in many commercial compounds of uranium were thus detected, 
and, in other cases, the progress and consummation of achange in composition, 
or in the formation of a compound, was watched and recognised with the 
greatest ease and precision. In almost every case there is a tendency of the 
light to fade off in the bands towards one side more gradually than towards 
the other. In nearly all spectra this graduation is greatest towards the less 
tefrangible end of the spetrum. The character of any one band is, as a rule, 
a type of all the bands of a spectrum; but to this a remarkable exception is 
found in the double acetates of uranium generally, and especially in the 
sodium salt whose fluorescence is the brightest. In the speétrum of this salt 
the first four bands at the lower end of the speétrum in the orange and red 
differ entirely in chara@er and spacing from the rest, except the fifth, which 
seems to be in a transition state. It is also true, as a rule, that double salts 
with the same acid have bands of a like charaf&ter; but to this also there are 
decided exceptions, and it is by no means true that all salts with the same 
acid have like bands. This chances to be true in the case of the sulphate and 
normal double sulphates, but in the case of the acetate and double acetates, 
fluoride and double fluorides, chloride and double chlorides, as also among the 
numerous hydrates of the sulphates, it fails to maintain itself. Nothing 
could well be more unlike than the spe&ra of uranic oxychloride and the 
potassium chloride. The question arises, how far the spectra of substances 
are constant, and in what way a change of spectra is to be interpreted. The 
authors find that no substance has its spectrum changed by anything which 
does not affect its composition, excluding the effe@& of heat, and certain cases 


134 Progress in Science. (January, 


in which a substance has been caused to give a continuous spectrum in place 
of its normal one. We may, therefore, ascertain in many cases whether under 
certain treatment a body has or has not suffered a change in composition, and 
trace such a change step by step. 

Absorption Spectra.—There are in the uranium salts two sorts of absorption 
—one direétly related to their fluorescence, and the consequence of the fact 
that those rays which excite fluorescence must themselves disappear, their 
motion taking that other form; and the other an absorption having no imme- 
diate relation to fluorescence, but representing rays of the spectrum whose 
motions are converted into heat or some other form of force not sensible to 
the eye (Phil. Trans., 1852, p. 520). Absorptions of the first class are best 
studied by dire& observation, combined with a process closely allied to that 
described by Stokes as his third method, which consists in throwing a pure 
spectrum upon a screen of the substance in question, or upon the vertical side 
of a tank containing a solution. With the solid screen, the location of 
general maxima of fluorescence will correspond with maxima of absorption, 
and with the tank the absorption can be dire@tly seen as embodied in dark 
blades or triangular masses of shade running into the tank (as seen from 
above) from the side away from the light. These appearances will often 
indicate the existence and relative intensity of absorptions, whose exact 
locations we can measure by examining the transmitted light directly with the 
spectroscope. The spectra of absorptions not diredtly related to fluorescence 
are, as a rule, best studied by transmitted light. The difference between 
different salts as regards their apsorption-bands is very great; and, while in many 
cases solution has a vast effect upon fluorescence, it sometimes produces but 
little effet upon the absorption-bands. In other instances, however, very 
marked changes occur, and, when these are followed out to their legitimate 
conclusions, they lead to some very remarkable results. Thus, if we examine 
the absorption-spetra of the uranic acetate and the various double acetates, 
we shall find that in the solid state they present great variety in the exact 
location of the bands, but in solution we have exactly the same spectrum for 
all. The conclusion therefore presents itself, that in solution all are reduced 
to the same state, which could, of course, only be by the breaking up of all the 
double salts. Indeed, from this, supported as it is by other observations, we 
do not hesitate to conclude that xo double acetate can exist in solution in water, 
but must break up into its two single salts. Nor do our conclusions stop here, 
but we must reserve others until some of the facts on which they are founded 
have been described. A similar experience leads us to a like conclusion in the 
case of the sulphates, oxychlorides, &c. Attention was drawn to the fact of 
such displacement by one of us in September of last year, but its true 
bearing has only been perceived recently, since a large number of observa- 
tions have been accumulated. A change of character, rather than of position, 
produced by solution in the absorption-spectrum of didymium sulphate, was 
observed by Bunsen in 1866 (see ‘“ Pogg. Ann.,” vol. cxxxviii., p. 100, and 
“Phil. Mag.,” 4th series, vol. xxxii., p. 181). The position of the band of 
uranium nitrate, while unaffected by solution in water, is notably changed by 
other solvents, as the following table will show :— 


Bands. I. 2: 3. 4. 5. 6. 
Glycerin’ 3s) f 3.19 <tet (87:6 96'0 107'8 123'0 136'0 148°6 
Water Witte os 889:8 98'5 108'5 118°7 129°5 142'0 


Alcohol. 9/4 cit? Gi.42i— 99°4 I1I'7 — — 
Hydrochloric ether... — 99°4 110°8 123'7 — — 
Ether 2 Lhe) Se 1000 112°6 1230 — _ 
Aceticiether:i..3..-. *“—:  10zf0 DII'7 128'0 135°4 — 


Effects of Heat.—It was observed by Stokes that canary glass and the 
nitrate of uranium had their fluorescence reduced by heating, and that at a 
temperature much below redness their influence upon light in this respect was 
quite suspended. In the solutions of nitrate of uranium all fluorescence was 
extinguished near 212°F. The substance regained its fluorescence on cooling. 
He also remarked that no such action appeared in fluorescent vegetable solu- 


1874.1 Physics. 135 


tions. Gladstone finds, as a rule, the effect of heat is equivalent to a concen- 
tration of the solution, and amounts to an increase in the amount of absorption. 
In a paper ‘“‘ On the Change of Colour produced by Heat in Certain Chemical 
Compounds,” E. J. Houston pointed out the curious and novel fad, that, in all 
cases where no chemical change was involved, solutions, as well as solids, 
changed to tints lower in the spe&trum on the application of heat. The loss 
of fluorescence in a few substances when heated appears to extend (with cer- 
tain limitations) to all the uranium compounds, both in their solid state and in 
solution. We find that in the case of the anhydrous ammonio-uranic sulphate, 
fluorescence is sensibly diminished at 140° C., and is almost destroyed at 
260° C. The hydrate does not show any marked loss of fluorescence below 
the point at which it begins to part with its water. The same is true of the 
potassium sulphate. The sodio-uranic acetate is much more sensitive. 
Experiments were made with it and other salts. It was observed that at 
about 50° C. the brightness of the fluorescence was reduced, and that the 
uppermost decided band (81°8) lost its distin@tness. At about 116° C. it 
seemed to reach aminimum. At that temperature the uppermost band had 
vanished, and the lower ones were too faint for measurement. No further 
change was noticed on carrying the temperature to 150°. Solutions are still 
more sensitive. The authors next enter upon a detailed examination of 
various uranium compounds, from which we seleé the following passages : — 
Uranic Acetate (normal), U203;3C,H303+2HO.—This substance fluoresces 
very brightly, different specimens, however, differing, probably from the pre- 


Fic. 7. 


5 7 
| L| 
11} 


vw 


10 


saint wy luial yi 


yl me 7 '' 
i. 
a | 


rr 


sence of minute traces of foreign matter. Its solution yields a very bright 
fluorescence, which is reduced by the addition of a trace of alcohol, ether, 
glucose, or sucrose, and is destroyed by a very small amount of hydrochloric 
acid. The fluorescent light of the solution yields a continuous spectrum, 


136 Progress in Science. (January, 


When examined with the spectroscope its fluorescent light emitted by the 
solid yields a sys ae m of eight bands. Of these the 1st and 7th are very 


Fic. g. 


i 
a / 


Fic. 12 


emeneeerncema 
pra na pe 


ee mm Mh ‘| i ~ 
=e ne 


faint, and the 8th only appreciable with a strong light and wide opening to the 
slit of the spectroscope. The brighter bands show a very setae termination 


1874.) - - Physics. 137 


towards the more refrangible end, and shade off gradually so as to look like 
pieces of moulding illuminated from the violet side of the spe@rum. No. 1 
in Fig. 7 will give an idea of this, as well as of the positions of the various 
bands. By turning the spectroscope obliquely on the bottle containing this 
salt, an absorption-band at 107 can be distinguished with ease, but none above 
this can be made out, and, as regards this matter, the strongest contrast exists 
between the uranic acetates and its double salts. By 

crushing a few grains to a fine powder, with a little Fic. 13. 
water, between slips of glass, we may observe the 
absorption-bands by transmitted light with facility, 
and get a spectrum of a curious character as regards 
the irregular spacing of its bands. No. 1 of Fig. 8 
will give a good idea of this. Another noteworthy 
point is the very strong general absorption, which 
almost obliterates details of the spectrum, and makes 
it impossible to recognise any bands above one at 
about 135. In solution this general absorption is 
increased, and the absorption-bands are blended so 
that little can be done in the way of measuring them. 
If we make a solution of the neutral acetate in water, 
and examine its absorption, we shall find a faint band 
at about 105, and some indication of one at about 117, 
but a very heavy general absorption over the entire 
region above the first-named band obliterating all 
variations of shade. The addition of a little acetic 
or other strong acid will, however (while destroying 
the fluorescence of the solution), clear up its absorption- 
spectrum in a remarkable manner, giving us such a 
one as is shown at No. 3 of Fig. 8, which we have 
reasons for regarding as the absorption-spectrum of 
the double acetate of uranium and water. 


Anhydrous Uranic Acetate, U203;C,H303.—If this 
normal uranic acetate is dried, at a temperature of 
100° C., for some hours, it becomes opaque, and of a 
lighter and purer yellow tint, and is found to yield a 
fluorescent-spectrum, the bands of which are like those 
of the normal salt, but are all displaced downward 
in the spetrum. No. 2 of Fig. 7 will show the 
arrangement of these bands. The brightness of the 
fluorescence is very much reduced, and the first and 
last bands could not be made out with the apparatus 
at present in use. By inclosing this substance in 
dry powder, between slips of glass, its absorption- 
spectrum was observed with transmitted light, and is 
shown at No. 2 of Fig. 8. The general absorption is 
greater in this than in the case of the normal uranic 
acetate. 


The Double Acetates—These bodies give spectra 
which, whilst differing remarkably from that of the 
single acetate of uranium, agree strikingly among 
themselves. The fluorescent spectrum of the sodio- 
acetate of uranium is a type of a perfect double acetate 
of spectrum. All the double acetates show their 
absorption spectra with very great ease. The 
arseniates appear peculiarly fixed and inflexible in the 
relations under review. The four compounds ex- 
amined exhibit but one spectrum of fluorescence and one of absorption. The 
charaéteristics of the former are seen in Fig. 9, No. 1, and those of the 
latter in Fig. 10, No. 1. The double carbonates of uranium fluoresce faintly, 
showing a chara¢ter like that of the less brilliant double acetates. See 

VOL, IV. (N. S.) s 


138 Progress in Science. (January, 


Fig. 9, No. 2. The neutral oxychloride has avery great general absorption, and 
shows some bands, but is almost devoid of fluorescence. The uranic oxyfluoride 
gives a spectrum generally resembling the acetate, normal sulphate, &c., and 
shown in Fig. 11, No. 2. The absorption-spectrum is likewise well marked, 
and is shown in Fig. 12, No. 2. When dissolved in water and acidulated 
with hydrofluoric acid, it yields the absorption-spe@rum No. 3 of Fig. 12. 
Of the double oxyfluorides the potassium salt is the most brilliant, and is 
represented in Fig. 11, No. 1, its absorption-spectrum being shown in Fig. 12, 


Fic. 14. 
/ 


ili vt oui dl mnt 


meee fT 


i | 


7 ae 
i 


i 


No. x. Of the fluorides examined none show any fluorescence, but their 
absorption-spectra are well worthy of notice. That of the uranous salt is 
shown in Fig. 13, No. 2, and that of the potassio salt in Fig. 13, No. r. Uranic 
formiate gives no fluorescence, and shows an absorption-spectrum with faint 
bands. The uranic nitrate fluoresces brilliantly, yielding what may be called 
the normal uranic spectrum. It shows an absorption-spetrum of well- 
marked, regular bands. All the oxalates yield absorption-spectra, which are 
very well marked, and seem identical, carrying out the idea above suggested 


Fic. 15. 


vi 
zz | 


a | 


it ai 
a 
i 


¥ 


as to the breaking up of double salts when dissolved. The phosphates, like the 
arseniates, show a remarkable fixity of spectrum, but the absorption-spectra 
present a variety of forms. The absorption-bands of the neutral and acid 
sulphates are shown in Fig. 14, Nos. 1 and 2, and in 3 we find the bands of 
any other uranic sulphate as yet examined. It would seem with the sul- 
phates as with the acetates that all are reduced to the same condition when 
in solution. Fig. 15 shows the absorption-spectra of the following double 
sulphates :—(1) ammonio-uranic sulphate; (2) ammonio-diuranic sulphate ; 
(3) magnesio-uranic sulphate; (4) rubidio-uranic sulphate; (5) sodio-uranic 
sulphate; (6) thallio-uranic sulphate. For a detailed description of the 
characteristics of the various spectra here mentioned the reader is referred to 


1874.] Technology. 139 


the papers as communicated by the authors to the “Chemical News,” and 
which must be regarded as a valuable contribution to chemical and physical 


science. 
TECHNOLOGY. 


An instructive paper by Capt. G. A. Strover, of Mandalay, on the Metals 
and Minerals of Upper Burmah, appeared in the ‘‘ Chemical News ” of O@ober 
to. Gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin, platinum, graphite, coal, jade and 
amber, sulphur, saltpetre, rubies, sapphires, garnets, salt, petroleum, india- 
rubber—all seem to abound. The sulphur is found in efflorescent salts, and is 
manufactured from metallic sulphurets. The mode of extraction is illustrated 
below in Fig. 15. Common chatty-shaped vessels are made on the spot from 


Fic. 15. 


Sar y i, & Ve ze— wie 4 = os 
Sa WAZ. A= NE a tea a 


the soft blue clay in which the ore is found. The larger vessel is filled with 
broken ore, and placed on a fire, a clay retort being fitted to the top, and com- 
municating with the smaller vessel. The sulphur is thus sublimed and 
condensed as shown, after which the retort is broken, and a hollow tube of 
flowers of sulphur extracted therefrom which is superior to that condensed in 
the vessel. 

The following improved forms of gas generator were described at the 
Bradford Meeting of the British Association by Mr. C. J. Woodward, 
B.Sc. :—Two forms of apparatus had been made. The first, shown in section 
in Fig. 15, and intended for large supplies of gas, consists of a circular stone- 
ware vessel, A A, holding 3 or 4 gallons, and surmounted by a large cylindrical 
pipe, B. In the top of the vessel is a tubulure, c, to which is fitted a glass 
cylinder containing the granulated zinc or other gas-generating material. To 
the opening of the upper end of the glass cylinder is attached a cork and the 
delivery tube,p. A plug, E, can be raised or lowered by means of a cord, 
which, passing over pulleys, terminates in a ring, F. It will readily be seen in 
what way the apparatus is used. As seen in the figure, the plug, &, is 
immersed in the acid with which the stoneware jar is filled, and the liquid has 
risen by displacement into the glass cylindrical vessel, coming in conta& with 
the gas-generating material, where of course the evolution of gas goes on. 
When it is desired to stop the flow of gas, the plug, £, is raised, the ring, F, 
being slipped over the stud,G. The acid now retreats from the glass cylinder, 
and the gas-generating material is left dry. At any time, then, when gas 
is wanted, it is only necessary to release the ring, F, the plug, £, falls into 
the acid, the zinc, marble, &c., becomes covered, and the flow of gas begins 
and can easily be arrested in the manner first described. The second form of 
apparatus, used when only a small supply of gas is wanted, consists of a 
Wolft’s bottle, a, Fig. 16, to one tubulure of which is fitted a cork carrying a 
glass tube and piece of caoutchouc piping, B. This pipe, B, can be closed by 
a pinch-tap, c. To the other tubulure of the Wolff’s bottle is fitted the 
adapter, D, in which is placed the zinc, marble, or other gas-generating 
material. To the upper end of the adapter is fitted a cork and tube, E, serving 
for the escape of gas, which is washed at F, and then passes on foruse. To 
use the apparatus, the Wolff's bottle is charged with acid up to the level indi- 
cated in the figure. Then, on blowing air by the mouth by means of the tube, 
B, the pinch-tap, c, being open, acid is forced into the adapter, D, and gas at 


140 Progress in Science. [January, 


once comes off. The pinch-tap, c, is now closed, and the compressed air in 
the Wolff's bottle still keeps the acid in the adapter. When it is desired to 
stop the flow of gas, the pinch-tap, c, is opened, the compressed air escapes, 


Fic. 16. 


and the acid in the adapter falls, leaving the gas-generating materials dry. 
Should the blowing of air by the mouth be deemed objectionable, an air-ball 
may be attached to the pipe, B. A safety-tube, c, is used, in order to prevent 


Fic. 17. 


the liquid from the wash-bottle being drawn over on stopping the supply 
of gas. 

ErkaTA.—Owing to postal delays the following errata did not arrive at the 
printing office in time for correction :—Page 2, line 3 from top, for “external” 
read “nocturnal.” Page 5, line 2 from top, for “Mars” read “mass.” 


Page 35, lines 2 and 18 from bottom, for “ Jan. 22nd, 1872” read “ Nov. 13th, 
1$71.”’ 


a 


q 


i 


“ 


a 


IMPROVED SPECTRUM APPARATUS. 


JOHN BROWNING begs to call the attention of the scientific public to the fact that he 
has re-modelled and greatly improved nearly the whole of his specialities in Spectroscopes 
within the last year; more particularly he would mention his MINIATURE SPECTROSCOPE, the 
Direct-Viston SPECTROSCOPE, with Micrometric Measuring-Apparatus, and his UNivERSAL 
Automatic Spectroscope. JOHN BROWNING can now supply one of these instruments 
with a dispersive power equal to eleven flint-glass prisms, and so compac¢t that it can be easily 
adapted to a 4-inch Refracting Telescope. 


COLONEL CAMPBELL’S NEW SPECTROMETER. 


By the aid of this contrivance an unskilled observer can map any spectra without taking readings. 


t 


NS a RS ge hel og a i 8 
Optical and Physical Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, &c., &c., 
63, Strand, W.C., and 111, Minories, London, E. 


ESTABLISHED I00 YEARS. 


An Illustrated Descriptive Ca-alogue of Spectroscopes, 18 Stamps. List of Spectroscopes 
Free by Post. 


BROWNING’S 


NEW LARGE AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC LAMP. 


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In this Lamp both carbons are moved by the elec- 
tricity of the battery employed (without the aid of 
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more steady in action than any of the expensive regu- 
lators previously introduced. Any number, from 20 
to 50-quart Grove's Cells, or 2-quart Bunsen’s, may 
be used with this Lamp. Price £8 8s. 


Joun BrowninG begs to announce that he has 
prepared, with peculiar care, a great number of Dia- 
grams to illustrate recent discoveries in Spectrum 
Analysis and other branches of Observational 
Astronomy. These Slides can be had either plain or 
exquisitely coloured. Prices—3s. 6d. plain, and from 
4s. 6d. to tos. 6d. coloured. A list of subjeéts priced 
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3s. each. Lists on application. 


Ecectric Lamps, either separately or with Lan- 
tern Apparatus, for Public Exhibitions and Lectures. 
for showing Diagrams or Spectrum Experiments on 
Screen, or for Illuminating Halls or Buildings, on 
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sent if desired. Terms on application. 


JOHN BROWNING, 


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. MAKER 


To Her Majesty's Government, the Royai Society, 
the Royal Observatory, &c., &c., 


111, MINORIES, LONDON, E. 


Established 100 yeers. 


NU ea 


7 


A 


CONTENTS. OF No. XLI. 


I. The Saturnian Syitcin : 
II. On the Relation between Refracted and Diffracted Spectra. 
III. Observations on the Optical Phenomena of the Atmo- 
sphere. ¥ 
IV. Recent Changes in British Artillery Matériel. 
V. The Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. = 
VI. Gall’s Discovery of the Physiology of ge Brain, and its 
Reception. 
VII. Economy of F uel. 
VIII. Notes of an Enquiry into the Phéwoneea be Spiritual, Ss 
during the years 1870-73. 


2 


NOTICES OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS- 


tyndall’s “* LeGtures on Light.” 

Lockyer’s ‘‘ The Spectroscope and its Applications.” ce 
Proétor’s ** Light Science for Leisure Hours.” i ee 

Thorpe’s “ Quantitative Chemical Analysis.” see 
Shelley's ‘‘ Workshop Appliances.” 
Latham’s “ Sanitary Engineering.” ae. 
Baird’s “‘ Annual Record of Science and Industry 1 for 1872.” ; 
Gillmore’s ‘‘ Report on Béton Aggloméré.” 


Gillmore’s ‘‘ Practical “reatise on Limes, Hydraulic Cements, and — 
Mortars.” “ ; = 
Bain’s ‘* Mind and Body. : ra 
Sir John Lubbock’s ‘ Cetie and Metamorphoses of Insects.” | {fer 
Fox's “ Ozone and Antozone.” be ; oe 
” f 


Atkinson’s “ Ganot’s Elementary Treatise on ite 
Jenkin’s ‘* Eleétricity and Magnetism.” s 
Althaus’s “ Treatise of Medical Electricity.” a YoY 
Saltzer’s ‘* Treatise on Acoustics.” mba a 
Blackley’s ‘‘ Experimental Researches on the Causes and Nature of 

Catarrhus Estivus.” . 
Baker's ‘‘ Long Span Bridges.” 


. 
“a . * Neer Ae 


ley === = ¥ 


PROGRESS IN WCIENCE, 
(Including the Proceedings of Learned Societies at Home aie Abroad, and : 


Notices of Recent Scientific Literature ). igs 
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METALLURGY. ENGINEERING. TECHNOLOGY, 


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EDITED BY 


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No. XLII. 


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(The Copyright of Articles in this Fournal is Reserved.| 


CONTENTS .OF- No... XEL. 


On THE FLINT AND CHERT IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN 
KENT’s CAVERN, NEAR Torquay, DEVONSHIRE. By 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S., &c. 

On RECENT EXTRAORDINARY OSCILLATIONS OF THE 
WATERS IN LAKE ONTARIO AND ON THE SEA-SHORES 
oF PERU, AUSTRALIA, DEVONSHIRE, CORNWALL, &c. 


By Richard Edmonds . - = : : : : 
THE Native Copper MINES oF Lake Superior. By 
James Douglas ¢ ; : ; - . : ° 


On THE MODERN HypoTHEsEs oF AToMIc MATTER AND 
LuMINIFEROUS ETHER. By Henry Deacon. 

EXHIBITION IN MANCHESTER OF APPLIANCES FOR THE 
PRODUCTION AND ECONOMICAL USE OF FUEL 

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NUMBER OF CONSTITUENTS, 
ELEMENTS, AND MINoRS oF A DETERMINANT. By 
Captain Allan Cunningham, R.E., Honorary Fellow of 
King’s College, London. : : . 3 : 


NOTICES OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS. 


St. Clair’s ** Darwinism and Design; or Creation by Evolution ” 
Stewart’s ‘‘ The Conservation of Energy” . : : - 5 
Ribot’s “* Contemporary English Psychology ” : 
Pettigrew’s ‘Animal Locomotion; or Walking, Swimming, and 


Flying” . - 


Smith’s ‘ Fruits and Petiaaees the Proper faaed of Man 7 
Geikie’s ‘ Geology ” : : : : wae ; - 


PAGE 


I4I 


156 
162 


180 


194 


212 


229 
232 
236 


237 
239 
249 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE 
Marshall’s ‘‘A Phrenologist Amongst the Todas, or the Study 
of a Primitive Tribe in South India; History, Character, 
Customs, Religion, Infanticide, Polyandry, Language” . 240 
Jordan’s ‘The Ocean; its Tides and Currents, and their Causes” 246 
Alleyne Nicholson’s * Outlines of Natural History for Beginners” 248 


Winslow’s “Manual of Lunacy” . : : ; - 250 
Armstrong's *‘ Introduction to the Study of os Crfemistey® 250 
Rodwell’s ‘The Birth of Chemistry” . ; : : 5 » S5e 
Miller’s ‘‘ Elements of Chemistry ” : + 252 
Davies’s ‘‘ The Preparation and Mounting of icrtcone Objects” 252 
Lankester’s ‘‘ Half Hours with the Microscope” . : : - 253 
Gosse’s “‘ Evenings at the Microscope, or Researches among the . 

Minuter Organs and Forms of Animal Life” . : - 254 
Culley’s ‘‘ Handbook of Practical Telegraphy” . : : - 255 
Bullock’s ‘‘Student’s Class Book of Animal Physiology ”. - 257 
Nelthropp’s ‘ Treatise on Watch-work” : : : 5 - 259 


PROGRESS IN SCIENCE. 


Including Proceedings of Learned Societies at Home and Abroad, and 
Notices of Recent Scientific Literature. 


MINING . . . : . . : : : F i - 261 
METALLURGY . ° : . : : : : : ° . 263 
MINERALOGY . ; : . ‘ ‘ 5 - - ; - 264 
ENGINEERING . - 5 : : : : : . : - 266 
GEOLOGY . : : ; : ° ° : ° ; : - 271 
PHysics . : ; E F : : . : : : - 273 


TECHNOLOGY . : F : :. ; < . 280 


Segbiteterrsseetrs 


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The Ouarterly Journal cf Scones No XLT: April ISTE. 


THE QUARTERLY 


meee NAL OF SCIENCE. 


APRIL, 1874. 


Peon THE FLINT AND CHERT IMPLEMENTS 
FOUND IN KENT’S CAVERN, NEAR 
TORQUAY, “DEVONSHIRE. 


By inV. -PENGELLY,, FF RiS., » ke: 
eS the northern shore of the beautiful inlet of the 
We 


English Channel known as Torbay, in Devonshire, 

stand the town and harbour of Torquay; and about 
a mile eastward from the harbour there is a small hill,. con- 
sisting exclusively of limestone, and containing the cele- 
brated Kent’s Hole or Cavern. It is but little more than 
200 feet above mean tide, whilst immediately on the south- 
west, and about half a mile to the north-west, rise two 
loftier eminences, known as Lincombe and Warberry Hills, 
consisting of grey shales and dark red grits, and reaching the 
heights of 372 and 450 feet respectively. 

Though the cavern seems to have been well known at 
least three centuries ago, the attention of palzontologists 
and anthropologists was first directed to it by the labours 
and discoveries of the late Rev. J]. MacEnery, of Torquay. 
In his ‘Cavern Researches,” he says :—‘‘ In the summer of 
1825, Dr. Buckland, accompanied by Mr. Northmore, of 
Cleve, visited the cave of Kent’s Hole in search of bones. I 
attended them. Nothing remarkable was discovered that 
day, excepting the tooth of a rhinoceros and a flint blade. 
This was the first instance of the occurrence of British 
relics being noticed in this, or, I believe, in any other cave. 
Both these relics ’twas my good fortune to find.’’* 

Towards the close of the same year, he commenced a 
somewhat systematic exploration of the Cavern, and, in the 
course of his researches, met with a considerable number of 
flint implements; and, believing the ground in which they 
were met with to have been previously broken up, he set 
himself seriously to work to ascertain whether or not they 
occurred under the undisturbed floor of stalagmite, covering 


* Trans. Devon. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and 
Art, vol. iii., p. 441. 1869. 
VOL. V. (N.S.) T 


142 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


the loam or muddy deposit now known as Cave-earth. His 
description of this work is so graphic, displaying at once his 
mode of operation and his mental excitement, that I cannot 
refrain from quoting it :— 

‘‘ Having cleared away on all sides the loose mould and 
all suspicious appearances, I dug under the regular [stalag- 
mitic] crust, and flints presented themselves to my hand. 
This electrified me. I called the attention of my fellow- 
labourer... and in his presence extracted from the red marl 
arrow and lance-heads. I instantly proceeded to the ex- 
cavation inside, which was only a few feet distant in the same 
continuous line, and formed part of the same plate—the crust 
is about two feet thick, steady (7.c., of uniform thickness); the 
clay rathera light red. About three inches below the crust, the 
tooth of an ox met my eye: I called the people to witness the 
fact, ... and not knowing the chance of finding flints, I then 
proceeded to dig under it, and at about a foot I dug out a flint 
arrow-head. This confirmation—I confess it—startled me. I 
dug again, and behold, asecond! of the same size and colour 
(black). I struck my hammer into the earth a third time,anda 
third arrow-head, but white, answered to the blow. This was 
evidence beyond all question. I then desisted, not wishing 
to exhaust the bed, but, in case of cavil, leaving others an 
opportunity of verifying my statements by actual obser- 
vation.’’* 

The following is the substance of his further remarks on 
the subje¢t:—The implements lay ordinarily between the 
bottom of the stalagmite and the upper surface of the cave- 
earth, but were occasionally, though rarely, buried a few 
inches deep in the latter, and mixed with the bones of the 
extinét cave mammals. None occurred in the stalagmite 
itself. Some were broken, and, as in the case of bones in a 
similar condition, the separated parts were found at some 
distance from each other. Instances were met with of 
indurated or coherent masses made up of Cave-earth, stones, 
fossil bones, and flint tools. In common with most observers 
of that time, he ascribed the introduction of the Cave-earth 
to the Deluge, and though, under the influence of Dr. Buck- 
Jand, he finally expressed the belief that the implements 
were “ post-diluvial,” he contended that the facts just enume- 
rated seemed ‘“‘to countenance the opposite hypothesis ;” 
though he was staggered by the belief that there were no 
implements in the cave-earth at depths exceeding a few 
inches, and no remains of the extinét mammals in the 


* Trans. Devon. Assoc., vol. iii., pp. 329-30. 


1874.] in Kent’s-Cavern.  - 143 


stalagmitic floor. His conviction was decided and firm that 
before the commencement of the formation of the stalagmite 
the tools occupied the place in which he discovered them ; 
and when he found Dr. Buckland inclined to attribute them 
toa more modern date by supposing that the ancient Britons 
had scooped out ovens in the stalagmite, and that they had 
thus got admission to the cave-earth, he replied—‘‘ Without 
stopping to dwell on the difficulty of ripping up a solid floor, 
which, notwithstanding the advantage of undermining and 
the exposure of its edges, still defies all our efforts, though 
commanding the apparatus of the quarry, I am bold to say 
that in no instance have I discovered evidence of breaches 
or ovens in the floor, but one continuous plate of stalagmite 
diffused uniformly over the loam.” ‘‘It is painful,” he 
adds, ‘‘ to dissent from so high authority, and more particu- 
larly so from my concurrence generally in his views of the 
phenomena of these caves, which three years’ personal 
observation has in almost every instance enabled me to 
verity.”’* 

Mr. Godwin-Austen, who, familiar with MacEnery’s 
discoveries, had supplemented them with independent 
researches of his own, writes thus, in 1840:—‘ Arrow- 
heads and knives of flint occur in all parts of the 
cave, and throughout the entire thickness of the clay ; and 
no distinction founded on distribution or relative position 
can be observed whereby the human can be separated from 
the other veliquie.”t It is noteworthy, perhaps, that this 
important statement entirely removed the chief difficulty 
which MacEnery felt, in view of the hypothesis that man 
was, in Devonshire, contemporary with the extinct cave 
mammals. He believed that the flint tools did not occur at 
_ depths of more than a few inches in the cave-earth. It was 
reserved for Godwin-Austen to discover that, like the fossil 
bones, they were to be met with at all depths. 

In 1846, a committee appointed by the Torquay Natural 
History Society carried on some very limited but most 
careful explorations in the Cavern; and make the follow- 
ing statement in their report, drawn up by Mr. E. Vivian, 
and read, the following year, to the Geological Society of 
London and the British Association :—“‘ After taking every 
precaution, by sweeping the surface and examining most 
minutely whether there were any traces of the floor having 
been previously disturbed, we broke through the solid 


* Trans. Devon. Assoc., vol. iii., pp. 334 and 338. 
+ Trans. Geol. Soc. of London, (2nd series), vol. vi., p. 444. 1842. 


144 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


stalagmite in three different parts of the cavern, and in 
each instance found flint knives. ...In the spot where the 
most highly finished specimen was found, the passage was 
so low that it was extremely difficult, with quarrymen’s 
tools and good workmen, to break through the crust; and 
the supposition that it had been previously disturbed is im- 
possible.’’* 

Notwithstanding these repeated and concurrent announce- 
ments by independent and competent explorers, even the 
scientific world remained perfectly apathetic or altogether 
sceptical.: Nor were they more influenced by the researches, 
with similar results, carried on in the caverns near Liége, 
by Dr. Schmerling, in 1833-34, or those of M. Boucher de 
Perthes in the river gravels of the Somme, a few years 
later. This strange apathy appears to have been based 
partly on the impression that the work had not been 
executed with sufficient care, and partly on the feeling that 
the belief respecting the date of the first appearance of man 
on the earth which held possession of almost every mind 
neither could nor should be disturbed. 

Be this as it may, such was the attitude of most men of 
science up to 1858, when some quarrymen, in the ordinary 
course of their work, broke unexpectedly into a virgin 
cavern on Windmill Hill, Brixham, on the southern shore 
of Torbay. I almost immediately visited it, prevailed on 
the proprietor to discontinue the desultory excavations 
which he had begun, and secured from him the refusal of a 
lease in the cavern, in the hope that arrangements might be 
made for making a thorough and systematic exploration. 
It was soon after visited by the late Dr. Falconer, who, 
believing it might be capable of throwing light on certain 
paleontological problems then awaiting solution, prevailed 
on the Royal and Geological Societies of London to under- 
take the work. It was entrusted to a committee of the 
latter body, who placed it under my immediate super- 
intendence as the only member residing in the district. The 
investigation was begun in July, 1858, and in the following 
September I was able to announce to the British Association, 
at Leeds, that in the new cavern flint implements had been 
found under an unbroken floor of stalagmite, deep in the 
cave-earth, and mingled with the remains of the ordinary 
extinét cave mammals. It was at once felt that the method 
and care which had been observed in the work rendered it 
impossible to doubt or to ignore the facts, or to resist the 


* Report Brit. Assoc., 1847. Proceedings of the Sections, p. 73. 


1874.] in Kent's Cavern. 145 


conviction that man had, in Britain, been the contemporary 
of animals which had become extinct, and that his first 
appearance was of higher antiquity than had generally been 
supposed. 

In the autumn of 1858, the exploration at Brixham being 
still in progress, Dr. Falconer, having visited M. Boucher de 
Perthes, urged Mr. Prestwich to proceed to the valley of the 
Somme, and make a careful examination of the sections for 
himself. This was accordingly complied with, and the 
latter geologist, by embodying the results of his observa- 
tions in a paper read to the Royal Society in May, 1859, 
may be said to have completed the revolution. Sir Charles 
Lyell, when opening the Geological Section of the British 
Association at Aberdeen, in September of the same year, not 
only announced his adhesion to the new opinion, but became 
one of its most powerful advocates; and so great and 
widely spread was the interest felt in the question that 
when, in 1863, he published his ‘‘ Geological Evidences of 
the Antiquity of Man,” he had the pleasure of placing the 
third edition of his work in the hands of the public before 
the end of the year. 

It being felt to be on many accounts desirable to make a 
systematic exploration of the large branches of Kent’s 
Cavern still remaining intact, the British Association, when 
assembled at Bath, in 1864, appointed a large committee to 
carry on the work, and placed at their disposal a consider- 
able grant of money for the purpose. ‘The investigation, 
under the immediate superintendence of Mr. Vivian and 
myself—the only two resident members of the committee— 
was commenced on 28th March, 1865; it has been con- 
tinued to the present time, and is still in progress. Nine 
annual reports have been sent in to the Association and 
ordered to be printed, and ample grants of money have been 
voted every year. 

It is my object in the present paper to state what stone 
implements have been discovered in the cavern, and to call 
attention to the fact that whilst all the noteworthy speci- 
mens are unpolished, and found with the remains of extin& 
mammals, they belong to two distinét classes, eras, and 
stages of civilisation. 

Though there are said to be persons capable of believing 
that the so-called stone implements found in Kent’s Hole 
and other caverns, as well as in the river-gravels, are merely 
natural products, it is not my intention to say one word on 
that question. It has been treated so fully and so ably by 
various writers as to deprive me of any pretence for attempting 


146 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


to add anything to the literature of the subject, and also 
of any hope that such additions as I might be able to 
make would have the least effect on those still remaining in 
a sceptical state. 

It may be as well at the outset to describe the successive 
deposits, and their principal contents, met with in the 
cavern during the exploration now in progress. They are 
as follow, in descending order :— 

Ist, or uppermost. Blocks of limestone, from a few pounds 
to upwards of 100 tons each, which had fallen from the roof 
from time to time, and were in some instances cemented 
together with carbonate of lime. 

and. Beneath and between the blocks just mentioned lay 
a dark-coloured mud, consisting largely of decayed leaves 
and other vegetable matter, from 3 to 12 inches thick, 
and known as the Black Mould. 

3rd. Under this was a stalagmitic floor, commonly of 
granular texture, varying from an inch or even less to 
upwards of 5 feet in thickness, frequently containing 
large blocks of limestone, and termed the Gvranular 
Stalagmite. 

4th. An almost black layer, about 4 inches thick, com- 
posed mainly of small fragments of charred wood, and dis- 
tinguished as the Black Band, occupied an area of about 
100 square feet, immediately under the granular stalagmite, 
and, where nearest to it, about 32 feet from one of the 
entrances to the cavern. Nothing resembling it was found 
elsewhere. 

5th. Immediately under the Granular Stalagmite and the 
Black Band, lay an accumulation of light red clay, con- 
taining on the average about 50 per cent of small angular 
fragments of limestone, and somewhat numerous blocks of 
the same materials as-large as those already mentioned as 
lying on the Black Mould. In this deposit, known as the 
Cave-earth, many of the stones and osseous remains were, at 
all depths, invested with thin stalagmitic films; and it 
occasionally contained large isolated masses of stalagmite 
having a very crystalline texture, sub-angular and rounded 
fragments of quartz and dark red grit sometimes cemented 
into more or less round detached lumps of firm concrete, 
and a very few granitoid pebbles. The Cave-earth was 
usually of unknown depth, certainly and perhaps greatly . 
exceeding 4 feet, but it was occasionally much less, and 
in some instances there was none. 

6th. Wherever the bottom of the Cave-earth was reached, 
there was found beneath it a floor of stalagmite having a 


1874.] in Kent's Cavern. 147 


crystalline texture, identical with that of the isolated masses 
just mentioned as being incorporated in the Cave-earth. 
This, designated the Crystalline Stalagmite, was usually of 
greater thickness than the upper or granular floor, in the 
same branch of the Cavern, and was in some instances but 
little short of 12 feet. Where there was no Cave-earth, the 
two stalagmites lay one immediately on the other. 

yth. Below the whole occurred, so far as is at present 
known, the lowest and oldest of the deposits which the 
Cavern now contains. It was composed of sub-angular and 
rounded pieces of quartz and dark red grit, the latter being 
the more prevalent, embedded in a sandy paste of the same 
colour. Small angular fragments of limestone, and thin 
investing films of stalagmite, both prevalent in the Cave- 
earth as already stated, were extremely rare; large blocks 
of limestone were occasionally met with, and the deposit, to 
which the name of Breccia has been given, was of a depth 
exceeding that to which the exploration has yet been carried. 

The masses of Crystalline Stalagmite and the fragments 
and lumps of dark red grit found embedded in the Cave- 
earth are undoubtedly portions, not 7 sztu, of the two older 
deposits—the Crystalline Stalagmitic floor and the Breccia— 
and show that these accumulations had been broken up by 
some natural agency at least partially before the introduc- 
tion of the Cave-earth into the Cavern, and that they were 
formerly of greater volume than at present. 

Excepting the overlying blocks of limestone (No. 1), which 
need not be mentioned again, all the deposits contained 
remains of animals. In the Black Mould, the most modern 
accumulation, they were those of species still existing, and 
almost all of them now occupying the district. They were 
man, dog, fox, badger, brown bear, Bos longifrons, roe-deer, 
sheep, goat, pig, hare, rabbit, water-rat, and seal. 

In the Granular Stalagmite, Black Band, and Cave-earth, 
extinct as well as recent species presented themselves. The 
cave-hyzena was the most prevalent, but was followed very 
closely by the horse and rhinoceros. Remains of the 
so-called Irish elk, wild-bull, bison, red-deer, mammoth, 
badger, the cave, grizzly, and brown bears, were by no 
means rare; those of the cave-lion, wolf, fox, and rein- 
deer were less numerous; and those of beaver, glutton, and 
Machairodus latidens were very scarce. ‘The presence of the 
hyzena was also announced by his coprolites, by bones 
broken after a manner still followed by existing members of 
the same genus, and by the marks of his teeth found ona 
very large proportion of the osseous remains. 


148 Flint and Chert Implements [April, 


In the lowest deposits—the Crystalline Stalagmite and the 
Breccia—remains of animals were less uniformly distributed. 
In some instances there were none throughout considerable 
volumes of the deposits, whilst in others they were so 
numerous as to form 50 per cent of the entire deposit. To 
use the language of one of the workmen employed in the 
exploration, ‘‘they lay about as thick as if they had been 
thrown there with a shovel.” So far as is at present known, 
they were exclusively the remains of bears. Not only were 
there no bones of the hyzena, there were none of his feces, 
none of his teeth-marks, no bones fractured according to his 
well-known pattern,—nothing whatever to indicate his 
existence. 

The bones found in the uppermost deposit—the Black 
Mould—were of much less specific gravity than those in the 
accumulation below it, and were generally so light as to 
float in water. Those in the two sets of deposits repre- 
sented by the Cave-earth and the Breccia respectively, had 
lost their animal matter, and adhered to the tongue when 
applied to it so as frequently to support their own weight ; 
but those from the Breccia and its Stalagmite—the lowest 
deposits—were distinguished from those of the Cave-earth 
series in being much more mineralised, more brittle, and by 
frequently emitting a metallic sound when struck. 

The following general statements may be of service, by 
way of recapitulation, before proceeding further :— 

Ist. The Cavern contained three distinét mechanical 
accumulations—the Black Mould, or uppermost, or most 
modern; the Cave-earth, including the local Black Band ; 
and the Breccia, or lowermost, or most ancient. Their 
mode of succession was never transgressed, and the materials 
of which they consisted were so very dissimilar as to charac- 
terise them with great distinctness. 

and. These three accumulations were separated by two 
distinct floors of stalagmite having strongly contrasted cha- 
racters. That dividing the Black Mould, or uppermost 
deposit, from the Cave-earth was granular; whilst that lying 
between the Cave-earth and Breccia, or lowermost deposit, 
was eminently crystalline. 

3rd. Animal remains occurred everywhere, but were 
much more abundant in the mechanical deposits than in the 
stalagmites. 

4th. The period represented by the Black Mould—the 
most modern period—may, as a matter of convenience, and 
so far as the Cavern is concerned, be termed the Ovine period, 
remains of sheep being restricted to this accumulation. 


1874.] in Kent’s Cavern. 149 


5th. The period of the Granular Stalagmite, Black Band, 
and Cave-earth may be denominated the Hyenine period, the 
remains of hyzna being confined to these deposits, and 
more prevalent there than those of any other species. 

6th. The period of the Crystalline Stalagmite and Breccia 
—the most ancient period represented by the Cavern deposits 
so far as they are at present known—may be called the 
Ursine period, these deposits having yielded remains of bear 
only. It must be understood, however, that bears are repre- 
sented in all the deposits. 

“7th. The bones of each period were distinguishable by 
their condition; those from the Black Mould being lighter, 
and those found in the Breccia being more mineralised, than 
the products of the Cave-earth. 

Flint and chert implements presented themselves in each 
of the mechanical deposits, and, as in the case of the bones, 
those belonging to any one of them were easily distinguish- 
able from those of the other two. 

The implements of the Black Mould—the Ovine, or most 
modern period—were of the ordinary colour of common 
flints. ‘They were mere flakes and ‘‘strike-lights,” the latter 
probably used and cast aside or lost by those who, during a 
long period, and before the invention of lucifer-matches, 
acted as guides to the Cavern. All further mention of them 
may be omitted as not being noteworthy. 

Omitting mere flakes and chips, of which there were 
great numbers, the principal implements found in the Cave- 
earth—the Hyzenine period—were ovoid, lanceolate, and 
tongue-shaped, produced by fashioning, not flint or chert 
nodules, but flakes struck off them for the purpose. They 
were of comparatively delicate proportions; those of flint 
were usually of a white colour and porcellanous aspect, and 
having, through metamorphosis, a granular chalk-like texture. 

mhese are “not the only human industrial remains found 
in the Cave-earth, as it has yielded a bone needle or bodkin 
with a well-formed eye, three bone harpoons or fish spears— 
one of them barbed on both sides, and the others on one 
only—a bone pin, a bone awl, hammer stones, ‘ whetstones,” 
charred bones and wood, and a badger’s canine tooth having 
its fang artificially perforated apparently for the purpose of 
being strung with other objects to form a necklace or 
bracelet—an indication that the cave men of the Hyznine 
period occupied themselves in making ornaments as well as 
objects of mere utility. 

The implements from the Breccia—the Ursine, or most 
ancient of the periods—were much more rudely formed, 

VOL. V. (N.S.) U 


150 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


more massive, less symmetrical in outline, and made by 
operating, not on flakes, but directly on nodules, which 
appear to have been derived from supracretaceous gravels 
between Torquay and Newton Abbot, about four miles from 
the Cavern, and generally retain portions of the original 
surface. It is obvious, however, that even such tools could 
not be made without the dislodgement of flakes or chips 
from the nodule, and, accordingly, remnants of this kind 
have presented themselves in the Breccia, but they are all ofa 
very rude character. There was also a mass of flint which 
may have been a ‘‘core” from which flakes had been 
struck, or, what seems not less probable, the useless result 
of an abortive attempt to make a tool. 

No such implements have been found in the Cave-earth, 
nor have any of the comparatively slender, symmetrical 
tools of this less ancient deposit been found in the Breccia. 
They are by no means so abundant as those of the Cave- 
earth; that is to say a given volume of Breccia has not 
yielded so many implements as would on the average occur 
in an equal volume of the more modern accumulation. 
Whether equal periods of time are represented by equal 
volumes of deposit in the two cases, or whether equal 
periods of time represent equal numbers of human cave 
dwellers or tool-makers in the two eras, are questions which 
present themselves, but into which it is not possible to go 
fully at present. Omitting rude flakes and chips as well as 
the “‘ core” or “ failure” just mentioned, the Breccia has up 
to this time yielded no more than eleven specimens of the 
kind. It must be remembered, however, that the time 
during which the explorers have been excavating the Brecciais 
comparatively short. The implements just mentioned are 
the only indications of man which have been found belonging 
to the Ursine period. 

That the implements from the Breccia belonged to an 
earlier period than those from the Cave-earth is obvious from 
the position they occupied; they were lodged in a deposit 
which, when the two were found in the same vertical section, 
invariably underlay the Cave-earth. In fact, every tool 
found in the Breccia actually had Cave-earth above it. 

That the two periods were separated by a great chrono- 
logical interval is indicated by the geological and palezonto- 
logical facts, and the considerations growing out of them :— 

1st. The Breccia and the Cave-earth, though deposited on 
the same area, were very dissimilar, as has been stated; the 
former consisting of a dark red sandy paste containing a very 
large number of sub-angular and rounded fragments of dark 


1874.] wn Kent's Cavern. I51I 


red grit, which, though derivable from the adjacent and 
loftier eminences, the Cavern-hill could not supply ; and the 
latter, or more modern, being made up of a light red clay 
with small angular fragments of limestone. 

and. ‘These two deposits were separated by a sheet of 
Crystalline Stalagmite, in some places almost 12 feet thick, 
formed after the materials of the Breccia had all been 
introduced, but before the introduction of the Cave-earth 
commenced. 

3rd. After the Stalagmite just mentioned had sealed up 
the Breccia, it was in extensive parts of the Cavern, broken 
up by some natural agency, and much of the underlying 
Breccia was dislodged and carried out of the Cavern, before 
the first instalment of Cave-earth was deposited. 

4th. The Cavern faunz during the two periods were very 
dissimilar: that of the Breccia did not include the hyena, 
which played so conspicuous a part in the Cavern history 
during the subsequent Cave-earth era, and whose agency, 
next to that of man, made cavern searching an important 
branch of science. When his cavern-haunting habits are 
remembered, it will be seen that his absence in the one 
fauna, and his presence in the other, render it eminently 
probable that he was not an occupant of Britain during the 
earlier period. 

The same inference cannot with an equal approach to 
certainty be drawn respecting the horse, ox, deer, &c., 
though the absence of their remains from the Breccia is 
equally pronounced ; for it may be presumed that their bones 
occur in caverns simply because their dead bodies were 
dragged there piecemeal by the hyzena, and this could not 
have occurred, even though they had crowded the country, 
before the arrival of the great bone-eating scavenger who 
made the Cavern his home. 

The remains of the bear in the Breccia present no 
difficulty, for their introduction did not require the agency 
of the hyzena, since the bear is a cave-dweller. Dr. Leith 
Adams, F.R.S., so well known as a naturalist and cavern 
explorer, writing me on the subject, says:—‘‘ The Brown 
Bear of the western Himalayas hybernates, choosing chiefly 
caverns and rock crevices, which it abandons in spring to 
wander about; but old individuals, when no longer equal to 
the same amount of exertion, take to a secluded life, and 
usually select a cavern on a rocky mountain side, at the base 
of which there is abundant verdure and shade, with a pool 
or spring where they bathe frequently, or recline during the 
heat of the day to escape the annoyance of insects. Such 


152 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


retreats are easily discovered by the animals’ footprints on 
the soil and turf. They are seen like steps of stairs leading 
from the pool in the direction of the den, being brought 
about by the individual always treading in the same track. 
Thus the patriarch or hermit bears spend their latter years 
in one situation, pursuing the even tenor of their ways to 
the little stream or pond below, and grassy slopes, to feed on 
the rank vegetation, returning regularly to the caverns, 
where they end their days.” 

5th. The deposits just described are obviously not only 
distinct, successive, and protracted terms in the Cavern 
chronology, but indicators of changes in the conditions of 
the geographical features of the immediately surrounding 
country, and of the relation of the Cavern to it. During the 
period of the Breccia there was a machinery capable of 
transporting from Lincombe hill, or Warberry hill, or both, 
or from some greater distance, fragments of dark red grit, 
varying in size from pieces four inches in mean diameter to 
mere sand, and lodging them in the Cavern. This so 
completely passed away that nothing was carried in; but 
the deposit, already there, was covered with a thick sheet 
of Crystalline Stalagmite obtained through the solution 
of portions of the limestone in the heart of which the 
Cavern lay. ‘This also ended: the stalagmite was broken 
up by some natural agency, apparently not by one effort, but 
by many in succession, and much of the Breccia was 
dislodged and carried out of the Cavern. This having in 
like manner come to a close, again a deposit was introduced ; 
but, instead of being dark red stones and sand, as in the 
former instance, it was a light red clay; and in it were 
embedded small fragments of limestone, which, from their 
angularity, could not have been rolled, but were in all 
probability supplied by the waste of the walls and roof of 
the Cavern itself. It contained also the bones of numerous 
species of mammals, and of these the remains of the hyzena 
were the most prevalent. 

Nor is the paleontology of the two periods less significant 
of physical charges. If the absence of any traces of the 
hyzena from the older deposit has been corre¢tly interpreted 
above, as signifying that the species was not then an 
occupant of Britain, it follows thatit was subsequently possible 
for him to arrive here, or, in other words, Britain had 
become connected by dry land with the Continent. In short, 
the facts point to the conclusion that the earliest Devonshire 
men known to us—the men of the Ursine, the Breccia 
period—saw this country an island as we see it, and that in 


1874.] in Kent's Cavern. 153 


the time of their descendants, or their successors, prior to 
the Hyzenine or Cave-earth era, it had reached a continental 
condition. This latter condition has so long ceased that 
the earliest traditions respecting our land recognise it as an 
island, even though they profess to go back to a time when 
Anglesea was not yet detached from Wales.* 

Readers of Sir C. Lyell’s ‘‘ Antiquity of Man” are aware 
that he recognises two distinct periods in geologically recent 
times when Britain was in a continental condition. He 
supposes that the well-known ‘‘forest of Cromer,” in Norfolk, 
in which Scotch and spruce first were prevalent, flourished 
at the close of the first of them; that in the intervening 
period, the land north of the Thames and Bristol Channel 
was gradually submerged until a few mountain tops alone 
remained above the sea; and, from the evidence then 
available, that the first appearance of man when - 
he ranged from all parts of the Continent into the British 
area, took place during the second continental period.” ft 

If, however, the new evidence from Kent’s Cavern has 
been correctly interpreted above, the first appearance of 
Man in Britain was prior to the second continental period, 
and must have been at least as early as the previous insular 
era. Indeed, unless we suppose him to have possessed the 
means of navigation, it must have been in the first 
continental period. 

It is worthy of remark that the hypothesis that the land 
south of the Thames and Bristol Channel was not submerged 
during the interval separating the two continental periods, 
harmonises well with the supposition that Devonshire was 
occupied by man during that interval. 

Without at present attempting to pursue further the 
question of the relation of the oldest Devonshire men yet 
known to Glacial times, I cannot divest myself of the belief 
that the complete exploration of Kent’s Cavern will furnish 
a definite reply to it. 

Though no one acquainted with the present state of 
the evidence would attempt to express in years, or other 
astronomical units, the amount of time represented by the de- 
posits of the Ovine and Hyznine periods, it cannot be doubted 
that the spindle whorls, the pottery, the bone combs, and 
the fibule of the Black Mould—the first or uppermost of 
these—go back to Romano-British and Pre-Roman times, to 
at least two thousand years from the present day as a 
Minimum. All thatisknown about the Granular Stalagmite— 


* See the 67th of the Historical Triads of Britain. 
+ Antiquity of Man, pp. 282-3. 


154 Flint and Chert Implements (April, 


the preceding term of the series—points to the conclusion 
that it was formed slowly. That the main lines of 
drainage through the roof have remained unaltered is seen 
in the facts. that those parts of the cavern which have an 
unusually thick floor of stalagmite have also, at present, 
more than an ordinarily copious drip; where the floor is but 
thin the drip is never of great amount; and where there is 
no floor—for a few such places occur—the cavern is quite dry 
at allseasons; and further, wherever a conspicuous stalactite 
depended from the roof, there was found, vertically below, 
rising from the Granular Stalagmitic floor a considerable boss 
of the same material to meet it ; and whenever the lower or 
Crystalline Stalagmitic floor was found in such a se¢tion, a 
similar but larger boss existed on it also. In_ several 
parts of the Cavern there are names, initials, and dates 
inscribed on the Granular Stalagmite, where it is certainly of 
great thickness, and where additions are still being made to 
it. There is satisfactory evidence of their genuineness; and, 
though some of them are upwards of two hundred and fifty 
years old, and are slightly glazed over, they are perfectly 
legible, and the film accreted on them cannot be more than 
the twentieth of an inch in thickness. It is not pretended, 
of course, that this rate must be taken as a trustworthy 
chronometer for the entire thickness, but those who object 
to it must expect to be called on to state why they do so; 
and even if the objection should be sustained, it will be 
seen that, when a thickness of five feet presents itself for 
measurement—a rate even ten times as great as that which 
has certainly obtained for more than two and a half 
centuries—betokens a great antiquity. 

That the Cave-earth, every portion of which is necessarily 
older than the most ancient part of the stalagmite covering 
it, was accumulated very slowly is seen in the great number 
of small angular fragments with which the walls of the 
cavern have crowded it, and in the films of stalagmite 
which, as already stated, invest the bones and stones every- 
where throughout the total depth of the mass, since each 
such film indicates that the spot the invested objet occupies 
was a portion of the floor of the Cavern during a time sufficient 
for its accretion, and that it was only prevented from growing 
into a thick wide-spread sheet by the introduction and lodge- 
ment on it of a small instalment of Cave-earth. 

Whatever be the aggregate amount of time represented by 
the less ancient deposits just spoken of, there can be little 
doubt that at least fully as much is absorbed by the more 
ancient cavern history, of which the formation of the 
Breccia and Crystalline Stalagmite, as well as the subsequent 


1874. in Kent’s Cavern. rae 


destruction and dislodgement of great portions of these, are 
the exponents. It may be true that the Breccia was 
introduced at a more rapid rate than the Cave-earth ; and, 
indeed, this is rendered not improbable by the great paucity 
of angular fragments of limestone, as well as of films of 
Stalagmite in the older deposit ; but this is probably more 
than neutralised by the immense thickness of the Crystalline 
or older Stalagmite as compared with that of the Granular or 
more modern; the former being in one chamber but little 
short of 12 feet, whilst the latter has in no instance much 
exceeded 5 feet. 

In short, and speaking for myself, however far back in 
antiquity the fabricators of the Cave-earth tools take their, 
stand, I cannot hesitate to place those of the implements of 
the Breccia as much further back. Many must remember, 
and perhaps few were surprised at, the alarm occasioned by 
the antiquity of man disclosed by the researches in Brixham 
Cavern, in 1858; and now, cavern researches, growing out of 
those just mentioned, appear to me to make an irresistible 
demand to have human antiquity in Britain at least doubled. 

Up to the present time, as the Cavern has disclosed more 
and more ancient men, it has shown that they were ruder 
and ruder as they withdrew into antiquity. The men of the 
Black Mould had a great variety of bone implements, they 
used spindle whorls, and made pottery, and smelted and 
compounded metals. The older men of the Cave-earth 
made a few bone tools, they used needles, and probably 
stitched skins together, and even perforated badgers’ teeth 
to enable them to be strung as necklaces or bracelets, but 
they had neither spindle whorls nor pottery, nor metals of 
any kind; their most powerful weapons were made of flakes 
of flint and chert, many of them symmetrically formed and 
carefully chipped, but it seems never to have occurred to 
them to increase their efficiency by polishing them. The 
still more ancient men of the Breccia have left behind them 
not even a single bone tool; they made implements of 
nodules, not flakes, of flint and chert; tools that were rude and 
massive, had but little regularity of outline, and were but 
roughly chipped. 

It has not been unusual to hear the men of the Cave- 
earth period spoken of as Primeval Men, or Aborigines of 
Devonshire ; the discovery of men of higher antiquity in the 
Same area is at once a proof that the names are inappro- 
priate, and a warning against applying them to even the men 
of the Breccia; for, though these are no doubt the oldest 
men yet known to us, they hint that further discoveries may 
yet be made. 


( 156 ) 


II. ON RECENT EXTRAORDINARY OSCILLA- 
TIONS OF THE WATERS IN LAKE ONTARIO 
AND ON THE 


SEA-SHORES OF PERU, AUSTRALIA, 
DEVONSHIRE, CORNWALL, &c. 


By RicHARD EDMONDs. 


Yk HESE tide-like alternating currents, which resemble in 
all respects those observed on the shores of this and 
other countries on the days of the two great earth- 

quakes of 1755 and 1761, commence generally, if not always, 

with an efflux, and occupy from five to ten minutes in ebbing, 
and about the same time in flowing, the ebb and flow and 
the imperceptible interval between them never exceeding 
twenty minutes. Those on the 5th of July, 1843, were 
observed between the hours of If a.m. and 5 p.m. in 

Plymouth, Falmouth, Mountsbay, the Scilly Isles, Bristol, 

and on the eastern coast of Scotland at North Berwick and 

Arbroath. ‘Those of the 29th of September, 1869, occurred 

on the northern as well as on the southern coasts of Devon- 

shire and Cornwall, and at the Scilly Isles. Of these and 
all the intermediate ones of importance in these two counties 

I have written full descriptions, including all meteorological 

particulars.* 

These currents, when running in and out of piers or 
narrow channels, often drive vessels from their moorings, 
and dash them against one another. But when they are 
moving up and down a wide open beach, the motion is so 
quiet and tide-like that they would not be perceived unless 
they were watched for some time. This was amusingly 
exemplified at Penzance, when, during such an oscillation, 
some children who had been long enough on the beach to 
discover it made a play of their discovery, by inducing other 
children who had not observed it to go out on some rocks 
left dry by an efflux, where they were soon surrounded, and 
for many minutes in a great fright lest they should be 
drowned. 

Such is the nature of these extraordinary oscillations 
after the first efflux, whether on sea-shores or on the shores of 
lakes. The first efflux is well illustrated by that in Lake 


* See “ Literary Gazette” of June, 1843; The ‘‘ Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal,” 1845, and following years until it merged into the * Quarterly Journal of 
Science ;” and the “Philosophical Magazine”’ for January, 1866, and January, 


1869. 


1874.] Alternating Currents. 157 


@mtario on the 13th of June, 1872, as related in the 
“Rochester Democrat ” of the 15th of that month. While 
some gentlemen of Rochester were in a boat near the beach, 
** where the water is usually 2 feet deep at least, their boat 
suddenly grounded, and the waters receding left her on a 
sand-bank. The gentlemen got out and strolled away, but 
looking back shortly after, they saw to their surprise the 
boat dashing about in apparently deep water. Securing the 
boat with some difficulty, they found her suddenly aground 
again, and as suddenly floated after a short interval. 
Becoming now interested in this curious ebb and flow of 
the lake, they diligently observed it for about three hours. 
The ebb and flow occurred every twenty minutes, that is, for ten 
minutes the water would gradually recede, then commence rising, 
and continue to rise for about ten minutes. The water rose 
2 feet and 3 or 4 inches above the ordinary level, then receded 
about the same distance below the usual level, making a variation 
_m the height of the water of nearly or quite 44 feet every twenty 
minutes.’ The above quotation is from the ‘‘ Croydon 
Chronicle” of July 13, 1872, and what I have italicised is 
also a quotation from an abbreviated notice in the ‘‘ Times” 
of the same date. 

There was a similar occurrence in this lake on the 2oth 
of September, 1845, when the waters suddenly moved “in 
a mass out of the rivers, bays, coves, harbours, &c.,” to 
a depth of 2 feet, and then returned to an equal height 
above their previous level. This happened on each side of 
the lake.* 

The explanation of these phenomena, whether in lakes or 
on the shores of the sea, I have given in the “‘ Transactions 
of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall” for 1843, and 
as it is the only one yet proposed that can reconcile all the 
observed facts connected with them, I will now give it more 
fully, and with the addition of some recent confirmatory facts. 

My hypothesis is that an earthquake shock proceeding 
upwards vertically from the interior of the earth reaches the 
basin of the lake. Now wherever this basin is horizontal 
the shock continues its vertical ascent up through the water 
as through a solid body, and with greater velocity than the 
most rapid flight of a cannon-ball; but none of the water is 
thereby displaced except the surface, which, as will be pre- 
sently exemplified, is dashed up vertically and then falls 
back into its previous place, no current being produced. If 
a ship were on the spot, it would receive the shock, and 


* Edinburgh New Phil. Journal for July, 1848, pp. 107-109. 
VOL. V. (N.S.) x 


158 Alternating Currents. [April, 


loose pieces of timber, or anchors lying on the deck, and 
even men standing on the deck, as will also presently be 
shown, would be jerked up to heights proportioned to the 
violence of the shock. Much of the basin of the lake, 
however, is not horizontal, but sloping from its shores. 
Therefore when the shock which had proceeded vertically 
up from the interior of the earth reached the inclined or 
sloping sides of the basin, it would not continue to proceed 
up through the incumbent water vertically or perpendicularly 
to the horizon, but perpendicularly to the inclined plane of 
the basin, whereby the surface water dashed off would be 
jerked towards the centre of the lake. What I have called 
an earthquake-shock is really, however, only a single vibra- 
tion of an earthquake-shock; for an earthquake-shock 
consists usually of a rapid succession of vibrations, sounding 
at sea ‘‘like the letting out of a cable,” and on land ‘‘likea 
waggon rushing over a paved road.” By such vibrations, 
therefore, from the sloping sides of the basin, even if there 
were only five or six in a second, and the shock lasted only 
30 seconds, a great heap of water would be raised. The 
first vibration would, as I have said, jerk the surface water 
towards the centre of the lake, and before this dashed off 
surface water had time to flow back to its place, fresh 
surfaces would be jerked in the same direction by succeeding 
vibrations, so that the successive surfaces, whilst being thus 
dashed off, would form a current towards the centre, to 
supply which an efflux from the shores would necessarily 
follow. This efflux would not cease until the vibrations 
ceased, and then the heaped-up waters would immediately 
flow back to the shores. The subsequent ebbings and 
flowings, like the oscillations of a pendulum, would continue 
until the equilibrium were restored. 

The extraordinary movements of the waters so often 
observed in the American lakes, though not always of the 
same description as the two in Lake Ontario above given, 
may all, I think, be accounted for by my hypothesis. For 
example, if the earthquake shock in the bed of the lake be 
very partial, and do not occur on its sloping sides, but only 
on shoals near its centre—say two hills, or two parallel 
ridges, with sides inclining down into the intermediate 
valley—then the waters driven from these opposite sides 
would meet over the valley and form a high wave, which 
might flow on to the shore and rush up without any previous 
efflux beyond that slight and momentary retirement of the 
water which always precedes the fall of a wave on the shore. 

I have said that a vertical shock proceeding from a 


1874.] Alternating Currents. 159 


horizontal portion of the basin of a lake occasions no 
current, because the surface of the water is thereby jerked 
up in jets perpendicular to the horizon, which jets fall back 
into the places they had previously occupied. An illustration 
of this appears in the following extract from the ‘‘Times ” of 
October 18, 1869, describing the effe¢éts of a vertical shock 
from a horizontal portion of the bed of the sea, over which 
a ship was then passing :—‘‘A correspondent writing from 
Valparaiso, on 3rd September, 1869, says, ‘I arrived here on 
the 28th ult, in the steam ship “‘ Payta,” from Callao. 

We left Arica in the morning of the 24th ult., and at 1.20 p.m. 
(the ‘“‘Payta’”’ being two to two anda half miles from the 
land, fifty seven miles south of Arica, off Gorda Point, and in 
seventy-five fathoms of water), the vessel commenced to 
shake in the most awful manner, making it impossible to keep 
one’s footing. (In another account in the same day’s paper 
by the purser of the ‘‘ Payta,” it is stated that ‘the vibration 
threw the passengers to the height of two inches* above the 
deck’). This convulsed vibration continued 45 or 50 seconds, 
during which time the sea presented the appearance of a 
heavy fall of large hailstones, sending up jets of water some 
eight or ten inches, and being about the same distance apart. 
On arriving at Iquique the same night, we learnt that two 
very severe shocks of earthquakes had been felt there about 
two o’clock in the day.”” Had this vertical shock off Gorda 
Point proceeded from an inclined shore, the jets of water, 
instead of being jerked up vertically, and falling back into 
their previous places as they did, would have been jerked up 
obliquely in a seaward direction, rising so little above the 
surface that the separate jets would not be distinguishable, 
and the entire surface would have been seen as a vast 
current rushing seaward, so long as the vibrations continued ; 
and, when they ceased, the heaped up water would return 
shoreward to find its level. 

We have seen that in Lake Ontario, in 1845, as well as in 
1872, the water first retired to a depth of two feet or more, 
and then returned to an equal height above its previous 
level, just as a harp-string or pendulum, when moved to any 
distance from its point of rest, will immediately of itself move 
twice such distance in the opposite direction. This applies to 
marine as well as to lacustrine disturbances. Luke Howard, 
describing those at Plymouth on the 11th of May, 1811, 
says: ‘“‘the sea fell instantaneously about four feet, and 


* Lyell records an instance of men on board a ship forty leagues west of 
Cape St. Vincent being thrown by an earthquake shock ‘a foot and a half 
perpendicularly up from the deck.”’ 


160 Alternating Currents. [April, 


immediately rose about eight feet.” Those ‘‘ mountainous” 
waves, therefore, which overwhelmed the Peruvian cities of 
Iquique and Arica, on the 13th of August, 1868, were 
nothing more than might have been anticipated from the 
illustration by the harp-string and pendulum. For the 
great wave, forty feet high, which completed the destruction 
of Iquique (directly after the earthquake shock had laid it 
in ruins) was immediately preceded by a retirement of the 
sea to the extraordinary depth of four fathoms. It was 
by a still higher wave, arising from an apparently still 
greater retirement of the sea, that Arica was destroyed, 
as appears from the following account given by Mr. 
Nugent, H.M. Vice Consul, in the ‘* South American 
Missionary Magazine” for October, 1868. ‘In the after- 
noon of August 13, 1868, about 5 o’clock, we were visited 
with a most tremendous earthquake. I had _ scarcely 
time to get my wife and children into the street, when the 
whole of the walls of my house fell, or rather were blown 
out, as if jerked at us. I started over the trembling ground 
forthé hills. . . . A great crywent upto heaven, suchas 
few’men have heard, ‘The sea is retiring.” . . I looked 
back. . . . Isaw all the vessels in the bay carried out 
irresistibly to sea (anchors and chains were as packthread), 
probably with aspeed of ten milesan hour. Ina few minutes 
the great outward current stopped, stemmed by a mighty rising 
wave, I should judge about fifty feet high, which came on with 
an awful rush, bringing in the whole of the shipping with it, 
sometimes turning in circles as if striving to elude their 
PARES oo tst The wave passed on, struck the mole into 
atoms, swallowed up the Custom-House, . . . carried 
everything before it. Ina few minutes all was completed— 
every vessel was either ashore or bottom upwards.”  ‘‘ The 
mighty rising wave” here described was evidently the 
accumulation produced by “‘ the great outward current,” and 
that outward current was caused by “ the trembling ground” 
beneath the sea, that is by the rapid vibrations of the 


inclined bed of the sea descending from the shore; for as ~ 


the dry land was then “ ivembling” or vibrating by the 
vertical shock, the adjoining submarine ground must have 
been so also. This is a fair specimen (aithough on a terribly 
large scale) of all those extraordinary agitations now under 
consideration. 

Mr. Mallet, however, entertains the idea proposed by 
Michell a century ago, that these extraordinary influxes 
proceed from the offing, and from vast but very low waves 
formed by submarine earthquakes or volcanos at the distance 


"ead 


1874.] Alternating Currents. 161 


sometimes of thousands of miles,* instead of their being 
merely the reaction, the rebounds or refluxes of the imme- 
diately preceding effluxes occasioned, as I have shown, by local 
submarine earth-shocks. And writers in some of our leading 
periodicalst, having adopted the same idea, have ascribed 
the extraordinary disturbances of the Sea in California, New 
Zealand, Australia, and other islands in the Pacific, on the 
13th and 14th of August, 1868, immediately after the 
destruction of Arica, to one of these great sea waves 
produced by a submarine earthquake near Peru, and moving 
onwards in all directions with varying velocity (like other 
great sea waves) according to the square roots of the 
varying depths which they traversed. But such waves are 
only imaginary; they have never been seen, nor can their 
existence be proved. None such existed at any of the 
similar agitations in the West of England which I have 
described during the last thirty years; and, therefore, none 
such can be rightly assumed to have existed at any other 
similar agitations. To remove all doubt, however, on this 
point, I invite attention to what was observed at Plymouth, 
on the 29th of September, 1869, during the extraordinary 
disturbances of the sea that day, on the northern as well as 
on the southern coasts of Devonshire and Cornwall. Ex 
uno disce omnes. 

The alternating current in Cattewater, an anchorage 
outside Plymouth pier (Sutton Pool), rushed in and out of 
the pier every 15 or 20 minutes, whirling about the boats 
and vessels, parting their hawsers, and carrying a schooner 
which had almost reached the pier back two or three furlongs, 
and then to and fro so helplessly that a steam tug was 
despatched to her assistance, and towed her in. This com- 
motion was almost universally believed to have come in from 
the offing, through the two entrances at the ends of the break- 
water. I wassure from past experience that it did not, and so 
it proved. One of the keepers of the lighthouse on the break- 
water, and one of the labourers there, informed me that they 
were on the breakwater all that day, and that the sea there 
Was quite undisturbed. Moreover, the foreman of the 
labourers, who was absent that day, told me that, after 
having witnessed the extraordinary disturbance in Catte- 
water, he was so convinced of its having proceeded from 
outside the breakwater, that he fully expected, when he 


* Quarterly Journal of Science for January, 1864. 

+ See the articles on Earthquakes in the “Times” of November 3, 1868, and 
the “ British Quarterly Review” for January, 1869, and ‘‘ Blackwood’s Edin- 
burgh Magazine” for July, 1869. 


162 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


went thither, to find all his recent unfinished work washed 
away. But on arriving at his work the following day, and 
finding it precisely as he left it, and hearing from his men 
that the sea had been all the time of his absence quite 
undisturbed, this unexpected information was to him just as 
marvellous as the phenomenon itself in Cattewater. 

The only possible cause of the disturbances of the sea 
this day, on the northern as well as on the southern coasts 
of Devonshire and Cornwall, and at the Scilly Isles, appears 
to be local submarine vertical shocks, not rising higher 
than the bed of the sea. 

These phenomena are never, as I consider, occasioned by 
undulatory earthquakes, but only by vertical shocks. During 
the earthquake at Antioch, on the 3rd of April, 1872, “‘so 
long as the wndulatery motion continued, no houses fell, but 
as soon as vertical jerks set in, a large part of the town was 
in a few seconds a heap of ruins.”*  Providentially these 
vertical shocks, proceeding from the deep interior of the 
earth, do not generally rise higher than the basins uf lakes, 
or the bed of the sea. Thus, on the day of the great 
earthquake of 1755, whilst only one shock was perceived on 
the surface of the mines in Derbyshire Peak, five smart 
ones were felt sixty fathoms undergroundt. On the same 
day, not only Lochness and other lakes in Scotland, but 
even ponds in England, were violently agitated without any 
perceptible shock in their neighbourhoods. 


III. THE NATIVE. COPPER MINES’ OF LDARS 
SUPERIOR. 


By JAMES DouGLas, Quebec. 


ae Jesuit fathers who, in extending the domain of 

Christianity two centuries ago, explored and described 
parts of the American continent, which are still 
almost as wild as then, likened Lake Superior to a relaxed 
bow on whose string rests an arrow, the north or Canadian 
shore being the bow, the south or United States shore the 
bow-string, and the arrow the promontory of Keweenah, 
which, protruding from the south shore far across the lake, 
divides its waters almost into halves. This promontory, 


* Times of July 30, 1872. 
+ Phil. Trans., 49, p. 398. 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 163 


while one of the most salient geographical features of the 
lake, is moreover geologically and mineralogically the most 
remarkable, for on it, running from end to end, exist in their 
greatest development those cupriferous beds of trap and 
conglomerate in which native copper occurs under con- 
ditions most puzzling to the mineralogist, and from which 
it is being extracted in quantities sufficient to supply the 
growing wants of the United States and to threaten the 
stability of the copper market elsewhere. 

In the present article, it is not my object to discuss 
the cosmical bearing of the subject, but to describe two of 
the most noted mines near Portage Lake and the means 
adopted to extract the mineral from their ores. Nevertheless, 
a sketch of the geology of the region and of the mining 
elsewhere in it is necessary as a preface. Lake Superior is 
framed in primitive rocks. The gneisses and granites of the 
Laurentian formation at places rise in bold cliffs out of the 
waters along the east and north shores, and where the shore 
line in its trend to the south-west leaves the Laurentides, 
the intervening space is occupied by a narrow belt of 
Huronian slates and conglomerates, on which seem to rest 
unconformably, judging from the scanty evidence afforded 
by the survey of this part of the north shore, but con- 
formably, according to Brookes and Pompelly,* who have 
examined the lines of contact on the south shore, a series of 
beds of bluish shale, sandstone, indurated marls and con- 
glomerates, interstratified with trap, which is sometimes 
amygdaloidal. 

Sir William Logan subdivides this great mass of rock, 
whose total thickness can be but vaguely guessed at, into 
lower and upper groups, and designates them as the upper 
copper-bearing rocks of Lake Superior, in distinCtion to the 
Huronian or lower copper-bearing series. 

The lower group occupies the north-western shore of the 
lake, and sweeps round its extreme westerly end, but in the 
extension eastward of it and the upper group they are 
divided from the south shore by sandstones of a very 
different character to those which are interstratified with 
their own traps and conglomerates. These sandstones, 
which line the south shore, with but few interruptions, from 
Sault St. Marie to Duluth, lie in horizontal or very slightly 
inclined beds, and, being very friable, have been at several 
spots fashioned by the water into the fantastic forms known 
as the pictured rocks. Representatives of the same sandstone 


* American Journal of Science, June, 1872. 


164 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


occur on some of the islands along the north shore, being 
all that remains above water of the soft formation out 
of which the bed of the lake was hollowed. But while they 
yielded to the destructive agency of water, the harder beds 
of the copper-bearing groups have withstood them, and 
these, therefore, as on the point of the Keweenah promon- 
tory, rise abruptly out of the lake, which has washed away 
entirely the sandstone from their flanks, or, as towards the 
base of the promontory, spring at as abrupt an angle out of 
the horizontal sandstone strata, or else from islands, isolated 
or in groups, which, however, always bear a marked rela- 
tion to one another and to the lines of upheaval distinguish- 
able on the mainland. 

The lower group of these rocks which we have described 
as confining the western end of the lake has not produced 
copper in workable quantities, and differs also in lithological 
character from the upper group. On the south side of the 
lake this upper group forms distin¢ét ranges, the more 
easterly of which are traceable with remarkable parallelism 
from the base to the point of the Keweenah promontory ; 
and they reappear on the north shore, the more westerly in 
Isle Royale, in the Thunder Bay and Neepigon promontories, 
and in the St. Ignace group of islands, the more easterly in 
Michipicotin and in some of the headlands of the coast. 

The age of these rocks is the subject of some difference 
of opinion. They seem, from the observation of Brookes 
and Pompelly in Northern Michigan, to conform in strike 
and dip with the Huronian schists, both uniformly dipping 
to the north at angles of 50-—7o°, and where the Huronian 
come in contact with the sandstones above mentioned, there 
is the same sudden alteration in dip as between these same 
sandstones and the copper-bearing rocks on the Keweenah 
promontory. Hence, one would infer that the traps and 
conglomerates of the upper bearing series come next in age 
to the underlying Huronian schists, and that subsequently 
to their upheaval were deposited the sandstones whose 
horizontality has not been broken by any disturbing force. 
The sandstones are generally attributed to the lower 
Silurian system. 

Copper exploration on the Keweenah promontory have 
been made at innumerable spots over a distance of 100 miles 
along the strike of the beds, between the Point and Lake 
Agogibic, but the mines which have proved productive are 
confined to three districts, viz., Keweenah Point or Eagle 
River, Portage Lake, and Ontonagon. 

On the Point, the copper-bearing rocks attain their 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 165 ° 


greatest lateral.development, and beds of conglomerate, 
melephyre, and compact sandstone, with the same dip and 
strike, stretch from shore to shore. ‘Thence, as they curve 
round in a south-westerly direction, the range diminishes in 
width. Some of the first mines opened were on the west 
coast of the promontory, where, for nearly 30 miles, members 
of the copper-bearing series form the shore wall. 

Here the most productive group of mines is on a system 
of fissure veins, which cut the rocks of the northern range 
at right angles to their strike. The Cliff Mine, the first of 
the lake mines to pay a dividend, and which, from first to 
last, has distributed nearly 2,280,000 dols. among its share- 
holders, is on a vein which, though not generally wide, was 
often filled with mass copper. The copper was associated 
with quartz, calc spar, and other vein stones. ‘The contents 
of the fissure exhibited a banded structure, and was 
influenced markedly by the country rock. In this district, 
likewise, copper was mined from a bed of amygdaloidal trap, 
here known as the ash bed, and work was also done on con- 
glomerate beds; but, if we except Copper Falls and the 
_ Phenix Mines, the operations on the fissure veins alone have 
been financially successful. 

While the Cliff Mine near the point of the promontory 
was the first to prove that the native copper is more than a 
mineralogical curiosity, the Minnesota, near the south- 
western end of the range in the Ontanogan district, became 
even more famous from the enormous masses of copper it 
produced. Here, likewise, the copper occurs in veins which, 
though running with the strata, are palpably subsequent 
formations consisting chiefly of quartz, calc spar, and 
laumonite. The vein stone is different from the enclosing 
rock, the walls are well-defined and often grooved. Inthe 
Minnesota, the masses were not only large, but frequently 
threw off branches into the enclosing rock, which interfered 
with their being detached in the usual manner by removing 
the country rock adjacent. The prosperity of the mine 
ceased after the extraction of a mass of go per cent copper, 
weighing 525 tons, in 1857. No mines here are flourishing 
at present, nor does there seem to be a like revival of 
mining industry to what is taking place in the Keweenah 
Point distriét on the ash bed, under the infection of the 
successful development of certain beds near Portage Lake. 

Portage Lake and River extend so nearly across the 
promontory at about 60 miles from its point that a canal 
less than three miles long suffices to give water communica- 
tion between the east and west shores. The lake is 

VOL. V. (N.S.) Y 


166 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


an irregularly-shaped body, as much as two miles wide 
where excavated out of the low-lying sandstone, but taper- 
ing rapidly where the high, bluff cliffs of the trap beds 
of the copper-bearing series confine it. While still in the 
low-lying horizontal sandstone, it throws off towards the 
north-east a long arm, which expands into Torch Lake, 
a considerable body of water whose north-west shore almost 
defines the line of conta¢t between the horizontal sandstone 
and the steeply-tilted copper-bearing rocks. 

As the steamer enters the narrows, and there come into 
view the towns of Hancock and Houghton facing one 
another on the opposite banks, the large mills on the lake 
shore, and the mine buildings and tramways on the heights 
above, the contrast between:the modes of activity and the 
aims of civilised man, and of the Indians, with whom the 
traveller, if he has been long on the lake, must have come 
into close contact, strikes the mind very forcibly. 

Where the copper-bearing rocks are exposed by the deep 
fissures, whose bottom is occupied by Portage Lake, the 
width of the range is seven miles, and the beds dip at 
an angle of 54° to the North West. They consist of traps of 
varying degrees of compactness and shades of colours, 
interstratified with conglomerates and sandstones. 

According to Macfarlane, ‘“‘ the constituent of the traps of 
the Portage Lake District are principally felspar of the 
labradorite species, and chlorite of a species allied to 
delessite, with which are found occasionally mica, small 
quantities of magnetite, and perhaps of augite and horn- 
blende.”* He considers the characteristic trap of the region 
to consist of :— 


Delessite  scighivce “sis se: eaeioeee 
Labradorite 2%) ais vale eee 
PYLOREME 6 Pa ena uae eee ee 
Manette «iP Yes apa ea, aus 


100°00 

The mines in the immediate vicinity of the Lake are on 
the amygdaloidal trap. Many have been opened both on 
the north and south shores, but those only on the Pewabic 
lode—the Quincy, Pewabic, and Franklin mines—have 
returned profit to their shareholders. Of these three, the 
best worked, and therefore most successful, is and has been 
the Quincy, and we shall therefore describe it as being a 
typical, though the best example, of its class. 


* Geological Survey of Canada, 1866, page 158. 


1874.| Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 167 


It was opened in 1849, and has been worked uninter- 
ruptedly ever since, stemming the tide of low prices when 
almost every other mine was carried down the current. 

The lowest level is at 1330 feet along the dip of the bed, 
and therefore on the incline of the shaft from surface, and 
the longest level is 1600 feet. The shafts and all the 
workings are opened in productive ground, where that can 
be followed ; but as the walls of the copper-bearing bed are 
never well defined, and as tracts of rich ground abruptly 
alternate with stretches of barren rock, there is found 
considerable difficulty in keeping to the lode, as it is called. 
Moreover, from being pinched and poor, or even barren, it 
will suddenly bulge to 20 or 30 feet of rich rock. The 
hanging wall is composed of a fine-grained, compact, bluish 
trap, but the characteristic trap beneath is coarse-grained 
and amygdaloidal, and approaches in appearance to the 
copper-bearing rock. 

The copper bed, however, while likewise generally 
permeated with small amygdules, is of a deeper red and 
breaks with a more uneven fracture. The minerals which 
fill the amygdules in the barren bed, viz. quartz, calcspar, 
lawmonite, prehnite, not only fill the amygdules here, but 
likewise form irregular veinlets rich in copper; and the 
chlorite constituents of the rock prevail so largely in parts 
as to give it a deep green shade. Pellicles of native copper 
enveloped in chlorite often occupy the centre of the 
amygdules. We see here the tendency of the copper to 
aggregate with the quartz, and the same zeolitic minerals as 
-compose the ftssure veins of the Eagle River, and the 
bedded veins of the Ontonagon districts; and, therefore, if 
we attribute the formation of the one to aqueous agencies, 
are led to ask whether the same agencies have not had more 
to do with the formation of the beds and their mineral 
contents than has generally been attributed to them. 

Sheets of native copper occur between the joints of the 
trap in the copper bed, and formed evidently through 
infiltration, are found also between the trap blocks beyond 
the walls of the bed. An indication of subsequent aqueous 
action is seen in the streaks of clay which smear to a great 
depth the faces of the trap blocks. A single cross course, 
carrying quartz, but no copper, is said to have been met with. 
The width of the bed of copper-bearing ground is supposed 
to be about 70 feet; not that in any place 70 feet of 
productive rock has been found, but when copper has been 
lost on one wall, as much as 70 feet have been driven 
through what is supposed to be the same bed, and copper 


168 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


found in what has been taken for the other wall. More 
than once, cross cuttings for many fathoms have thus 
resuscitated parts of the mine where it was feared the 
copper had given out altogether. The suddenness with 
which the rock will change and lose its metalliferous 
character is very remarkable, and affects, naturally, the 
productiveness of the mine from year to year. 

Copper-bearing beds alternate, however, with barren trap 
for a distance of 500 feet, as determined by a cross cut 
eastward from the 70 fathoms level of the neighbouring 
Pewabic Mine. In the report of the agent of that mine, in 
1863, he anticipates that the following copper beds would 
be reached at the distances indicated. The results justified 
his predictions. From the Pewabic lode, the distances of 
the adjacent strata were :— 


As ANTICIPATED. As DETERMINED. 
Old Pewabic . . . 148 feet. Old Pewabic -. . . 191 feet. 
Green Amygdaloid . 285 ,, Green Amygdaloid . 275 ,, 
Albany and Boston . 382 ,, Albany and Boston . 380 ,, 
Epidote or Mesnard . 465 ,, Epidote or Mesnard. 448 ,, 
Conglomerate . . . 520 ,, Conglomerate . . . 500 ;, 


To the West of the Quincy and Pewabic lode, little 
mining has been done on the lake shore, the Hancock being 
the only copper-bearing bed extensively worked. 

The heaviest copper lies generally near the foot wall. 
Throughout the region the metal is classed according to its 
size as mass, barrel, and stamp work. Mass copper is 
confined to the other districts; but the Quincy Mine yields 
a certain quantity of barrel work, or copper pieces of such 
size that they can be separated from adhering rock without 
the aid of water dressing. The quantity is, however, small, 
compared with that which is scattered in particles so small 
that machinery and mechanical concentration alone can 
separate them from their matrix. The means used to effect 
the separation are the same in all the mills of the district. 

The equipment of the Quincy Mine above and below 
ground is excellent. The hoisting cars are of heavy boiler 
plate. Here and at other mines the cars discharge themselves 
by means of a very simple device. They are shaped like 
large coal-scuttles, and run on four wheels ; but on the same 
axle, and projecting beyond the back wheels, are wheels of 
smaller diameter, which, when the car reaches the spot 
where it is to be emptied, run up inclines secured on each 
side beyond the track. Thus the back wheels are lifted off 
the track, while the four wheels remain on the rails and the 
body of the waggon, tilted forward, shoots out its contents. 

Heretofore it has been the custom in the Portage Lake 


» ie 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 169 


‘shore mines to calcine the rock, and thus render it more 
friable ; but following the example of the Calumet Mine, a 
hammer like a pile driver has been introduced into the 
Quincy ore-house, which reduces the larger blocks to a size 
suitable to the Blake crusher, and for hand-picking. The 
ore undergoes the following treatment. Discharged from 
the hoisting car, it is carried down an incline to the ore- 
house, which is on the brink of the steep hill overlooking 
the lake. The ore-house is provided with a hammer, under 
which, as stated, the largest blocks, weighing often over a 
ton, are broken. Such blocks require enormous force to 
shiver them, inasmuch as they are generally permeated with 
metallic copper in arborescent masses, which so binds the 
rock together, that even when broken, fresh force has to be 
used to drag the detached stones asunder. In the ore 
houses a preliminary hand sorting of the rock takes place 
before it is further reduced in size by Blake’s crushers. 
Beneath the Blake crushers, other hand pickers are stationed, 
who separate still more of the barren or almost barren rock; 
and the ore, reduced in quantity to about two-fifths of what 
was hoisted out of the mine, is run down the steep inclined 
tramway to the copper house. 

Stamps are used invariably throughout the peninsula for 
crushing the ore. Cornish rolls have been tried, but 
without benefit. They become so often clogged with the 
larger lumps of copper, and, thus kept apart, so much stuff 
passes through uncrushed, that the quantity of raff was 
enormous, and the yield of the rolls small. In the Quincy 
Mill, when running to its full capacity, 70 square shafted 
stamps, weighing goo lbs. each, and with a drop of 16 inches, 
crush 232 short tons of rock, or 3°3 tons per stamp head per 
diem through screens perforated with 4-inch holes. Two of 
- the batteries are engaged upon the barrel work, which is, by 
their pounding action, more perfectly freed from rock than 
it can be in the ore-house, but has, of course, to be removed 
from the battery-box; and all the battery-boxes have to be 
cleaned out twice a day. [rom the batteries the ore passes 
on to shaking sieves perforated with 23-inch holes, and fine 
and coarse are further classified before being concentrated 
by entering with a full stream of water a succession of long 
triangular troughs which diminish in diameter and depth as 
size after size is drawn off to its proper hutch. The hutches 
everywhere used are piston hutches with fixed bottoms; 
and though in different mills they go under different names, 
the differences are in reality trifling. Collom’s jigs are 
those most commonly used, and consist of a central piston- 


170 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


_ box divided into two compartments, each of which is in 
communication with an adjacent compartment in which the 
sieve is fixed and into which the copper that passes through 
the sieve falls. The pistons of the two hutches are pressed 
down by a single rock shaft, and each piston is lifted back 
into position by a spring—a desirable motion—as the down- 
stroke is thus sharp and rapid, and the up-stroke slower. 
But the hutch is open to the objection that, as each piston 
covers only half the corresponding sieve, a wave is propa- 
gated from one end of the sieve to the other, which inter- 
feres with the regular subsidence of the ore. As the ore is 


imperfeCtly sized, some collects in the sieve and is removed - 


from time to time, but most falls into the bottom, whence it 
is carried away by the flow of water. 

The hutches are arranged, with a view to saving labour, 
in tiers one below the other, so that the scimpings from one 
flow into a hutch on a tier below, and the concentrate is 
re-concentrated in like manner. Water being the carrier, 
no handling, or very little, is required from the time the ore 
is thrown into the stamps till it is shovelled from the 
receiving tank as 80 to go per cent copper. 

One of the most perfect mills on the lake shore is that of 
the old South Pewabic mine—now the Atlantic. In it, the 
stuff crushed by Ball’s stamps is concentrated by 112 
hutches arranged in seven tiers. There, also, the rotating 
German buddle is found to save the copper from the slimes 
effectually and cheaply. In the Quincy Mill, the old- 
fashioned percussion-table takes out the coarse slimes, and 
tributers re-treat the refuse from the whole mill in a sepa- 
rate building with English buddles. The coarse concentrate 
generally runs to nearly go per cent of copper, the fine, 
which cannot be separated, without repeated washing, from 
the iron—which we have seen is a constituent of the trap 
matrix—sometimes stands as low as 50 per cent; but all 
the mills aim at delivering an average of 80 per cent to the 
smelting works. 

Side by side with the Quincy Mill is the Pewabic Mill, in 
which Ball’s stamps are used. A comparison of the tailings 
from the two mills, made by Mr. Macfarlane, is interesting. 


He found— 


Quincy MILL. Pewasic MILL. 


Scimpings from coarse 0°06 per cent. From head of run. . 4°93 per cent. 
rageing . ... « » middleof run. 3°00 ra 

Scimpings from fine ar 4 endiof rn) #2 3S 0a eee 
ragging . . a iS. » heap outside of | 0.66 

Buddle tailings. . . 046  ,, run-house. od 


5). “Gand bank ) 7.” aioo as 


. 7% 


1874.| Copper Mines of Lake Superior. E75 


The Ball stamps may influence the result, through the 
volume of water required for their efficient working, and 
which, not being separated from the suspended ore, may in 
some cases flood the hutches. 

The annual reports of the Quincy Mining Company are 
models, presenting the work done and the cost of doing it 
in clearest detail. From the report for 1872 we summarise 
the following particulars. During the year, there were 
stoped 5165 fathoms, and sunk in shafts and winzes 808 feet 
—say 150 fathoms, and driven 1974 feet—say 329 fathoms. 
Assuming the specific gravity of the rock to be 2°7, and 
that therefore there are 18 tons to the cubic fathom, there 
were broken 101,592 tons of rock. As there were 60,828 
tons stamped, about 4-roths of the rock was separated by 
hand-picking. The mining, raising, and picking cost for 
the year amounted to 283,487°30 dols., or 2°79 dols. per ton 
of rock raised, while the milling cost was 64,783°79 dols., or 
1°06 dols. per ton of rock stamped. This large amount of 
rock yielded 2,804,954 lbs. of concentrated mineral, which 
produced 2,276,308 lbs. of ingot. There was recovered, 
therefore, only 1°12 per cent of copper from the rock mined, 
and yet there were divided, as the year’s profits on working, 
210,090 dols. 

In 1872, copper brought an exceptionally good price, 
selling at 324 cents per lb., but as a set-off, wages were 
high, the average wage of miners on contract being 60°62 
dols., and the yield of the ground per fathom lower than its 
wont. 

Distributing the cost over the mineral produced, we find 
that, as 2,804,954 lbs. of mineral—which, without making 
an allowance for the slight loss in smelting, must have con- 
tained 81°r per cent of copper—were obtained at a cost for 
mining and concentrating of 461,147°83 dols., each pound 
cost 16°44 cents; but when the cost of smelting, trans- 
port, insurance, and commission was added, each pound 
of ingot cost 22°93 cents U.S. currency, or, say, 20 cents in 
gold. Copper has fallen to 25 cents U.S. currency, but as 
wages have declined proportionately, and the cost of pro- 
duction therefore has been lessened, there is not likely to be 
a very serious decrease in the profits. Besides distributing 
this large sum among the shareholders, there were added to 
construction account,—for permanent improvements likely 
to lessen the cost of future produ¢tion,—67,227°65 dols., so 
that the real profits of the year were 277,318°35 dols., which 
certainly could have been realised only by good manage- 
ment and by the employment of every possible labour- 


172 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


saving appliance for the working of an ore yielding but 
I‘I per cent of copper. 

Another mine even more interesting to the mineralogist, 
and more startling in its yield, is the Calumet and Hecla. 
It is situated r3 miles from Portage Lake, in a north-east 
direction, on a bed of conglomerate, which, however, it is 
not easy to identify with any of the beds that abut on the 
lake, as the range widens as it approaches the Point and 
the beds flatten. While the mineral range at the lake is 
7 miles across, at the Calumet and Hecla it is 13 miles 
wide, and the dip declines from an average angle of 54° to 
38°. Copper had been extra¢ted from conglomerate beds 
before the opening of this mine, but never with good 
financial results. From the Albany and Boston Mine, 
where both a conglomerate and an amygdaloidal bed are 
worked, specimens very similar to the rock since yielded by 
Calumet were obtained; but the failure of this and other 
mines led to a distrust in, and a too hasty condemnation of, 
conglomerate mines. It is to be feared the opposite error 
may now be run into. 

The Calumet Mine was discovered about 13 years ago. 
An inn, the half-way house between Hancock and Eagle 
River, stood in the forest near where the mine is now, and 
was kept by a Cornish man. His pig—so tradition tells— 
fell into a pit, which proved to be an old Indian working. 
It was dragged out so be-smeared with green that the owner 
at once suspected the existence of copper. Since then, two 
little towns,—Calumet and Red Jacket,—have sprung up, 
and as great a change has taken place beneath the surface 
of the soil. Two mines on adjacent locations, though in 
the same bed, viz., the Calumet and Hecla, are owned and 
worked by one company. This mine has now reached 
a depth of ro60 feet on the incline of the bed, or 600 feet 
vertical, and one of the upper levels is 3000 feet long. Most 
of the copper comes from a bed of conglomerate, in which 
a hard red porphyritic pebble is embedded in a cement 
of the same rock, and of native copper. ‘The pebbles in the 
rich rock are smaller and more rounded than beyond the 
rich chimnies. The pebbles composing the conglomerate 
are seldom themselves cupriferous, though some of them 
are. I have a large pebble from the conglomerate bed 
which is identical in appearance with the compact chocolate- 
coloured rock of the Quincy Mine, and is throughout per- 
meated with a little copper in the same manner as the rock, 
but for a depth of about two lines from the surface it 
is ensheathed in fine-grained copper, which, as well as the 


i'ré 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 173 


copper permeating it, may have penetrated the pebble or 
been deposited around it,—it is difficult to say which. In 
the‘ conglomerate also occur boulders of solid copper. 
Some are said to exhibit a concentric arrangement of the 
copper, but one I had cut through the centre was homo- 
geneous in structure, but contained, embedded in the copper, 
a few crystals of quartz and felspar. 

Interstratified with the conglomerate are thin bands of 
copper sandstone, the copper being in fine grains, some- 
times deposited pure, at others mixed with. epidote and 
quartz or finely-ground porphyry, the laminz easily separable 
from one another. In their midst are sometimes embedded 
pebbles of copper. Bands of hard compact sandstone, from 
the disintegration of the same rock as compose the con- 
glomerate, are met with beneath the foot wall, on the hang- 
ing wall, or in the bed itself. A specimen in my possession 
exhibits successive layers firmly compacted, some of con- 
glomerate, others of coarse-grained and others of fine- 
grained sandstone, with a surface distin@tly ripple-marked. 
The aqueous origin of the bed cannot be doubted, but 
whether the copper was mechanically or chemically- de- 
posited, it is more difficult to decide. The easier expla- 
nation of its occurrence is on the hypothesis of a mechanical 
deposition, but, as militating strongly against it, is the un- 
doubted fact that the conglomerate pebbles very rarely carry 
copper. ‘The effects of subsequent chemical action are 
beautifully exhibited in a clay fluccan which, from the 
surface to nearly the lowest level driven, lines in places the 
foot-wall. In it, embedded in soft clay, derived from 
the disintegration of the rock, and which harden into 
amass that might almost be mistaken for a piece of trap, 
Occur with calc spar, laumonite, and quartz, copper in 
dendritic masses, distinctly crystallised. Some of the 
specimens taken from the fluccan undoubtedly exhibit 
instances of false crystallisation, plainly showing the 
impress of the crystals amidst which they were formed, but 
others are as undoubtedly themselves crystallised. Vugs 
also occur lined with crystals of epidote, and calc spar, and 
spongy copper; and through the bed there passes diagonally 
what is called a dropper. It is only a few inches wide, but 
consists of what is locally called brick copper, which is 
accompanied by crystallised silicated minerals, entangled in 
which are conglomerate pebbles. It has unmistakable 
slickensides, on which the copper is actually polished. 

A bed of amygdaloidal trap overlies the conglomerate, and 
is in places rich in copper. Some of the amyg edules are 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) Z 


174 | Copper Mines of Lake Superior. [April, q 


completely filled with copper, in others a small nucleus of © 
copper is enveloped in calc spar or epidote, while a coating 
of red ferruginous-looking earth lines the cell. A trap, — 
similar in appearance, is worked by the South Pewabic 
Mine on Portage Lake, but there its richness is deceptive, 
for the copper forms in this shell only around an earthy 
nucleus. 

The long levels of the Calumet and Hecla run through ~ 
three rich chimnies of conglomerate, the longest about 
1300 feet. They dip to the north, and are widening out 
rather than otherwise in its lower levels. Between these 
rich streaks, large tra¢ts of which will yield a 20 per cent 
ore, are others of poorer ground, and others still almost 
barren, which are left standing. The average width of the 
productive portions is 13 feet. 

There are broken, raised, and concentrated, 740 tons of 
rock a day. To handle such a large quantity, work has 
necessarily to be thoroughly systematised both below and 
above ground, and machinery utilised to the utmost. 

Each mine possesses six shafts,—or twelve in all,—eight 
only of which are connected by levels, and four only used 
as hauling shafts. The shafts are sunk at 400 feet apart, 
and levels are driven every go feet. Between each two 
shafts two winzes are sunk, and three stopes 30 feet high 
are opened on each side of each winze, so that eighteen — 
stopes are worked between each two shafts. Six feet of 
ground are left standing on each side the shafts, and a heavy 
arch below each level supports the roof, and gives firm 
foundation to the road-way. A wall of heavy stulls pro- 
vided with gates at every 10 feet protect the road-ways, and 
allow large accumulations to be made in the stopes. 
Timbering is a heavy item of expense, as the trap which 
composes the roof is very liable to fall out in pyramidal 
blocks. The mine-work is done by contra¢t,—stoping by 
the fathom, drifting and sinking by the foot. The contractor 
must deliver his rock at the nearest hauling-shaft. The 
traps are 4 feet apart in the levels, and 4 feet 4 inches in 
the shafts, as the cars have to be large to receive the heavy 
blocks which break away in the stopes. The miners are 
allowed to send to the surface blocks not over r ton weight, 
but the cars are constructed to hold 2 tons. 

Drifting is done with great economy, by machine-drilling. 
Seven Burleigh drills of large size, with 2-inch bits, are 
steadily at work in each mine, and it is found that with 
them a drift 10 feet wide can be driven at 8’oo dols. less per 
foot than a 6-foot drift by hand-labour. This calculation 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 175 


leaves out, however, the cost of the motor power. In the 
Quincy Mine, the same drills are being thrown aside as 
uneconomical,—a discrepancy in result which may be 
accounted for by the fact that in the Calumet there is a well- 
defined salvage, whereas in the Quincy the drifts are run 
through solid rock, and grooves must be scooped out 
beneath the face of this advancing drift,—an operation not 
easily performed with a cumbrous drill. 

The ore is broken in two ore-houses, each of which is 
provided with a pile driver to shatter the large masses—a 
Blake’s crusher with 18 by 24 inch opening, and six smaller 
Blakes, with 8 by 15 inch openings, but no attempt is made 
at selecting by hand, but all the ore raised passes to the mill. 

From the crushers the ore falls into huge hoppers, whence 
it is discharged as called for into the railway cars. All the 
appliances, in fact, are ona scale such as we are in the habit 
of associating with iron mining. A five-mile railroad unites 
the concentrating works on Torch Lake with the mine, and 
over it two hundred ‘car-loads of 4-ton capacity each are 
carried daily. 

The mills present no feature of special interest. In one 
are three of Ball’s stamps, and in the other four. Six of 
these powerful machines are running regularly, and crush 
up the whole yield of the mines. To each stamp there are 
assigned 20 jigs. 

The stamps are steam-hammers. The slide valve is 
worked by eccentric gearing, and the piston-rod is inserted 
into the head of the shaft, which is g inches in diameter. 
The stamp-head is 22 by 14 inches, and weighs 6cwts. Its 
upper surface is provided with a bevelled ridge, which slides 
into a slot in the bottom of the shaft, and is then keyed 
home. When working on the amygdaloidal trap, Ball’s 
stamp heads, made with white iron and a small percentage 
of Franklinite and tough pig, lastamonth. At the Calumet 
Mills they are worn out in six days, but the renewal involves 
a Stopping of the stamp of only 50 minutes. Each stamp 
works in a separate stamp-box, which is five-sided, and 
discharges from three sides through steel plates, perforated 
with 3-16th inch holes. Each stampcan crush daily 120 tons 
of this exceedingly hard rock, and is said to consume 25 horse- 
power; 3000 gallons of water a minute are pumped to the 
two mills. The great advantages of using the stamp are 
that so much work can be done with so little machinery and 
‘In so contracted a space, and that so little time is occupied 
in repairs. The Calumet Mills never stop. The Quincy 
mill is idle for about one month out of twelve. 


176 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


The scimpings are not clean. They carry from 1°40 per 
cent. to 1°80 per cent of copper, 0°40 to 0°80 of which is as 
oxide. ‘Twelve tons of copper, therefore, are thrown away 
daily. 

The Calumet Company publishes no report, but the 
following figures are, if not quite, very nearly correct. 
There are 1600 hands employed, 260 contracts are set in the 
Calumet, and a somewhat greater number in the Hecla. 
The cost of breaking a fathom of ground varies from 20°00 
to 22°00 dols., and it yields 21 tons of rock; the cost of 
dressing exceeds that at the Quincy mine, standing at 
1°17 dols. per ton. In 1872 the mine produced 9717 tons of 
ingot. The quantity of ore raised daily was about 740 tons, 
or 266,400 tons per year of 360 days; and, therefore, as it 
produced 9717 tons of ingot, the ore actually yielded 3°6 per 
cent of copper. ‘This large amount of work was rewarded 
by profit in proportion; for there was distributed among the 
shareholders, in 1872, 2,750,000 dols.; and during that same 
year large sums were expended in permanent improve- 
ments. The result in every respect is unparalleled in 
the history of copper mining; and all owners of copper 
mines with no such brilliant promise can only hope that it 
may not be repeated ; for the effect of a very few such mines 
would be most depressing. 

Adjoining the Hecla another mine is being opened by the 
Osceola Mining Company, which, from surface indications, 
will be very rich. The Allonez near by is expected to turn 
out well, and on the Isle Royale attention is again being given 
to long-neglected conglomerate beds, and the prospect of 
success is there good also. The Royale, though belonging 
to Michigan, lies close to the Canadian shore. As already 
pointed out, the copper formation is largely developed from 
Michipicoten to Thunder Bay on the main land and on 
Canadian Islands. 

With the experience gained on the south shore, explora- 
tions could now be conducted on the north, with better 
chance of success than heretofore. What little has been 
done has revealed the existence of deposits that would not 
have remained unworked had they been situated on the 
opposite shore. 

The following statistics, officially corre@t, are taken from 
the annual circulars published by the ‘‘ Portage Lake Mining 
Gazette. 

The production of all the mines on the promontory for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1873, was as follows :— 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Supertor. 177 
Tons. Pounds. 


Calumet and. Hecla, for i eae II,55I 1,938 


Naw 30; 1873... +s 
Quincy, for year ending Nov. 3°, is 1,680 180 
Franklin Pewabic . . . 67. GE673 
BPIIEOM Po es ee 285 -- 
Schoolcraft 5 Wren aout Beak oe 270 1,520 
DPR A oe ose a pe vee 72 — 
isle Koyale . . se) ay: xa’ ome TAS) Gy Agz 
Atlantic, for broken Seasan= sete 14) (sues 464 701 
Albany and Boston, brokénseason . . 50 — 
Sumner, for year ending with close of 
navigation . sree cies 77 ¥ 
MEMMERESOUUCES ~~. 06 Sa SA re ey ee Us 8 — 
Wotals a.4s2-4.. vod Se. LSGEO4S 5,420 
Produétion in 1872. cient he Oe 319 


RNCKEASE IN TSG 4 o> whee Care ee 2,508 1, LIO 


Keweenah Point District. 
Central, for year ending Nov. 30, 1873 . 1,081 1,983 
Copper Falls, for year ending with close 
of navigation . Eros set 
SE SM Doce Sel lech onus org aber si gh Se =) Oe, | 


Cull . ; 270. ~ 1,204 
Delaware, for year ending Nov. 18, 1873 55 742, 
Amygdaloid, broken season. . . . 19 303 
MUMMETESOUTCES) ¢ Sy sch 3 6 seus enn Sa en ee 184 

Oth ges vas cae as oem oe. ee Oke egos 


Product in 1872. va, ewe, sek O30) Beg 


INCLEASOANG LOGS. ns voane os 945 1,009 


Ontonagon District. 
Tons. Pounds. Tons. Pounds. 
midge. . “150 113 Knowlton . BON 7,004. 
National . 131 318 Rockland . Hor” 460 


Minnesota. 103 1,700 Mass: > i: 6 868 
Blint steel 45 1,356. -Adventure . 2° 1,238 
Bohemian. 40 500 Tremont . — 700 
“otal. Preteen Liat Bae ky, 
Product in 1872. fast Fear 725 1,000 


MSCLCASC AMO 7S 1) ta 6-2 187. 1,883 


178 Copper Mines of Lake Superior. (April, 


Recapitulation. 


Tons. Pounds. 
Portage Lake Distriét...°..0).. |. 1» 25) ROA 
Keweenah Point Distriét’ . . . « % 2,78 gos 
Ontonagon- District 15, ts: i csc et saws 537 1,117 


Grand total for 1873..° . .« . 18,554 sgjaa@ 

Or about c<t.- stad ee te 14,810 oe 

The Copper Mineral (of about 80 per cent), produced from 
1845 to 1874. Tons. 


TOA5 10 TOS4 pan o> +3 a on tgs ee ge 
1854 to ABIES oc Bip dy ee eee 


1858 dma nee) eu ebay ane eee 
EOS Owes: vit down. en we a ah Cee Ree 
TODO, sks. VSS ee eee 


TOOW: . Fs), esc kee eee een ee 
TS C2 pret ct eta ia ose ome ane 9,962 
BOS eas ook nay ed ee ee ee, oe 
EQOA: se Bb pst, «a tuihiics wats eee Oe 
TB OR ets No a) fe: Saugus edo scl ai lv) eae 
ESO aim seek 0h, Se Ae kee ere es Se 
ESO. 15.4 Pale buth Si jusgs shh ee taen 0 Seg 
TOR ca Wen ieys lave oot sates vee et eek Soe 
ESOGe ace 1s yhskh Mc sae 9 BOR ee a ee 
ESTO) cd x 4) jesmiovmane 318 orsign +, 3: ee 
EO UT ne: 4 wap oes gel Canetti 
TOGO a o> sare one GN beet A 
EO73 one sie 4a aut ee et Si 


Total .., +. £94,006 


About 150,575 tons ingots; value about 82,000,000 dols. 
In 1872 there were distributed in dividends— 


Dollars. 
Calumet and Hecla . «  . 2,750,000 
Quincy . » 350,000 
Pittsburgh and Boston (Cliff 100,000 
Central. satis 80,000 
Mirnmesotay vss meee eee 50,000 
Pramielitny sicme ata we laren oe 20,000 
Pawabic’ of Wah as Sait Cas 20,000 


DiaiiONAl a2 %. {cb eB Wh awoRhs 20,000 


Total dividends . . . 3,390,000 
Total assessments . . 190,000 
Excess of dividends over assessments, 3,200,000 


Pa te wt, =e, 


1874.] Copper Mines of Lake Superior. 179 


The same mines have been remunerative from their open- 
ings, and have yielded 11,810,000 dols. 

The paid-up capital on the same mines amounts to the 
trifling sum— 


Dollars. 

Calumet and Hecla . . . 800,000 
Omincy Or. Gt or 6 3 S2003000 
Pittsburgh and Boston . . 110,000 
Cenmale eos te MA Ge soooo 
Minnesota 9. 2" 1 | 3 <2. ge 6,000 
Beanklin 33 o < <i = 43g70,000 
PeWabic) so) oa oe) GWE as he 2355000 
Netonal sa *= he = 2 ETO;o000 

2,361,000 


Increase of dividend overassessments, 9,449,000 


There is, of course, another sideto the picture. Of r1I mining 
companies formed, only the eight above enumerated and the 
Copper Falls Company have paid dividends. Many of the 
companies were organised to work locations where there 
was no copper at all, and others failed through ignorance 
and bad management. ‘The total amount levied, as far as 
can be ascertained, has been 19,296,500 dols. 

All the copper produced in the Peninsula is smelted at 
Hancock on Portage Lake, or at Detroit, branches of the 
same establishment. Detroit takes the mass copper from 
the Keweenah and Ontonagon Districts, as the furnaces there 
are constructed to receiveit. Theroof of the reverberatories 
are lifted, and masses of 10 tons lowered on to the bed, 
when the roof is replaced, luted down, and the fires lighted. 
In the Hancock establishment only the barrel and stamp 
work of the Portage District is treated. 

The mineral from each mine is smelted apart, and the 
copper returned in ingots ; 1800 dols. per ton being charged 
for the first smelting, and 12°00 dols. for every ton of slag 
and coarse copper re-smelted. 

In the Hancock establishment there are seven rever- 
beratories and two cupola furnaces. 

The copper is smelted without any flux.in the reverbera- 
fories, in charges of 16 tons. Eight to ten hours are 
occupied in running down, two to three hours in poling, and 
three hours in ladling out. When pressed for time nine 
charges are smelted a week. 

The product is about 78 per cent of the copper as ingot, 
a rich slag which is returned to the reverberatory, and a 


180 Atonuc Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 
poorer slag which is re-smelted in Mackenzie’s blast-furnace 
with lime as a flux. The valuable product from the cupola 
is a coarse copper of 85 per cent, which is treated in the 
same manner as the crude mineral, ‘and a poor slag carrying 
not over 3-10ths per cent of copper. 

One thousand pounds of coal are said to be consumed in 
the reverberatories to every 2000 lbs. of mineral smelted. 
Poling is done with birch rods. At Detroit, when poplar 
could no longer be obtained, oak was substituted without 
affecting the toughness of the metal. 


V. ON THE MODERN HYPOTHESES OF ATOMIC 
MATTER AND LUMINIFEROUS ETHER. 


By Henry DEACON. 


HE generally received opinion as to the constitution 

of the material universe can be summarised pretty 

accurately by saying that all natural objects consist 

of either atoms, which are solid centres of force or of 

motion,—or of ether, the medium through which the forces 

or motions of atoms are transmitted,—or of both atoms 
and ether. 

A molecule is defined as the smallest piece of any sub- 
stance that can retain all the properties of the substance, 
and therefore the constitutions of the molecule and of the 
substance are identical. 

The different qualities ascribed to atoms and to ether are 
best reviewed by parallel comparison, of which the following 
is an illustration :— 


Atoms are inelastic. 

Atoms are indivisible. 

Atoms do not touch, or atomic 
matter is not continuous in all di- 
rections. 

Atoms coalescing evolve energy, and 
in separating absorb energy. 

Atoms gravitate. 

Atoms possess ‘‘mass” and inertia, 
and in motion momentum, 


Atoms originate and transmute or 
convert motion and force. 

Atoms, being inelastic, move as a 
whole instantaneously, i.é., motion 
passes through or is imparted to the 

- whole of an atom, or continuous 
atoms, without any lapse of time. 


Ether is perfectly elastic. 
Ether is infinitely divisible. 
Ether is continuous. 


Ether coalesces, and is divided with- 
out evolving or absorbing energy. 

Ether does not gravitate. 

Ether has neither ‘*mass”’ nor inertia, 
and cannot be imbued with mo- 
mentum. 

Etheris merely a medium, and can only 
transmit motion or force unchanged. 

Ether is moved by degrees, and time 
elapses as motion passes through or 
is imparted to it. 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 181 


That these converse qualities are necessary corollaries, 
one of another, will be evident on a brief examination; and 
whilst incidentally showing this connection, I would criticise 
those hypotheses which deny the quality of elasticity to 
tangible matter apparently possessing it, and which simul- 
taneously create a new and totally different kind of matter 
to receive it. 

Atoms are described as swinging to and fro in this won- 
derful ether, without loss of motion or of energy, and they 
consequently either impart no motion to ether, or else 
motion must be communicable to it without absorption of 
energy. But ether is a medium that transmits motion, or 
its necessity and office disappear. If atoms do move ether, 
and any energy be absorbed, the motion which is the energy 
possessed by the atoms must decrease. If no energy be 
absorbed, and yet ether be moved, then either ether move- 
ments are arrested without result or energy must be created. 
An alternative is a possibility, viz., all kinds of motion may 
be imparted to atoms, but only some kinds of motion to 
ether. 

The question then arises—Is it not easier to make atoms 
elastic and matter continuous, and so altogether avoid the 
necessity for ether? And before admitting the necessity for 
the existence of ether, it will be well to review the known 
properties of matter, and philosophically safer to imagine 
their extension in the same direCtion, even to an indefinitely 
great degree, than to imagine the existence of matter of an 
entirely different and unknown kind. 

Atomic matter forms an indefinitely small bulk in the 
universe. We see the sun, moon, and stars, and all the 
host of heaven, but when we calculate their dimensions and 
distances, and compare the bulk of these bodies with the 
bulk of the sphere of ether containing them, and by whose 
aid we know them, figures fail to convey any idea of the 
indefinitely small bulk of matter compared with the indefi- 
nitely enormous bulk of ether. 

Taking the distance of the sun from the nearest fixed 
star (a in Centaur) as the radius of a sphere of ether, and 
comparing its bulk with the bulk of our solar system, as 
being the smallest possible proportion in which atomic 
matter and ether can exist, it is as 11,000 trillions to r—a 
proportion comparable, perhaps, to a needle weighing I grain 
in a bundle of 600,000 million tons of hay, and the true 
proportion of ether to atomic matter must be indefinitely 
greater than this. Jt puts this question in a somewhat 
different light to reflect that the unique and positive qualities 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2A 


182 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


of the mass of matter in the universe are, by inference, 
without proof, held to differ in essence from the observed 
qualities of an indefinitely small fraction of the mass, and 
that fraction a totally different kind of matter. 

It is a disruption of the idea of continuity, and of the 
unity of creation, to assume that the larger and unknown 
quantity of matter differs totally from that which is known. 
The proposition that we judge of the unknown by the 
known implies that the unknown resembles the known, or it 
cannot be appreciated; and in this sense scientific method 
requires that the unknown properties of ether should be 
proved, for they do not resemble any of the known properties 
of matter. 

The admitted want isa medium for conveying force, or, in 
other words, motion of all kinds; and if we ascertain in 
what way force or motion is most probably conveyed in 
known instances, we shall then know more of the probably 
necessary qualities of the required medium. 

Grove’s experiment of a silver gridiron on a daguerreotype 
plate, placed in the sunlight and connected with a galvano- 
meter, proves that the sun’s rays are converted into chemical 
action on the plate, electricity through the wires, magnetism 


in the coil, sensible heat in the helix, and motion in the 


needle, exhausting all the forces in the sun’s visible rays, so 
far as known. These forces must all have some property in 
common, as they are mutually convertible, and that property 
is motion. 

All natural motion is, or becomes, rhythmical. No in- 
stance occurs to me either of natural uniform motion, or of 
motion in a straight line or ina circle. The path of the 
planets, as regards the sun, are elliptical, and their motions 
accelerate and retard; and as regards space, their paths are 
still more complicated. Hence the medium we require to 
transmit force must transmit vibratory motion. 

Vibratory motion is of two kinds, or may be resolved 
into two kinds, viz., vibration across the line of progression, 
like all the vibrations or forces accompanying light and the 
waves of the sea; and vibratory in the line of progression, 
to and fro, like the waves of sound. 

The action or force called gravitation is a special property 
of atomic matter; on it all the properties of mechanical 
“mass” depend. 

Many of the concrete arguments as to the conservation 
of force turn on the “‘mass” of matter remaining un- 
changed under all circumstances: relative unalterability of 
‘‘mass” is the chemist’s absolute creed. 


Aes. 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 183 


Gravitation is called attraction—‘‘ The sun attracts the 
earth.” Attraction, as the name of the phenomenon, is 
free from objeCtion ; but if attraction be a quality, it is the 
same in kind as suction, and suction we know is the name 
—and not the explanation—of phenomena. That one atom 
or mass of atoms can resist and push, and so impart motion 
to another, is comprehensible; but that one atom or mass 
should at a distance attract or suck another towards it is 
incomprehensible. The fact of the approach is seen, and 
is called attraction, but the reasons for it have to be sought. 

Prof. Guthrie, in 1869, communicated to the Royal 
Society some experimental results, which assist the com- 
prehension of attraction. He found that a sounding tuning- 
fork attracted such things as the smoke of a candle and 
delicately suspended pieces of paper. Due precautions 
were taken to show this attraction was the result only of 
the vibration, and not of electricity or currents of air, &c. 
A tambourine strongly vibrated, and other vibratory sur- 
faces, give more powerful manifestations. 

In 1870 Sir W. Thomson pointed out that these results 
were in accordance with general mathematical laws, appli- 
cable to all elastic fluids whose particles were put in motion 
by immersed bodies, either vibrating to and fro, or whirling 
about in any way. In Guthrie’s experiments the vibrations 
were those of sound, which ac¢t to and fro in the line of 
progression. 

In the sunbeam there are both visible and invisible rays, 
but all those rays obey strictly similar laws, as to speed, 
reflection, refraction, and polarisation, and hence must be 
‘motions of the same kind, and, like hght, are vibrations 
across the line of progression. 

‘The sun attracts the earth,” and gravity acts when the 
sun’s light is absent ; hence the lines or rays of the force 
of gravity are independent of the sunbeam, and probably 
follow different laws. 

So far as attraction is concerned, Guthrie has shown that 
to-and-fro vibratory motion suffices, and, as all known 
effects of gravity can be shown to follow from attraction, 
gravity itself may be the effect of to-and-fro vibrations. It 
is necessary, moreover, that these vibrations be such as the 
vibrations of light, &c., do not affect. 

Mechanically, all motions that are at right angles to each 
other proceed without what is technically known as “ inter- 
ference,”’.or, so to say, proceed uninterruptedly. A cannon, 
whose axis is parallel to the horizon, may project balls with 
very small and with very great velocities, but each ball will 


184 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


touch the same horizontal and lower plane at the same 
time, that time being the same as would be occupied by the 
fall of a ball in a vertical line from the cannon’s mouth to 
the same horizontal plane. ‘To-and-fro vibrations would, in 
this sense, be unaffected by transverse vibrations which are 
at right angles, and thus to-and-fro vibrations of gravity 
would be unaffected by the transverse vibrations of light, &c. 
Gravitation vibrations, if ultimately passing into space, 
would cause a body to lose weight. 

It is supposed that suns and planets lose heat from the 
motion they impart to the rays or vibrations of radiant heat, 
but the effects of the sun’s and planets’ loss of heat are not 
now astronomically observable, and the effects of the loss 
of gravity and of heat may perhaps be observed simulta- 
neously. As, however, gravity and heat rays are not 
of the same kind, there is probably a difference in the 
rate of their dissipation, and the force of gravity may be 
the weakest but most enduring. In the sunbeam there are 
both light and heat rays whose vibrations are of the same 
kind. Incandescent bodies yield similar duplex rays, but 
their radiant light is extinguished before their radiant heat ; 
and we may conclude that if the sun’s condition changes it 
will be dark long before it be cold; and as similar vibrations 
are found to dissipate energy, at different rates, dissimilar 
vibrations most probably follow the same rule. 

According to the axiom of the conservation of energy, the 
rule as to its dissipation is, that energy is parted with or ab- 
sorbed by work done. A feeble force, or one able to perform 
little work, absorbs only feeble energy to originate; con- 
versely, a powerful force owes its origin to much energy, 
and the most powerful force may be the first dissipated. 

In calling gravitya feeble force, the necessity of measuring 
a force becomes apparent. Light, heat, electricity, &c., are 
termed imponderable forces. This phrase, by implication, 
admits the possibility of ponderable forces. Is oxygen, for 
example, a ponderable force? An examination of this 
question will serve to show the sense in which these terms 
should be used. Assume oxygen to be a ponderable force, 
and it is at present impossible to refute the assumption by 
experiment. Andrews compressed oxygen to about the 
density of water, and it remained then, as ever, invisible and 
intangible, except by its forces, its ponderability included. 
Elements unite with oxygen, and fresh substances of dif- 
ferent properties are produced. Heat unites with or is 
absorbed by ice, and water is produced. ‘The allotropic 
forms of phosphorus and of sulphur, and many other 


a 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 185 


instances, will occur to every reader’s mind where a substance 
of different properties is produced by the action or absorp- 
tion of an imponderable force. A ponderable force would 
only add weight. If ice became heavier in melting we 
should say matter was added to it, only because it increased 
in weight. Radiant heat adds volume as well as sensible 
heat to the body that absorbs it, so that the addition of two 
qualities to a substance by the action of one force is not 
rare. Hence, in the attempt to prove that gravity is a 
feeble force, the difficulties of measuring forces by gravity, 
and of the conception of forces as apart from matter, must 
be remembered. 

In many respects gravity well deserves to be called a feeble 
force. Our atmosphere sustains a load of 15 Ibs. to the square 
inch ; we call it a great load,—+. ¢., a great result of gravity, 
—but do not equally appreciate the-effort of the air in 
resisting it; it requires an _intelleCtual effort to say the two 
are equal, and then the magnitude of this effort of gravity 
does not seem comparatively large. 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds has recently shown that a small 
glass tube, sufficiently strong to be safely used as a gun, 
with gunpowder, so as to propel little brass rods through a 
half-inch board, was shattered into the minutest dust when 
partly filled with water and acharge of electricity discharged 
through it. A similar result, if obtained by gravity, would 
have required the pressure of a weight to be measured by 
many tons on the square inch. ‘This experiment was made 
to illustrate the effect of lightning upon splitting trees, 
shattering stones, &c., and Faraday showed some years ago 
that more electricity was concerned in a dew-drop than ever 
was manifested in a thunderstorm. Many trees and stones 
are often shivered to fragments by one storm, showing that 
an equivalent to enormous mechanical or gravitation forces 
is latent in a part of one of the forces that builds up a drop 
of water. 

Heat expands bodies, and requires an enormous me- 
chanical or gravitation force to resist it. The rays of the 
sunbeam, if converted into mechanical force, would far 
exceed anything we can realise; and heat may be said to 
act paradoxically. Its absorption develops mechanical 
force, and so does its subtraction from freezing water and 
from solidifying bismuth. 

The sunbeam also contains actinic or chemical rays, 
probably the most energetic of all, and for the me- 
chanical equivalent of chemical energy we may again go 
to Faraday for an illustration. 


186 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


The metal potassium, like other metals, is mechanically 
compressible only to a very limited extent : probably no means 
are known by which so great a weight or pressure could be ap- 
plied as to compress, say, 450 units of it into the bulk originally 
filled by 400 units. Faraday points out that a space originally 
filled by 430 units of the pure metal potassium, if filled by the 
same potassium when by chemical action made into carbonate 
of potash, would then contain 686 instead of 430 units of 
the same metal, and, in addition, 2744 units of oxygen and 
carbon. He shows that this power of compression is not 
restricted to carbonate of potash, nor to potassium, but is 
even more strikingly exemplified when some other sub- 
stances enter into chemical combination. No other force 
measured by gravity gives parallel manifestations. 

Comparing the mechanical equivalent of gravity with the 
same equivalent of other forces, gravity is thus proved to 
be feeble, and, requiring little effort to originate it; it yields 
small effects, and is the more likely to be very slowly dis- 
sipated. 

Perhaps an objection may be made that, although astro- 
nomically we see no effects of the loss of heat in the sun 
and planets, yet we see a hot body loses heat on the earth, 
but do not see it loses any weight whatever. 

The hot body is noticeable because it is hotter than its sur- 
roundings. Itonlyloses the excessof heat it had,and becomes 
cooler than the earth only when its surroundings are excep- 
tional, and are, so to say, means through which its heat energy 
escapes, and it remains of the same heat as the earth, when 
subjected to the same conditions. Heat is a mode of motion; 
communicated heat is communicated motion; by substi- 
tuting gravity for heat we can say gravity is a mode of 
motion, and communicated gravity is communicated motion. 
All substances are influenced by the motion of heat; 
analogically, all substances are influenced by the motion of 
gravity. The earth’s heat maintains the heat in its parts, 
and the action is reciprocal; so, too, the gravity of the 
earth and its parts are reciprocal, and similarly of all related 
gravitating bodies, and hence no loss of gravity is apparent. 

Mr. Crookes’s recent experiments on the weight of bodies 
in vacuo prove that heat and gravity have some connection, 
and motions at right angles to each other do influence one 
another, although each passes on distinctly. One of the 
cannon-balls before alluded to moves in a path which is 
neither wholly vertical nor horizontal, although the vertical 
and horizontal planes it passes through are those through 
which each force alone would have sent it in the same order 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 187 


in the same times. Vibrations at right angles may there- 
fore have some connection, as on the principle of the well- 
known parallelogram of forces. 

All radiating vibrations which absorb energy in their 
beginning, and evolve it when they are arrested, necessarily 
follow the same law, of effects lessening in proportion to the 
square of the distance from the centre of radiation. The 
effects of gravity are therefore consistent with its being a 
force due to radiant vibration. 

Before quitting this point of the question, the veloci- 
ties at which vibrations are known to be transmitted 
through matter require some notice. The ordinary 
surface-wave on water (a vibration across the line of 
progression) moves with a velocity of about 1 foot per second. 
The waves of light, vibrations of the same kind, pass 
through water with a velocity probably as corre¢tly repre- 
sented by 200,000 miles a second. And eletricity passes 
through some metals still more rapidly. The waves of sound 
(to-and-fro vibrations in the line of progression) pass through 
water with a velocity of about 4000 feet per second. As there 
are certainly two varieties of transverse vibrations, there may 
be at least two varieties of to-and-fro vibrations, and, if so, 
the velocities of the varieties of each kind may bear the same 
or similar proportion to each other, and the velocity of 
transmission of the vibrations of gravity may probably be 
at least 4000 times as rapid as those of light. 

The medium between atoms has to serve for the pheno- 
mena belonging to latent or potential energy, or the energy 
of position. This energy is of two kinds: one as whena 
weight is raised; the other kind such as a coiled or bent 
spring possesses. 

The sunbeam reaches us, say, eight minutes after it left 
the sun. The waves of light present to us at any instant 
are so disconnected with others before and after them that 
both or either might be arrested without our immediate 
knowledge. In fact, as the earth sweeps on its course it 
cuts into fresh lines of waves, and leaves broken lines to 
continue their course. Each spot on the earth receives 
part only of one of the lines of waves of light reaching 
from the sun, and a still smaller proportion of the lines of 
those waves whose sources are the sun’s we call fixed stars. 
A floating straw is moved on a pond’s surface by the waves 
proceeding from a stone, which fell at a distance, some time 
before ; and, although the spot where the stone fell is still, 
the straw moves. 

All radiated vibrations follow the same rule, and “‘ energy 


188 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


of position” is due to the fact that the body, in moving, 
will receive, from the then existent vibrations, an energy the 
exact equivalent of the vibrations arrested, and probably, 
but not necessarily, the equivalent of the energy absorbed 
in placing it in position. 

That energy of position is really due to the circumstances 
surrounding the position, from time to time, is perhaps still 
more evident from considering the difference in weight of 
the same body at the earth’s poles and equator, 194 lbs. in 
the former position weighing only 193 in the latter one. 
But one of the clearest proofs is that of an ele¢tro-magnet 
and an iron bar. For convenience we may imagine the 
magnet placed vertically, and the iron bar upon it. The 
bar, being raised, acquires an energy of position due both to 
the magnetic attraction and force of gravity. It absorbs 
energy to raise it, and evolves its equivalent in its descent. 
But it may be raised whilst the electric current is stopped, 
and fall: whilst it is passing. It would then evolve more 
energy in falling than was employed in raising it. Vzce versa 
if raised whilst the current passes, and falling when it is 
stopped ; and, evidently too, variations in the electric current 
would vary either the energy required to raise the bar to any 
given position, or the energy of position after the bar is 
raised. Briefly, then, energy of position of this kind is in 
every case dependent on the forces or motion of the present, 
and is disconnected from the forces, or motion, or energy of 
the past; in its nature it is variable and accidental. 

But latent or potential energy of another kind may and 
probably does exist, viz., the latent energy of a bent spring; 
but this raises the question of elasticity asa quality of tangible 
matter, and it is difficult or impossible to comprehend the 
possibility of this form of energy, except the quality of 
elasticity be assumed. A compressed gas on the atomic 
hypothesis is elastic because the paths of its atoms are 
shortened, and their impacts more frequent; it is not a 
quality of the gas, but of its mechanical structure, and is 
dependent on the motion of its particles. But on appealing 
to experimental results, we find when any tangible 
substance is broken up the transmission of vibration is 
interrupted. Beginning with a cracked bell, we may pass to 
Tyndall’s recent proof that alternate layers of gas of 
different densities retard sound, and twenty-five alternate 
layers of coal gas and carbonic acid gas, forming a column 
about four feet thick, he shows are impervious to sound. 
The same gases diffused through each other are pervious to 
sound. Similar kind of phenomena occur in similar 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 189 


circumstances with other vibratory motions, as light and 
radiant heat. Hence, two gases diffused through each other 
possess a quality which is not the average of the same gases 
alternated in small bulks, but which appears to be of a 
distinct kind. No evident solution of this problem occurs 
on the atomic theory. If ether permeate all bodies, and be 
the medium of transmission, it is both a conductor and non- 
conductor of electricity, both opaque and transparent to 
light, both diathermous, anda heat-absorbent; but as this 
is an evident absurdity, the utmost transparency of solids 
and fluids to light, radiant heat, electricity, sound, &c., is 
due to unbroken atomic continuity in at least one dire¢tion. 
But the metal potassium before alluded to is a conductor of 
electricity, and, therefore, its substance is continuous. 
‘Faraday, however, showed that 680 parts of it together 
with 2744 units of other substances could be compressed 
into less space than was originally filled with 430 parts of 
potassium itself; and it is difficult to avoid the conclusion 
that potassium is elastic; and, if potassium, then all other 
bodies—solid, fluid, and gaseous. 

It is difficult to trace mentally the act of elastic disturb- 
ance within the substance of a body, but this difficulty is 
equally great with ether, and not more difficult with tangible 
than with intangible matter, and it is more in accordance 
with scientific method to connect a known or evident 
property with a known substance which exhibits similar 
qualities, than with an unknown substance whose mere 
existence is hypothetical. 

Attraction of cohesion, one of the most evident properties 
of atomic matter, is intimately related to elasticity ; but the 
atomic theory does not explain how. As the present object 
is rather to criticise an existing theory than to construct a 
new one, it is unnecessary to account for what the atomic 
theory leaves obscure ; but it is somewhat probable that the 
true explanation lies in a direction we proceed very incom- 
pletely to indicate: mechanically, motions that coincide 
coalesce without jarring or ‘‘interference;’? motions that 
do not coincide jar and tend to separate. 

Another experiment of Tyndall’s exemplifies these remarks. 
Holding a glass tube of about six feet long, and two inches 
diameter by its middle, he rubbed one end of it with a wet 
cloth and caused it to emit the sound of a musical note from 
the longitudinal vibrations thus excited. The free end of 
the tube was shaken into pieces; each piece a ring, and 
many of. them with cracks quite round the tube, but not 
completely through its substance. It would require a 
- VOL, V. (N.S.) 2B 


190 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


weight of about 100 tons to produce the same effect by 
dragging the glass tube asunder against its attraction of © 
cohesion. 

The vibrations, due entirely to the elasticity of the glass, 
passed to and fro the length of the tube, and were reflected 
from the ends and from any intermediate ‘‘nodes.”; SA — 
series of reflected vibrations thus met a dire&t and distin&, 
and not coincident, series of vibrations; and this jarring or 
interference of vibrations, themselves dependent upon the ~ 
elasticity of the glass, sufficed to overcome, simultaneously, 
the attraction of cohesion of its substance at many different . 
points of its length, thus showing that cohesion and elasticity — 
are intimately related, and that the form of the motion 
governs much of its effects. This latter fact is also 
exemplified in many other ways. Amongst these are Abel’s 
experiments on exploding gun-cotton by detonating powder. 
A small portion of common fulminating powder produces a 
most powerful explosion of the cotton, under conditions 
where a much larger quantity of the more violent explosive, 
chloride of nitrogen, simply disperses the cotton, and will 
drive some of its unaltered fibres into oak, &c., without 
producing any remarkable explosion of any part of it. 

Amongst other instances are Professor Reynolds’s bursting 
of the glass tube by an ele¢tric spark, and the difference of 
fracture in a pane of glass by a slow moving stone and by a 
rifle bullet. 

The effect of a rapid blow on water in an open vessel is 
another illustration. A ‘“‘ Prince Rupert’s drop,” broken 
under the surface of water in an open phial, will breaka 
phial that is unharmed if water is absent. 

A faét connected with the spheroidal state of liquids\is 
also significant. A quantity of water on a red-hot solid in 
the well-known spheroidal state is exploded if struck a 
smart blow, or if the water be dropped upon the heated 
surface from a sufficient height an explosion ensues. 
Recently, at an alkali works in Newcastle, serious damage 
followed from this cause—the instrument being a falling hot 
**black-ash ball.’”* | A still more serious case is on record of 
a copper foundry being destroyed from a workman spitting 
into a large quantity of melted copper. 

One remarkable characteristic of molecules has been 
pointed out by Sir John Herschel, who says, in effect, that 
the exact equality of each molecule to all others of the same 
kind gives it the essential character of a manufactured 
article, and precludes the idea of its being eternal and self- 
existent, and this thought well deserves careful examination. 


1874.| Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. IgI 


There appears no difficulty in appreciating the very precise 
equality of two distin¢t but otherwise identical musical 
notes. We can understand that two bodies may make the 
same number of vibrations in a second, and that two sounds 
may be identical, excepting in order of time. We can under- 
stand that the vibrations of light and heat of two distinct lines 
of rays may be of the same length, amplitude, and frequency, 
and so give the same appreciable results of light, colour, 
temperature, and mechanical force. 

When, however, we examine natural objects, we never find 
two alike; there is always an observable difference. In this 
sense the multitude of individual faéts is overwhelming; 
and two natural objects, whose only difference is that they 
occupy different portions of space, or occur at different 
times, are unknown. ‘There are differences between two 
tuning forks, each sounding the same note. We must 
conclude that, as each fork changes with use and time, so it 
has changed between two soundings, although its sounds 
may remain unaltered. 

Different but otherwise identical vibrations of sound and 
light have been compared, and have always been found to be 
the same ; whilst all attempts to prove or to obtain perfect 
resemblance between any two solid, or, so to say, natural, 
objects, have been failures. Hence, identity of all active 
properties is more probably due to identity of motions than 
to identity of quantities or forms of the substances. 

Adding to these conclusions the almost axiomatic idea 
that all force is motion, the enquiry, as to the necessity for an 
elastic ether, is restricted to the capacity of tangible or 
atomic matter for conveying vibrations of all kinds. 

It is unnecessary for this purpose to discuss the question 
as to the definite size of a molecule, defining that term as 
the smallest portion of a substance that will produce the 
phenomena, whereby the individuality of the substance is 
recognised. There is no @ priort reason why that molecule 
should not be of a definite size in comparison with the 
definite number and kind of vibrations it has to originate or 
transmit, and by which alone its characteristics are recognised. 

Sound is not produced by one movement, but by a series 
of movements, and one movement alone is inaudible. 
Similarly it is probably true that all observable phenomena 
of this kind are due to a not indefinite succession of 
vibrations. Mentaily, we can isolate each vibration, but 
practically no single vibration can produce a manifest 
phenomenon, such as we call sound, light, heat, or the like ; 
and as one of the results of all chemical action is measured 


192 Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. (April, 


by weight, the force called gravity must bear its part, and, 
hence, molecules may also be of a definite weight. To this 
extent there appear to be no analogical or inferential grounds 
for objecting to this definition of molecules. 

The theoretic formule for the velocity of the propagation of 
soundshow the velocities to be the same for each gas whatever 
be the pressure supported by it; and Regnault, by experiments 
on the large scale with pressures varying in the proportion of 
1 to 5, has verified this law. This law is of general application 
to all vibrations in elastic media; hence, if light be propagated 
with an ascertained velocity in air, at the earth’s surface, it 
should pass with the same velocity when air is indefinitely — 
attenuated. Astronomers do find that light passes through 
our atmosphere, and through stellar space with the same 
velocity ; and so far, therefore, as the sun beam is concerned, 
this space may be filled with attenuated air, instead of the 
hypothetic ether, if the air be elastic. 

The preceding remarks have incidentally illustrated the 
axiom that all force is motion, and different forces (gravity 
included) are different modes of motion; but passive 
existence, and consequently passive qualities, ready to yield 
more or less to motion of some kind, appear also to be 
necessary and axiomatic attributes of matter. We cannot 
make lace without mechanism. The machine possesses 
various passive qualities; amongst them is the capacity 
under certain conditions of making lace by the expenditure 
of energy in the form of mechanical, as distinguished from 
molecular, motion. Various machines differ in their capacity 
of transforming an identical energy, and producing from it 
various results. Whilst different chemical compounds may be 
compared to different machines, all constructed out of a few 
materials, and still fewer mechanical elements variously 
grouped, all the different natural forces, 7z.e. vibrations of all 
kinds and forms, must be conveyed by one and the same 
quality, and that most probably a passive quality, common 
to all matter. 

Continuous atomic matter appears to possess this quality 
to perfection. The waves of the sea are in number 
complicated beyond computation, and cross each in all 
possible directions. ‘They descend below the surface, and in 
a definite zone we perceive the substance of the sea must be 
in intestinal motion correlated to the visible motion of its 
surface. The waves of a lake of gas (and those of 
a large mass of carbonic acid gas, just rendered 
visible by suspended carbonate of ammonia, are mentally 
reproduced as these lines are written) are at least as 


To RA Se AS gai 


ae 


a 


1874.] Atomic Matter and Luminiferous Ether. 193 


interesting, philosophically, as the waves of the sea, and 
enable us more easily to understand how multitudinous 
vibrations may coexist in an elastic body which as a whole is 
stationary. 

Sir Charles Wheatstone’s experiment helps to carry this 
same idea much further. The tones of a tune played ona 
piano are conveyed through a wooden rod, and rendered 
audible in a distant room. Various fundamental notes of 
different intensities and in different sequence as to time, 
accompanied by their overtones or clang, and all the 
mechanical noises due to the mechanism of the piano, &c., 
pass through a wooden rod, thinned at its end to stand 
without interruption between two strings, and so rest on the 
sounding board. 

The wooden rod may be replaced by a glass rod, or bya 
metal rod, or by a column of fluid. ‘That air conveys these 
sounds is our daily experience. 

At the same time that sonorous vibrations pass, we may 
pass heat, light, electricity, or magnetism, and if a suitable 
fluid medium be employed, mechanical waves and motion 
and chemical action may also simultaneously proceed. 

Through the Atlantic cable two messages can pass at the 
- same time from different directions. We talk across each 
other, and at the same instant hear many sounds from 
different directions; and an indefinite number of people can 
together see numberless rays of light reflected from the 
same point on a refleCting surface, and countless rainbows 
refracied in one rain drop. 

From a seed may grow a tree, and from the tree a forest. 
The germinating cell or group of cells in the seed possess 
motion of such a form that its communication is the cause 
of this development; and the development from this cause 
occurs in, and is communicated by, continuous atomic 
matter. In continuance and complicity, the communication 
of motion constituting vegetable and animal vitalism or 
growth has no known parallel. Tangible matter, therefore, 
does transmit forms of motion of all kinds, and appears to 
be elastic; and if elastic, needs no medium for transmitting 
motion, and the so-called necessity for the hypothesis of 
ether disappears. 

The conclusion, then, must be, it is more philosophical to 
endow appreciable matter, even hypothetically, with the 
qualities it appears to possess, than to create matter of an 
unknown kind in order to endow it with qualities we see, 
but refuse to appreciate, in matter that lies before us. 


( 194 ) (April, 


V. EXHIBITION OF APPLIANCES FOR THE 
PRODUCTION AND ECONOMICAL USE OF FUEL, 


IN CONNECTION WITH THE 


SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC 
INDUSTRY, MANCHESTER. 


been to concentrate the attention both of producers 

and consumers of fuel upon the great question of 
economy, and through the medium of the Society to bring 
together those who are concerned in the speedy solution of 
the problem. 

The following was the original classification to which the 
council asked the attention of the exhibitors. No exhibitors 
have been named in classes 6 and 7; and 3 and 4 it has 
been found convenient to amalgamate. 


(1). Appliances which may be adapted to existing steam 
furnaces, &c., whereby an improved combustion of the 
fuel is secured, and a direct diminution in the quantity 
required is effected. 

(2). Appliances which may be adapted to existing steam 
boilers, &c., whereby the waste heat of the flue gases 
or of exhaust steam is utilised. 

(3). Appliances which may be adapted to existing steam 
boilers, pipes, and engines, whereby loss of heat from 
radiation and conduction is prevented. 

(4). Appliances which may be adapted to existing steam 
boilers and engines, enabling them with safety to realise 
the great economy resulting from the use of high 
pressure steam or superheated steam. 

(5). New or improved furnaces (using solid, liquid, or gaseous 
fuel), boilers and engines of all descriptions, specially 
adapted for the saving of fuel. 

(6). Apparatus which, by producing a cheap and abundant 
gaseous fuel, will supersede the costly carriage of coal, 
obviate the present enormous waste attending its use in 
the solid form, and condense and save the valuable 
sulphur, ammonia, and other by-products of the distilla- 
tion now injuriously affecting iron and other smelting 
processes, and in a vast number of operations discharged 
as poisons into the air. 

(7). Apparatus or engines for obtaining power advantageously 
from heat through any other medium than steam. 


ae chief object of the promoters of this Exhibition has 


1874.| Fuel Economy. 195 


(8). Natural and artificial fuels of all kinds. 

(9). Coal-cutting machines. Peat-manufacturing machines. 

(10). Domestic and other fires, stoves, ranges, and apparatus 
of all kinds (using coal, gas, or other fuel) for cooking, 
and for warming rooms and buildings. 

(11). Mechanical or other arrangements for securing the 
delivery of proved weights of fuel to the domestic 
consumer. 

Entering at the south door is seen a wooden model of 
Davey’s Patent Differential Expansive Pumping Engine, 
200-horse power, for the New Hartley coal-pit ; the engine 
is intended to lift 1500 gallons of water per minute 420 feet 
high. This is exhibited by Hathorn, Davis, and Co., of Leeds. 

On the right-hand side of the building the first object 
which engages our attention is Erskine’s Patent Economiser. 
This consists of Io horse-shoe pipes about 4 inches in 
diameter, and all conne¢ted; these are placed in the flue 
communicating with the chimney. The waste heat from 
the boiler fire encircles these pipes, and causes the water 
which flows through them to enter the boiler at a temperature 
of 280° F.; and as these pipes are liable to become covered 
with soot and dust, instead of having a scraper, as in many 
instances is done, a pipe about 2 inches in diameter passes 
through the entire length of the horse-shoes, which is 
perforated with holes about 6 inches apart. The pipes are 
allowed to get hot, and the steam is now blown on to them, 
which, according to the inventor’s statement, effectually 
cleanses them. ‘The advantages which Mr. Erskine claims 
are, that from the peculiar form of his economiser, it causes 
no diminution or obstruction to the draught in the flue. It 
maintains a thorough circulation of the water through all 
the tubes, thus preventing the accumulation of scale; it is 
easy of access to every part, so that if one of the pipes is 
‘injured it can easily be replaced. 

Andrew Bell shows a fine set of spiral economisers; they 
have the exact shape of three condensing worms put 
together. Each worm consists of 70 feet of pipe, and a 
three-coil machine is sufficient for a 4o-horse boiler. Mr. 
Bell has shown great ingenuity in the casting of these iron 
worms; it would not be an easy undertaking to cast the 
worms in one piece—in fact practically impossible. The 
spirals are cast in half circles, having a spigot and facit 
joint. The joints fit so well into each other, that the circle 
can be formed and lifted without the joints parting ; moulding 
boxes are put round these joints, and hot metal run upon 
them, so that it forms a perfect spiral when they are all 


196 Fuel Economy. (April, 


connected. This arrangement does away with all flange 
joints, so that no leaking can possibly occur, and also 


secures a perfectly smooth surface for the action of the | 


scraper, which revolves, ascending and descending according 
to the spiral form of the coil. It is said that a saving of at 
least one day’s consumption of fuel per week is effected. 
The water having a continuous circulation, all sediment is 
held in solution and passes through the coils, thereby 
avoiding deposit. Each coil is tested to a pressure of 300 lbs. 
per square inch before leaving the works. Economisers of 
various forms make a great show, and it is difficult to say 
which is the best. | 

Messrs. Twibill, of Manchester, exhibit a fine perpen- 
dicular economiser, which consists of a collection of tubes 
set vertically in the flue. These tubes are tested to a 
pressure of 500 lbs. to the square inch. Some experiments 
were performed some time since after the heater had been in 
use for some time. ‘The first test was taken at six o’clock 
on Monday morning; the temperature of the water in the 
pipes was 140° F. At four o’clock on the same day it had 
risen to 284° F., on Friday morning at six o’clock the 
temperature was 250 F., and at four o’clock the same day 
it had risen to 310° F.; and the average temperature of the 
water throughout the week was 273° F. An experiment was 
performed at Messrs. Romaine and Callender’s mill, and the 
average temperature of the water was 295 FI’. The scrapers 
are peculiar to Twibill’s machine; they meet round the 
tubes and have chisel edges, which, by a special arrange- 
ment, press against the tube, and actually cut off the soot 
and tarry matter which accumulates upon the pipes. 

Messrs. Green, of Wakefield, exhibit the finest vertical 
economiser; the joints of their economiser are all turned 
and bored socket-joints, ‘‘ metal and metal” forced together 
by powerful machinery expressly adapted for the purpose. 
Their economisers are in operation to 65,000 boilers, 
representing 2,500,000 horse-power. 

Nield’s improved fuel economiser is on the same principle 
as Andrew Bell’s. ‘This economiser is arranged in sections, 
each section consisting of a number of cast-iron ring-shaped 
pipes, through which the water is caused to circulate. The 
inlet and outlet passages of each ring are close together; 
and as this is the sole joint, and the only fixed point in the 
ring, itis quite impossible that the expansion and contraction 
of the ring can affect the joint in any way; this is a very 
important advantage, and is peculiar to this economiser. 


_1874.] Fuel Economy. 197 


Robert and Joseph Ellis, of Liverpool, show some ingenious 
fire-bars, in which the water, before it enters the boiler, is 
made to traverse these bars, and is raised to a temperature 
_ of 300° F. There are many other appliances for heating the 

water before entering the boiler; there is the Paxman 
Water-Heater, in which waste steam from the engine is 
condensed, and so made to heat another supply of water, 
and the water is pumped into the boiler at a temperature 
of 200°. ; 

Goodbrand and Holland show a coal-cutting machine. It 
is a 27-inch self-acting right or left hand coal cutter, 
constructed specially for the Wharncliffe Silkstone Coal 
Company to undercut their medium hard coal at bottom of 
seam. 

Messrs. Ommanney and Tatham also have Winstanley’s 
coal-cutting machine. ‘This machine is designed for holing 
in mines which are worked on the wide work or long wall 

system. It is driven by compressed air, the pressure 
required being from 20 to 30 lbs. per square inch, according 
to the nature of the coal to be cut. The height of the 
machine is 22 inches, and the gauge of the wheels can be 
made to suit any ordinary colliery tramway. The cutter 
holes its own way into the coal, cutting from nothing up to 
3 feet or more in depth, the thickness of the groove being 
3 inches. The small coal made by holing represents only 
from 25 to 35 percent of the quantity of small coal produced 
by hand holing. The average rate of holing in hard coal, 
with a pressure of 30 lbs. per square inch, is 25 yards per 
hour, including stoppages, and this may be considered to 
equal the work which would be done by at least thirty men 
in the same time. 

Messrs. Hanworth and Horsfall exhibit a self-feeding 
smoke-burner and fuel-economising furnace. The draw- 

back to it is the complicated arrangement for effecting 
the object. The bars are moved by egg-shaped wheels, 
which gives them a forward and backward motion, and 

the coal is allowed to fall upon them by means of a 

sloping plane.. 

Some experiments were performed at Lacy Brothers, 
Callis Mill, near Hebden Bridge, upon two of Galloway’s 
New Patent Boilers, 28 feet long, 7} feet diameter, and 
working at go lbs. pressure, one of them fired by hand, 
the other by the self-feeding furnace. The results of tests 
show a gain of 15 per cent in favour of the self-feeder. 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2C 


198 Fuel Economy. (April, 


Results of Tests, fanuary 22, 23, 1874, at Messrs. Lacy’s. 


Pounds of 
Fitine Time. Coals Water Water 
tt in hours. Used. Evaporated. Evaporated 
. per lb. of Coal. 
Cwts. Lbs. Gallons. 
Hand-fired . . I0°5 Feat te 7150 8°42 
Self-feeding . . I0°5 69 26 7700 9°93 


William Young, Brothers, Queen Street, London, show a 
Smoke Preventer with spiral bars, for every description of 
furnaces, grates, and stoves. By means of this apparatus 
the fuel is introduced at the bottom of the fire, under the 
burning coals, and thus the production of smoke is prevented. 
The smoke preventer is composed of spiral bars mounted on 
an axis, which is moved by hand or machinery each time 
coals are required ; in an ordinary fire-grate, there is a small 
trough at the bottom, in which works an axis carrying two 
vanes of fire-bars. The coal is put into the trough, and the 
poker is used, not to poke the fire, but to turn the fire-bars 
round, thus turning the fresh coal under the ignited coals. 

Messrs. Piercy, of Birmingham, exhibit an apparatus 
called a Mechanical Stoker, patented by Dillwyn Smith. It 
is a very ingenious arrangement for feeding the furnace 
mechanically. In front of the fireplace is a cylinder about 
4 feet long and 8 in diameter; up the top of this is a hopper 
which will hold about 5 cwts. of coal. In the cylinder 
revolves two Archimedean screws, one right and one left, 
which carries the coal into chambers, one underneath each 
screw. In these chambers revolve two fans, which throw 
the coal the whole length of the furnace, the quantity of 
coal being regulated by the requirements of the boiler. 

Mr. Sudlow, of Oldham, exhibits a Rotary Engine, the 
advantages of which are as follows:—It obviates the dead 
points or centres of the crank, and consequent ever-varying 
leverage, the steam acting at an uniform distance from the 
centre throughout its entire travel. It also gives an increased 
longitudinal capacity, wherein to expand high pressure 
steam without incurring pressure, asin the case of compound 
engines; also, where necessary, the flywheel can be entirely 
dispensed with. 

Reese and Gledhill show Wright’s Patent Movable Fire- 
Bar. ‘The rapid and complete manner in which they operate 
upon the combustible matters used decreases the formation 
of clinker or slag, by removing the refuse while in a state of 
dust before it has time to cake into a clinker. By their 
peculiar advancing and retiring action, the slag that is formed 
at the extreme back of the surface is brought, with every 


ow are 


1874.] Fuel Economy. 199 ° 


successive action of the bars, and deposited on the dead- 
plate or mouth of the furnace. This is an advantage of the 
greatest importance, as the removal of slag from the extreme 
back of furnaces has always been attended with great 
difficulty and the periodical destruction of the fire. A 
thorough and complete combustion is effected by the 
breaking up and removal of the slag, and consequent free 
admission of air between the bars, and a large saving is 
effected in the usual consumption of coal. 

Mr. Gall, of Halifax, shows a Patent Self-Acting Smoke 
Preventer, with the recommendation that it will reduce the 
smoke emitted from the chimney by seven-eighths; andshould 
this result not be attained the purchaser may, within one 
month, return the Preventer to the patentee, and no charge 
whatever will be made. 

Dingley and Son, of Leicester, exhibit Lake’s Coal 
Economiser, which, according to the statement of the 
patentee, will save from 10 to I5 per cent on stationary 
boilers, and from 20 to 25 per cent on multitubular boilers. 
This arrangement consists of a conical, fluted, or corrugated 
valve, applied to the rear end of the tube, and capable of 
being adjusted as required; the openings round the valve 
being the outlet for the draught, and which are proportioned 
to the area over the bridge, cause the fire to be kept in close 
contact with the plates around and throughout the entire 
length of the tube, ensuring more perfect combustion and 
equal distribution of the heat within the boiler. It is applied 
without in any way altering the boiler or interfering with 
present draught. 

The Messrs. Howard, of Bedford, show their celebrated 
Safety Boiler; and among the leading features of this boiler 
are, safety (every boiler is tested to three times its working 
pressure, and the bursting pressure of the tubes is at least 
1500 lbs. per square inch), great simplicity of parts, facility 
of repairs, and durability. In the Howard Safety Boiler 
there are neither seams nor rivets, and no joint is exposed to 
the direct action of the fire; the tubes are counterparts of 
each other, and every part is made on the interchangeable 
principle ; and it is more readily accessible, both internally 
and externally, for thorough inspe¢tion and cleaning than 
almost any other form of boiler—high pressure steam with 
economy of fuel. With this boiler a pressure of I20 to 
140 lbs. per square inch is more secure than ordinary boilers 
working at 50 lbs., while experience has shown that on the 
great question of the economy of fuel the hopes entertained 
that the higher pressure of steam would, under proper 


200 Fuel Economy. (April, 


conditions, lead to an important saving of coal have been 
realised. 

A similar boiler is shown, and called the Safe and Sure 
Boiler, bythe Patent Steam Boiler Company, of Birmingham. 
They claim for their boilers absolute safety from explosion ; 
this advantage is obtained by the subdivision of steam and 
water in small tubes tested to a pressure of 500 Ibs. to the 
square inch. If a tube should burst, the only result would 
be a rush of steam and water into the furnace, a sudden 
lowering of the steam pressure, and the extinction of the 
fire. A boiler is often thrown aside as useless nine-tenths 
of which is practically good, but from the remaining tenth 
having failed the whole has to be rejected; with this boiler 
that one-tenth could have been replaced by a new one in 
perhaps less than two hours, when the whole would have 
been as good asever. The nature and disposition of the 
heating surface in this boiler are such as cannot fail to fully 
utilise the heat applied, while the internal arrangements are 
such as entirely prevent the escaping gases becoming much 
above the temperature of the steam, and ensures, with an ordi- 
nary amount of attention, perfect consumption of the smoke. 

Mr. Stanley, of Sheffield, shows his Patent Furnace for 
Smelting Ore. The advantages of these furnaces are, in 
the first place, they effect a saving of from 25 to 30 per cent 
in fuel. The use and expense of grate-bars are dispensed 
with, as these furnaces have closed fire-places formed in 
brickwork ; they make from 80 to go per cent less ash than 
open fire-grate furnaces, the workmen have much less labour 
in working these furnaces, and the heat is quicker and more 
under the control of the furnace men. 

Bailey and Co., of the Albion Works, Salford, make a 
very fine show of Pyrometers, Hallam’s Ejectors, Oil Testers, 
and other useful inventions. Bailey’s Patent Pyrometer is 
used for indicating heat, saving coal, and promoting 
uniformity of production in malt-kilns, ovens, and in other 
places where a certain degree of heat is requisite. The 


pyrometer for malt kilns is 4 feet long, and has an enamel — 


dial 4 inches in diameter; the dial is indicated at 300— 
black figures on a white ground. One of these pyrometers 
has been tried at the Valley Mill, near Holyhead, and the 
proprietor has tested it and found it very sensitive at any 
change of temperature, enabling the man to keep his kiln at 
the proper heat, which is very important in malt-kilns. 
These pyrometers are also used by the Government depart- 
ments for baking bread; it is also used for indicating the waste 
heat in flues of works and locomotives, for indicating the 


ee 


1874.] Fuel Economy. 201 


temperature of blast-furnaces, gas retorts, and other useful 
purposes where high temperatures are used. 

Bailey’s Oil Tester is a very ingenious instrument for 
finding out the value of oils as lubricants; and if good oil 
is used for lubricating, it reduces friction in the machinery, 
and thus saves coal and wear'and tear. The tester may be 
briefly described as a piece of 3-inch shaft and two brass 
steps, upon which frictional pressure is obtained by weighted 
levers ; a thermometer is fixed upon the machine, to denote 
the temperature. One drop of oil is put on to a drum of 
3 inches diameter, friction is applied, and the ‘“‘ life-time ” of 
the oil (which is the technical term) is indicated by means 
of a speed indicator, which indicates the number of revolu- 
tions required to raise the temperature a given number of 
degrees. The exact. money value of oil may be arrived at as 
follows :—Suppose a certain quantity of No.1 oil on the 
machine shows 200° by being driven 10,000 revolutions, 
No. 2 oil shows 200° and 7500 revolutions, or 25 per cent 
less value. In addition to this practical way of obtaining a 
result, the machine may be driven to a higher temperature, 
to see which oil produces the worst residue. In testing 
various oils, a certain weight or measure must be taken; 
the thermometer should always indicate the same tempera- 
ture at starting. It is found that 200° F. is the best to try 
all oils to, if their lubricating power is to be consumed, and 
the machine should be always driven until that temperature 
is indicated, and then immediately stopped ; the bearings of 
the spindle should be well oiled, to prevent friction in the 
wrong place; when a temperature.of 200° has been obtained 
(the speed index showing zero at the start), it should then 
be seen the number of revolutions taken to produce the 
temperature. After testing the oil, it is directed that the 
machine be stopped, and the oil is to remain on the machine, 
and in twelve hours after it is to be tested again to see how 
soon 200 can be obtained; the second experiment will 
indicate which oil is the inferior on machinery when stopped. 
The following is a short table of results on trying these 
various kinds of oil :— 


: Total Market Real value of 
Quality of Temperature indicated Price the Oils, 
Oil produced. Speed of per taking No. 1 
Three Tests. gallon. asa standard. 
s.d. Saas 
Ide Tots! « 200 120,000 Ong 60 
Rite esp ica) 3, (200 180,000 40 g 0 
NS ser, oo 200 60,000 2 6 30 


It will be seen that No. 2 oil will allow 50 per cent more 


202 Fuel Economy. (April, 


revolutions to be performed than No. 1, and must therefore 
be worth 50 per cent more money. 

Messrs. Johnson and Hobbs, of Manchester, exhibit a 
model of a Patent Apparatus for the Condensation of Smoke, 
Gases, &c. This apparatus is exceedingly simple and 
inexpensive in its construction; it is on the paddle-wheel 
principle, with an addition of projections on the blades to 
produce a finely-divided spray of water, which falls through a 
series of network composed of laths, brushwood, shingle, or 
other material, and is so arranged as may seem best for 
arresting the substances to be operated upon. The same 
liquid may be used over and over again, until charged to any 
extent that may be desired. The inventors declare that this 
machine will be found more effective than the expensive 
condensing towers now used for the purpose, as it produces 
a powerful draught, which can be regulated at will, and the 
solution can be made in the machine as concentrated as may 
be required. The machine has been tried in condensing 
ammonia, and has been found to succeed thoroughly; the 
working parts of the apparatus can be arranged to resist the 
action of hydrochloric and other powerful gases affecting 
metal work. 

Crossley Brothers, of Manchester, exhibit an Atmospheric 
Gas Engine. This engine works as follows :—Gas and air, 
mixed in such proportions as to give a mild explosive com- 
pound, are admitted under a piston which slides air-tight in 
a verticai cylinder open at the top. The compound is 
ignited, explodes, and the explosion drives the piston 
upwards. ‘The ignited gases, having increased in volume, 
lose their heat; their pressure becomes less as the piston 
rises, and when it has got to the top of the cylinder a partial 
vacuum is formed, and the pressure of the atmosphere makes 
the piston descend. The work thus done steadily by the 
atmosphere during the return stroke of the piston yields the 
driving power, which is transferred to the shaft by suitable 
mechanism. This utilisation of the instantaneous power of 
the explosion, by allowing the piston to fly up freely from it 
without doing other work than emptying the cylinder of 
air, is the basis of the economy and success of these 
engines. The sudden energy of an explosion cannot be 
economically applied to push a piston slowly along against 
a load, as in the case of steam-engines; it is thus that 
other gas engines have been superseded by this patent. 
Some of the advantages of this engine, compared with 
steam engines, are that it can be started at a moment’s 


notice, and will at once give out its full power; thus no- 


a 


1874.! Fuel Economy. 203 


time is lost in waiting to get up steam. The attendance 
required is exceedingly small, averaging one hour per day 
for a man, including cleaning, oiling, stopping, and starting. 
The fuel has not to be got into the house, nor ashes to be 
got out; gas is laid on, thus much trouble is saved. No 
constant supply of water is required ; a quart a day suffices. 
Gas at 4s. per thousand feet will feed the engine at one 
penny an hour per horse-power. Gas can only be burnt in 
exact proportion to the power required; this is controlled by 
a governor. ‘These engines cannot be used for high horse- 
power; from one to two horse-power is the most they can 
be used for. From the many testimonials received, it seems 
that the cost of gas is less than one penny per hour. 

The show of fire-grates, kitchen ranges, various kinds of 
coal savers, is very good, and perhaps the most complete in 
the Exhibition. The grates, &c., are all in use in the third 
annexé of the building, so that spectators can judge for 
themselves as to the relative merits of the various inven- 
tions. What would have made this show still more inte- 
resting would have been to have given the weight of coal 
consumed by each fire during the day to produce the desired 
effect; as it is, one sees an interesting collection of machines 
for saving fuel, but no experiments seem to have been per- 
formed by competent judges to test the truth of each in- 
ventor’s statements. There are various grates for utilising 
the waste heat of the fire and causing it to warm air- 
chambers, which warm air is carried to different rooms in 
the house. 

Shillito and Shorland exhibit patent grates and hot-air 
boxes for extracting waste heat from every description of 
grates and kitchen ranges, thereby effecting a saving of at 
least 50 per cent in fuel, without at all interfering with the 
general appearance of grates. One of their 30s. boxes can 
be inserted behind register or sham register stoves now in 
use, and could also be placed behind a kitchen fire without 
taking down the range or grate, and, according to the 
inventor’s statement, will raise temperature in excess of 
external atmosphere from 10° to 20°, and discharge into 
room or lobby 2000 cubic feet of warm air per hour. The 
advantages of this fire-box grate over the ordinary grate are, 
that it secures a supply of perfectly fresh, warm, pure air, 
and diffuses it equally over the whole room, or rooms 
requiring to be heated, the cold air admitted from the 
outside being perfectly fresh, and warmed by passing over 
the inside back of the grate. The objection to other hot-air 
stoves, that they draw their supply from the already vitiated 


204 Fuel Economy. (April, 


air of the room, is obviated. When this grate is used in 
dwelling-houses two rooms can be heated by the same fire— 
the open fire serving for one room, and the heated fresh air 
being thrown into the next. . 

Thomas Whitwell exhibits a grate on a similar principle. 
By his fire-place he injects warm air into the room at a tem- 
perature between 65° and 115° F. 

Rogerson and Co. show Corbitt’s Improved Economic 
Warming and Ventilating Grate. It is simple in construc- 
tion. The best points of the modern grate are preserved, 
viz.—The cheerful open fire; large reflecting and radiating 
surface ; reduced size of fire-box, with convex back, which 
is composed of fire-brick, and, being a bad conductor, throws 
the heat into the room; the draught-flue, opening into the 
chimney, is regulated by Louvre valves, so that no waste 
heat need pass up the chimney beyond the products of com- 
bustion. 

The most successful and ingenious fire-grate in the 
Exhibition is the invention of the Rev. J. Wolstencroft, 
and is called the Vacuum Draught. ‘The inventor says the 
great difficulty is solved, viz., ‘“how to get a healthy, 
cheerful fire, imparting a genial heat, with half the amount 
of fuel commonly used.” We saw the grate in use, and 
we must candidly admit it was the most cheerful and the 
brightest fire in the place, but as to the amount of coal it 
daily consumed we are unable to say. According to some 
experiments which have been performed with it by James 
D. Curtis, Commander Royal Navy, there is truth in the 
inventor’s statement, that there is a great economy in the 
consumption of fuel. Captain Curtis, of Brimpsfield, 
Gloucester, experimented with the grate in his harness- 
room from the 18th of August, 1873, to the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1873, using no other fire, burning slack coal 
delivered for 24s. per ton, employing this fire daily for 
cooking small things, such as boiling potatoes for the fowls, 
&c., and after the daily use the fire was left to burn itself 
out during the night; the cost of coal per day was 33d. 
The front of the grate is continued down to the floor, 
cutting off the supply of air from within the room ; by this 
means an air chamber is formed under the grate, to which 
the air is communicated from within or without the building, 
bringing the draught under and directly through the fire- 
bars. Ina fire-grate which has been fitted up in Manchester, 
at the office of one of the Local Boards, the air-chamber 
communicates with the main sewer, and draws its supply 
from thence, thus, as it is supposed, ventilating the sewer, 


1874.] Fuel Economy. 205 


at the same time consuming the noxious sewer gases. Any 
kind of fuel can be used, and very small coal can be burnt 
as easily and with as good results as lumps; coke and 
cinders may be burnt over and over again, until they become 
as fine as sand. The ashes from the fire all drop through 
the bottom of the grate into or through the air chamber, 
consequently dust from the fire is greatly diminished in the 
room; the draught may be regulated at pleasure with a 
valve. The invention may be easily applied to many exist- 
ing grates at the cost of a few shillings. 

By the side of Wolstencroft’s fire-place was Kenyon’s 
Patent Coal Saver, which consists of a perforated fire-brick 
tile, to put into the grate and fill up the coal space, throwing 
the hot coals to the front of the fire-place, while the back of 
the fire is comparatively cold. It has the disadvantage of 
presenting a very dull fire while it is carrying out its prin- 
ciple of saving coal, presenting a great contrast to Wolsten- 
croft’s; indeed one might almost think it was placed there 
as a foil for his more successful competitor. 

Crawshaw’s Household Coal Saver is a corrugated piece 
of iron or clay placed behind an ordinary coal-fire. It 
radiates the heat from the fire into the room, instead of 
allowing so much waste heat to pass up the chimney. 

Frisbie’s Patent Feeder and Grate is a most ingenious 
arrangement for feeding a fire with coal from the bottom. 
This feeder and grate provides a simple method of feeding 
fuel up, from underneath the fire, into all descriptions of 
furnaces, fuel-boxes, and fire-grates. By this principle of 
feeding from below the fire there is no fresh consumption 
of the fuel, the igniting of the fresh coal is a gradual 
process, while at the same time a very intense heat is 
obtained. ‘The hottest portion of the fire being constantly 
at the top utilises the heat, and preserves the fire-bars from 
being burnt out; the heat of the surface of the fire is not 
abated by the supply of fresh fuel, and no cold air is 
admitted to the furnace while feeding, thereby preserving a 
perfectly uniform heat. By feeding from beneath, the coal 
is pushed up and outwards equally from the centre of the 
grate, and is evenly consumed, with scarcely any refuse 
except fine ashes, which drop down through the grate-bars 
without raking. From various testimonials which the 
inventor has received, it seems that there is a great 
Saving in the use of the coal; thus one firm says their 
coal bill averaged £160 a month, but on introducing one 
of these burners they only used that quantity in four 
months. 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2D 


206 Fuel Economy. ‘April, 


Folloms and Bate, of Manchester, exhibit a large collec- 
tion of stoves and fire-grates. One of their novelties isa 
Portable Water-Boiler, which consists of an upper and 
lower chamber, and is so constructed that the upper 
chamber is filled with cold water, and as the hot water is 
drawn off from the lower, the cold water is allowed to fall 
down through a small pipe, so that there is a constant 
supply of warm water. It will boil 11 gallons in 20 minutes, 
or three or four hundred persons can be supplied with hot 
water for tea at a cost of 3 lbs. of coal. 

There is a very good show of various kinds of peat and 
patent fuel, with the necessary apparatus for condensing and 
purifying peat. 

Kidd’s process for carbonising peat consists of a large 
chamber or drying-room connected with a boiler which 
supplies superheated steam; from the boiler a steam-pipe 
passes through the furnace, and from thence into the flue ; 
the steam, in its passage over the boiler-fire, becomes super- 
heated, and, together with the smoke, passes into the drying- 
chamber; the peat, cut into pieces about the size of bricks, 
is put into a framework which runs upon wheels, so that it 
easily runs into the drying chamber, and is run out again © 
when finished, thus saving a great deal of labour. The 
object of Kidd’s process is the collection of the heated gases 
referred to in a closed chamber, where they may be usefully 
employed in charring peat, or converting it into charcoal ; 
an artificial draught is created by jets of superheated steam, 
and the whole products of combustion from the furnace are 
forced into and retained by the closed chamber. ‘The 
chamber is filled with peat, which may be dried and charred 
in less than forty-eight hours by the action of the furnace- 
gases and superheated steam; the temperature of the 
chamber soon rises to between 300° and 400° F., and remains 
at some temperature between those limits. By charring 
the peat at a low temperature the loss of hydrocarbons is 
very small, the gases which are poured into the chamber 
being for the most part non-supporters of combustion ; 
consequently it is impossible for the peat to take fire during 
the process of charring. The fuel used in the furnace which 
supplies the gases and generates the steam is peat which 
has been partially dried in the open air. It is estimated 
that a ton of peat charcoal can be produced by this method 
at a cost of 13s. 6d., which sum includes all charges for 
interest on capital, royalties, and labour; raw peat at 3s.a 
ton; that used for fuel, 4s. 6d. per ton. Peat thus prepared 
produces a gas of high illuminating power, ranging between 


1874.] Fuel Economy. ~ 207 


20 and 22 candles, and 6000 and gooo feet per ton; the gas 
is generated so quickly that three charges of peat can be 
worked off to one of coal, thus effecting considerable 
economy in the plant of gas works. The charcoal which 
remains after the gas has been extracted is also much 
more valuable than the ordinary coal-gas coke. There is, 
no doubt, a large field open for commercial enterprise in 
the manufacture of peat charcoal, owing to its freedom 
from sulphur and its affinity for oxygen at a high tem- 
perature. It is equal to ordinary charcoal for refining 
iron, steel, and other metals. In France, this charcoal, 
under the name of carbon voux, is largely used in the 
manufacture of gunpowder; it has been used as.a fertiliser 
also for filtering water and town sewage, and when com- 
bined with a proper admixture of phosphate of lime it has 
been found useful as a substitute for animal charcoal. 

Henry Clayton and Son show some fine machinery for 
preparing and forming blocks of condensed peat. One of 
the difficulties in preparing peat for the market is to get rid 
of the large amount of water which it contains, as sometimes 
it is met with containing from 55 to 80 per cent. Of this, a 
variable proportion is ‘‘loose, or free water,’’ much of which, 
when present in the larger quantity, can be extracted by 
means of drainage and squeezing ; the great bulk, however, 
of the water is ‘“‘locked up,” confined in the rooty or fibrous 
portion of the peat. So retentive is peat of this fixed water, 
that no pressure, however powerful, can effect its expulsion 
while the peat remains in its natural condition. The 
objects which the Messrs. Clayton aim at are :—To get rid 
of as much water as possible by draining and squeezing, 
then to thoroughly cut up the fibrous or rooty portion, 
releasing the great quantity of water and air which was 
previously fast in the fibre, and reducing the whole to an 
uniform state of pulp. Peat thus prepared will freely and 
rapidly part with its moisture by natural evaporation, and 
in so doing will consolidate itself, and thus acquire a density 
which no pressure of the peat in its natural state could 
produce, becoming very hard and compaét, and of a specific 
gravity nearly equal to coal; in this state it is (unlike the 
common prepared turfs) non-absorbent of water. The 
patentees of the condensed peat say that it produces little 
or no smoke, contains no sulphur, ignites more readily, and 
diffuses the heat more generally and more widely than coal 
itself, leaves no cinder and but little ash. To accomplish 
these objects with peat direct from the bog, the peat is 
filled (as dug) into squeezing-trucks, and during its convey- 


208 Fuel Economy. (April, 


ance from the bog to.the machine much of the “ free 
water” is pressed from the raw peat by a simple and easy 
means. From the trucks the peat is discharged into the 
machine, which, in its a¢tion, continuously cuts up minutely 
the fibrous portions of the peat, and produces a perfect ad- 
mixture of the cut up fibre and rooty matter with the pulpous 
portion, thereby utilising the whole mass of the bog and 
entirely destroying its original character and natural spongy 
nature. In its travel through the machine the material 
further undergoes a moderate amount of pressure, and 
acquires a density and form permitting it to be discharged 
and deposited upon portable trays in blocks or briquettes of 
convenient size, and thence conveyed by a simple and 
labour-saving contrivance to the drying-sheds, where, after 
three weeks’ drying (during average weather), the prepared 
peat becomes hard, compact, marketable fuel. A trial of 
condensed peat was made some time since for railway 
engines on the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, with 
a view of testing its qualities as a fuel for locomotives. The 
engineers who made the trial say: “In order carefully to 
watch the power of the fuel in the generation of steam, we 
rode on the engine from Carrick Junction to Ballymena, a 
distance of twenty-seven miles. The pressure at starting was 
too lbs. on the square inch; the commencement of the 
journey was up an incline of about I in 80, 4 miles long, and 
with double curves. While going up the incline the pres- 
sure rose to I10 lbs., and afterwards to 120; the speed, 
whenever this was permitted, was 40 miles per hour.” 


Particulars of the above Locomotive Trial of Condensed 


Peat Fuel. 
Total quantity of fuelused . . 14 cwts. Iqr. 14 lbs. 
Weight of train, peice Spear and 
LENIGEr -. 5) “ys 70 tons. 
Number of ‘catnages .':- 5 “.\..) a. mevele 
MISS runs Sn 5. seinem eeye sb oe wanes 
Time running . . 3 hrs. 9g mins. 


Weight per mile used of peat fuel. 21°47 lbs. 
Average pounds per mile for the last 

three months, using Welsh and 

Scotch coals at a ratio of 2 of 

Welsh tot ‘of Scoteh <2; 4.)%. =: @5°a5unner 
Average for the month of May last . 26°29 lbs. 


The engineers conclude their report by saying :—“ Having 
carefully noted all these faéts, we have no hesitation in 
Saying that we consider the condensed peat in every way 
well adapted as fuel for locomotive purposes.” 


1874.] Fuel Economy. 209 


A series of experiments have been made at the Com- 
mercial Gas Works, London, on condensed peat, the results 
of which are given below :— 


Yield of One Ton of Coal. 
Sperm corre- 


Cubic feet Illuminating Cwts. Gasperton. sponding toGas 
Description of Coal. of G Power in of  equaltolbs.of of Boghead 


aS: Sperm Candles. Coke. Sperm. Cannel No. 2, 
equals 100. 

Staffordshire . 2 .- << 7,100 12°42 13°5 302 13°6 
Meabyshire . .° . « 7,000 II‘7I 17 305 13'7 
iocheellys.  . . . . 8,000 18°00 13 404 22°2 
Derbyshire Cannel. . 8,500 20°60 15 600 27°0 
Wigan Cannel . . . 10,000 20°00 13°25 686 30°9 
Newcastle Cannel . . 9,800 25°00 13°25 840 37'°8 
Lesmahago Cannel . 10,500 40°00 IO 1440 64°8 
Boghead (No.1) . . 12,500 40°00 8 1713 aie 

a (No.2) . ~- 13,000 48°00 6 2222 100°0 

Yield of One Ton of Condensed Peat. 

eeliadSire sts) ) «* 10;500 15°65 8 562 25°3 
Prcavelcas.,- - - = 93240 18°75 8°75 594 26°7 
SWEISHOtn ss. 2. I1,000 22°50 5] 849 38:2 


The following, from a tabulated statement giving details of 
the various peat enterprises actually now working, will afford 
some interesting information on peat manufacture :— 


Tons of Dry Relative 

St Where Horse- Fuel per Ma- Cost Value 

YEMoEe Working. Power. ae per per Ton. of to 

a Lf Season. Coal. 

ontreal, for 
patees Canadian ( Grand Trunk 4000 6s. 6d. 5-6ths, or 
Peat Company. | ey 84 p. ct. 
= Engl 

Boston ae Com { a he 4200 ‘Bs. Stance 
Pci Pekin. New York. 13 3500 8s.togs. 84p. ct. 

Haspalmoor. aoa Not ‘ 6 : 
Colbermoor. Woks peel stated. 2B le 

; ; Not Stated 
Box’s. On trial. Detelares 4s. sa. — 


Variable 


Great Britain re e 
Clayton and Son. and 6 3500 38.0d. = according 
to 5s. to quality 


Germany. oe 


From the foregoing it will be seen that peat fuel possesses 
a calorific power of five-sixths of coal, and can be produced 
in Canada and the United States at from 6s. 6d. to gs. per 
ton, where wages for labour are not lower than 7s. per day. 

The Peat Coal and Charcoal Company make a show of 
peat in all its stages, from the time it is taken from the bog 
to the time it is compressed and carved, for they have some 
pieces which have been cut into flowers and fruit, till it 
looks like carved ebony. This Company has bought the 
patent rights of M. Challeton de Brughat ; his process con- 
sists in making peat coal having nearly the same density as 
pit coal, and also he claims to have invented a better 


210 Fuel Economy. (April, 


method of preparing peat charcoal. The cost of this peat 
coal at the manufactories may be taken at 8s. per ton for 
small quantities, and 6s. to 6s. 6d. for large quantities. 
1} tons of peat coal made by this process is reckoned to be 
equal to r ton of best English coal; for stowage it will only ~ 
take, on an average, 20 per cent more room than ordinary 
coal. This Company intend to establish their first manu- 
factory on the borders of North Wales and Shropshire. 
The peat on this land is of the best quality, averaging in 
depth about 12 feet. A trial of this peat was made on the 
Thames, on board the paddle-steamer Times, in the presence 
of the Duke of Sutherland and a distinguished company. 
The steamer ran from Beckton gas works to Greenwich in 
twenty-five minutes with a strong head wind, slack water at 
top of tide; and the quantity of uncompressed peat fuel 
consumed in this twenty-five minutes’ run was about 210 lbs., 
maintaining a steady steam pressure of 50 lbs., without 
smoke, and at all times a good clear fire. The experi- 
menters state that for the generation of steam it requires 
but a very moderate current of air, is absolutely smokeless, 
and gets up steam equally quick as coal, and maintains it 
with a less expenditure of fuel, does not injure the fire-bars, 
and is in every respect much cleaner than coal or coke. 
The South of Scotland Peat Fuel Company exhibit fine 

samples of peat, which have been analysed and reported 
upon by Mr. Heddle, Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of St. Andrews. The composition of the dried fuel, on 
analysis by combustion, is— 

Gas sen st 6s Ska Pegs 

Carbon Aree. a0 2) 2th ga ona! 

PUSH op aj ce UAE em See ota 
In its ordinary condition, however, it contains— 


Wratertoat .- #4) «tet Hee 
Gas No 60 oc okies ee ues 
Carbon 2 act BL) as Ae ee: 
ASD gS Seay aro ak coe 


It was found that a sample kept for some days under 
cover contained 16°4 per cent of moisture, and that samples 
artificially dried regained upon exposure nearly the above 
amount, so that it may be held to be impracticable to 
improve the fuel in this respect; the fuel yields gas at the 
rate of 7984 cubic feet per ton. When examined by Lewis 
Thompson’s fuel test-apparatus, the calorific power of the 
fuel was found to be— 


In itsiusualstatess. <9 <) ap675 
When dried .°°. 4:4 5940 


1874.) Fuel Economy. 211 


That is, one part of the fuel will boil off as steam above 
4} times its own weight of water from 212°, and the dry 
fuel about 6 times its own weight. 

Mr. A. C. Pelly shows his patent peat fuel, which he con- 
denses into solid balls, of the density of hard wood; the 
peat balls, when manufactured ready for use, cost only about 
5s. 6d. to 6s. per ton. 

Professor Reynolds reports upon the process, which con- 
sists in pulping the raw peat in a horizontal cylinder, within 
which a shaft carrying a number of arms is made to rotate 
rapidly, by steam or other power. The fibre is not only 
broken in this machine, but, owing to a screw-like action of 
the shaft, the peat pulp is forced through a circular opening, 
and then appears as a cylinder of pasty material, which is 
cut into short sections by very simple apparatus; the short 
cylinders of pulp so obtained fall immediately into a truncated 
cone, revolving rapidly. Here each piece is made to assume 
a rough spherical form; these pieces are then dried. The 
dry product of these simple operations appears in the form of 
irregular balls; hence the term ball-peat. The following is 
Professor Reynolds’s analysis of two samples of ball-peat :— 

Hydrostatic moisture . . 15°12 14°87 

BEA DO Maras ® sopra «fie ee, on (AOOR 47°22 

PRLORENM co gic sc woe Ven OE 5°14 

POU an kd. os. Sp eho te ook o 4 BOOS Bote 

REHOREN se es ee, 0738 0°74 

Pests ori o> ae pst oe ares OPE o°8r 
Professor Reynolds says:—It is well known that the 
heating effect practically obtained from ordinary rough turf 
rarely exceeds 40 per cent of that afforded by Staffordshire 
coal; this ball-peat possesses a heating value equivalent to 
55 per cent of that of the class of coal mentioned, or, in 
other words, to produce the heating effect obtainable from 
1 ton of average Staffordshire coal it is necessary to burn 
about 25 tons of ordinary turf, while 1°8 tons of ball-peat 
would give the same amount of heat. 

Reuben and Israel Levy exhibit ‘‘ Leigh’s” Patent Phoenix 
Fuel, which consists of refuse from coal fires mixed with tar 
or pitch, and made into balls. We cannot see the economy 
of the process, as it leaves 75 per cent of ash; they claim 
the novelty of using the ashes ad infinitum. 

Radeke’s patent artificial fuel consists of small coal, 
bound together in blocks by the aid of silica, both in solu- 
tion and in a powdered state. 


( 212 ) 


IV. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NUMBER 
OF CONSTITUENTS, ELEMENTS, AND MINORS 
OF A DETERMINANT. 


By Captain ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, R.E., 
Honorary Fellow of King’s College, London. 


constituents, elements, and minors, in four classes of 

determinants, viz., in ordinary, symmetric, skew 
symmetric, and skew determinants. In calculations and 
investigations relating to determinants it is often useful to 
know these numbers independently of the actual formation 
of the individual constituents, elements, and minors. The 
investigation of these numbers will be found an interesting 
exercise in the theory of combinations, and leads to some 
remarkable symbolical relations. 

The references are to Salmon’s “‘ Modern Higher Algebra,” 
2nd edition. The type of a constituent of a determinant of 
n rows will be written a?* and the corresponding first minor 
as A,,., (as in Salmon, Art. 2.) All the constituents and all 
the minors of determinants in the following problems are 
supposed finite and unequal, except when expressly stated to 
be otherwise. Without this limitation the investigations to 
be given are not necessarily applicable. 


A ae following paper is an investigation of the number of 


I. Number of Constituents in a Determinant. 


1. The number of constituents in an ordinary determinant 
of n rows isin general (1.e. if the constituents be all unlike) n*. 

2. In a symmetric determinant of m rows, the (1*~—%) con- 
stituents not in the leading diagonal occur in pairs, and are 
equivalent to only 3(”*—n) different constituents, making up 
with the 2 different constituents in the leading diagonal a 
total of 3(n?—n)+n=3n(n+1) different constituents im 
general. 

3. In askew determinant* the » constituents of the leading 
diagonal are in general different, whilst the remaining (n*—n) 
constituents occur in pairs equal i in magnitude, but of opposite 
sign, so that there are im general— 


n? different constituents, but only 
4(n?—n)+n=3n(n+1) constituents of different magnitude. 


* Saumon, Art. 37. 
+ A distin&tive name would be convenient for this variety: the author 
suggests ‘sub-determinant.” 


~ ~ ue 


1874.| Investigation of Determinants. 213 


4. An important variety* of the above classes of determi- 
nants is that in which the constituents of the leading diagonal 
are all zero, in which case the above numbers are to be all 
reduced by 7: thus the number of constituents will be :— 

(x). In an ordinary determinant whose leading con- 
stituents vanish, (”?—7). 

(2). In a symmetric determinant whose leading con- 
stituents vanish, $n(7—1). 

(3). In a skew determinant whose leading constituents 
vanish (this is styled a skew symmetric determi- 
nantt), (”?—m) different constituents, but only 
3n(n—1) of different magnitude. 


II. Number of Elements in an Ordinary Determinant. 


Let E, be the number of elements in an ordinary deter- 
minant of ” rows. 

Then a determinant of 7 rows oe be expressed i general 
as a sum of different terms, viz., A= 3°" (a>,y. As,y), where 
A,,, is the first minor of A STON ae to ay, and is 
therefore itself a determinant of (n—1) rows, and contains 
(by above notation) E,_, different elements! Moreover, 
these E,,_; elements of each term of type (ap,y. Ap) in the 
whole sum, which together make up A, are in general different 
from all the elements in every other such term. 


Hence, E,=1. Ex-:- 
Similarly, E,-;=(#—1). E,-., and so on. 
Hence, E,=2. E,-,="(n—1). Ey,-2= 

| 2 


=—~———" En-+ (x): 


[n—r 
= |. E, 
SST CE BoA pe ete een ey ie eee me) 
Since it is obvious that E, »=1, E,=1. 


III. Number of Elements in an Ordinary Determinant whose 
Leading Constituents Vanish. 
dA , —_ A be Bila MAP AO, ? & 

A, dappy dapp.dagg dapp. dagg. day Cos we 
represent an ordinary determinant, and its successive first, 
second, third, &c., leading minors, the leading constituents 
(which are a type asp) being finite. 


lees F lteg aac! leaeta ae: |e 
Ts da pp da pp. da gq da pp. da gq. da yy C. « 


» See note on preceding page. 
+ SALMON, Art. 40. 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) aE 


214 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


represent the corresponding values of the preceding 
quantities when the Jeading constituents are all zero. 
Also let [E,] be the corresponding value of E,, 


And let “C, be the number of combinations of n things 
taken 7 together, so that— 


sd 5 — 


| 1 n 


="Cy_re 


| 7. |n-r 


It is shown (Salmon, Art. 40) that in general— 
dA d2A 
= (A) + 24 aypeLaas |} + 34 aspen Exe = re 


+34 AppUaqhyrrs crac mee 
+ ose wt eo wt Gy-0ete © > Gan) eee 


Hence, noting that the number of ways in which a con- © 
tinued product, as (a,;.42,43; . . + » Ar) of 7 constituents 
can be formed from the 7 leading constituents (of type ap») 
is “C,, also that the number of elements in an vth minor of 
type— 
dra ] 
day1.ddz2.da33 ..- + day)’ 
(being a determinant of (~—v) rows whose leading con- 
stituents vanish), is by above notation [E,_,], also that by 


the notation the number of elements in A is E,, and in [A] 
is [E,], it results that— 


En= [Ex] +°C,. [En-1] +%C,. [En-2] +... + . +°%C,. [En—o] 
vere -2 [E, ] +7Cy-x LA ] +1. 


= [Ey] +2. [En] feces) [Epaal +. to 


| 7. | —9 Yr 
, +t) TE] An [E:] +1... (4). 


Now the numerical coefficients are the same as in the 
expansion of the binomial (x+1)”, and the suffixes of [E] 
are the same as the indices of x in that expansion; hence 
modifying the notation with the interpretation— 

[E]?= [E;], (s) 
[E]*. (E] = [E]*#4= [Eps] 
that is to say, making the suffixes of [E] follow the index 
law, Equation (4) takes the following remarkably simple 
symbolic form :— 
B,=((E] 3)". wove a ee (6). 


Further, this Equation being general for all (positive integral) 
values of n— 


er cabelas 


-1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 215 


B,.E,=((E] +1).((E] +1)" 
=((B) +1) 
= Epig eae wh Ce ics We Sela ee sin ee (7). 


that is to say, the suffixes of E also follow the index law, 
so that the notation may be further modified with the 


interpretation— 

(12) sed De gar ae oie ean ac Cor er (8). 
Hence, from Eq. (6) and (8)— 

GE)t= = (EP +1) sates ee (g). 


and this Equation being general for all (positive integral) 
values of n— 

Bs hea, and je) = Bw <a. 3 (2O)s 
These are symbolic relations between {E] and E of re- 
markable simplicity, and lead to an explicit formula for 
calculating [E,]. For— 
LE,,] == [E] e—(K—1)". 


n(n— | 


= E,—*.E,-1+ =e a Bye oe +(- reo eer E,y-+t+ 


7 
—— e 
(eat 


——. 


4 (—1)t-2, 9). B+ (—1)"- 12. E,+(—1)" Ct). 


IV. Number of Elements in a Determinant out of whose n 
Leading Constituents only m are Finite. 


Generalise the notation of Problem III. as follows :— 

mera), [A’], [A], .-» = fA”) represent the values of 
A (an ordinary determinant with finite constituents), when 
out of its leading constituents (of type @,,) there are re- 
Spectively none, one, two, &c.,... . m fintie, and the 
remainder zero. 

Memes), (,), [E's],> . . [E"] represent the corres- 
ponding values of E,: by this notation [E”] =E,. 

Then, by the same reasoning as in Problem III., and 
noting (in addition) that all terms involving the continued 
product of more than m leading constituents vanish 
necessarily in the case of the determinant [A”], it follows 
that— 


[A”] = [A] +35 an-Laa,, |} +3 1p i eosge all, cat 


dma ) 
$Y (i223 le oe dnm)-| dagedice don ae a= ||, S (12). 


216 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


* (E*) = [En] +”Cx. [En-1] +C2. [En—2] +. $C, [En-2] + 
Pe og ape Ie bore mal + per Pa 
um=2) + PByeg Pe +S [En-r) + 


am er ea = Lees a” he's (13). 


Next, changing every term [E,] into its symbolic equiva- 
lent [E}?, see Eq. (5), [E]”-” is seen to be a factor in every 
term of series (13), which may, therefore, be symbolically 
expressed— 


=[E,] +--[E,-1+7— 


Rae = (aes . { [E] ep , (14). 
= (Eel . Eni (See Eq. 6). 
Hence also, by changing m into (1—m)— 
PB TD Ul Oe 0 Ga 
= [Bml. Ey (See grb): 


Again changing [E] into its equivalent (E—1), by Eq. (10), 
and interpreting the result by Eq. (8). 


[Ee] Lee Dee, 
=E,— 2 By S B, a. . +(—1). ap En-rt 


: ee cae n—m= ° (16). 
Formule (13) and (16) furnish the means of calculating 
[E;'] or (E,”] in terms of [E] or E respectively. The 
former is preferable if m <2, and the latter if m > +2. 


The following particular instances of these expansions 
may be recorded for reference :— 


[Ee] — [En] cir [En- 1} 3 ? 

[EA] =E,—En-,: 
[E”,] = [E,) Te [En-:] is [En,-al 3 

Boa = En — 2E na i En-2 
[E,,] = (E,] +3 [En-1] +3 [En-2] + [En-s]; 

a =En—3Es-1+3En-2- | 3] 

The following relations between successive values of [E, ] 

and also [E’’"”] might be obtained by induction from the 
above equations, viz., that— 


[E] = (EY) + (ee 
(18) 


(17). 


ag = (Ea ni £: [Br"4 


n n—-t 


J 


1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 217 


but are more readily obtained in a general manner by 
symbolic work, thus— 


[E, J ot [Ea = [En—m41) “Em1+ [En—m] -Em—1 by Eq. (14). 
= [Exn-m]. En-1 { [E] +1} by Eq. (5). 
=[(F,2nleBm— [E,] bysEq. (no. 7,.and x4). 

San - noes = Bigerl-Epmta— Pen denen DY G5). 


7 [Em-—xz] i j—-m.(E —1) by Eq. Cae 
= [Ey] En-m= (Bey by Eq. (Io, 5» & I5)- 


V. Addendum to Problems (II1.) and (IV.) 


The expressions (11) and (16) for [E,] and [E/~”] in 
terms of E obtained by a symbolic inversion of the formule 
(4) and (13) previously obtained for E, and [E”’] in terms of 


[E,] may also be obtained by algebraic inversion of the 
same formule, but the process is very tedious. They may 
' also be obtained directly from the properties of determinants 
by establishing expressions for [A] and [A”~”] in terms of A 
inverse to the expressions (3) and (12) used in the text. 


The required expressions are easily seen to be— 
dA d2A 
[A] =A- %{49p-aa,,} + 3 {496 Va0- Ga aay | 


ep 
dA 
pda gg Aa,} t 


Pe es eae (= 1)%. ads, 4. = Gan)» (TQ) 


a | =a-3 {andes} +3 ep | 


{4 pp%aqrr- da 


pp 4% aq 
dma 


) 
dayx. ddzg. da33.-- damm | (20). 


ae +(- 1)". 5 { AirF2a%33 ©» Ainme 

Equations (11) and (16) may be derived from Eq. (19) and 
(20) respectively by considerations precisely similar to those 
used in obtaining Eq. (4) and (13) from Eq. (3) and (12) 
respectively in the text. 

The relations established in Problems (III.) and (IV.) 
between E,, [E,], and [E;,] are evidently derived in a 
manner which shows them to be generally true of all determi- 
nants whatever which are related to one another similarly to 
those styled A, [A], [A”], @.¢., differing only in their leading 
constituents (those of A being all finite, those of [A] all zero, 
those. of [A”] being m finite, and the rest zero). 


218 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


VI. Application to Ordinary Determinants. 


Substituting Es = | 4, (Eq. 2) into Eq. (11), there results— 


J = [#-{1-7e+75—Te+ -- wah 
(—a)t* heh 
be Mage ae [u—1 + iz (21) 


A relation between three successive values of [E,] may 
be thus found by Eq. (21)— 


[toa ae [En—al = [m1 (Qc x + |n-2 n—2. x 2 
=\"—I. ae +{@—-n-41}. ln — noes 


*(1—1).{ [En—s] + [En—2l } =(—2)*"*-@—-)+ is = 


=|n. (= ne (- 1)" +S%pie 2 : 


| ~—1 IE 
= |." (=1)* 
| 
= [E,],.. by Eq: (20)... teem 
This relation (22) between three successive values of [E,] 
may also be thus obtained directly :— 
Since the leading constituents of [A] are all zero (by 
definition)— 


[A] =3. Bay cal Pad Glee a . (23). 


in which equation y,z take all positive integral values (except 
d{A]. 
equal values) fromito”. Now ata) is easily seen to be a 
‘yz 


determinant of (n—1) rows containing (”—2) of the leading 
(evanescent) constituents of the original determinant [A], 
and no two of these in the same row or column. ‘These 
(n—2) constituents may by Bees of order of rows or 


columns of the determinant ie be all brought into its 
j2 


leading diagonal without altering its mwmerical value (the 


only alteration being of sign). It follows that the number ~ 


A 
of elements in os a4 is the same as in a determinant of (7—1) 


rows with only one finite sa constituent, which number 
(by notation of Problem IV.) is [E’,-:]. 


1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 219 


Further, the number of terms in the sum in Result (23) 
is clearly the same as the number of constituents of type 
Ayz in [A], t.e. (n?—n), see par. 4, Problem I. 

Hence, since [E,] is (by the notation) the number of 
elements in [A], it follows from (23) that— 


[E,] = . (n? —n). [E’,-1] 


=(n—1).{ [E,-:] + [E,_,] }, by Eq. (17) . . (22). 
Thus, the value of [E,] may be calculated for successive 
values of » by formula (22) from the known values of 
‘{E,], [E.], &c., or may be directly calculated from the 
series (21). 
It will be useful to record a few values of [E,] for 
reference, thus— 
[E,] =0, [E,] = 1p [E,] = Zoe [F,] =9Q, [E,] = 44, 
[E«] =265, [E,] =1854, [Es] =14,833,/- - (24). 
[E,] = 133,496, [Exo] = 1,334,961. 
Corollary. Substituting for [E,] from Eq. (21) into 
Eq. (4) and (2), and separating the symbols of operation 
and quantity— 


[a=En= | *{20+77.20 +7230 +e (oe 
oa eee sa aeeee ed 
from which may be deducted Hees sues 
Me de (OF arash 


[= tna La www 0 (25) 


? 


It is easy to see that all the terms of the series (21) for 
[E,] are even integers except the two last, which are 
(—1)""? (n—1), so that [E,] will be an integer, and odd or 
even according as 7 is even or odd. 


VII. Number of Elements which are Products of n+-2 Pairs of 
Conjugate Constituents in a Determinant whose Leading 
Constituents Vanish. 


This problem is a preliminary to the problem of finding 
the number of elements in a symmetric determinant. 

By ‘conjugate constituents”? are meant pairs of type 
Ba xy « 

The type of element in question is— 

{ (Apq.qp)+ (Ars.Asr) + oe os (Ayz. Ary.) } 
containing »+2 products of pairs of conjugate constituents, 
such as (@yz, az). This element may be separated into two 
conjugate factors, ViZ. (@pq.rs- « + + Gyz)» (Aqp. sre « 2° » Apy) 


220 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


either of which involves the other, and each of which is the 
product of +2 constituents involving all the suffixes without 
repetition. Hence the number of such elements is the same 
as the number of ways in which a product of +2 con- 
stituents can be formed involving all the n suffixes without 
repetition. 

Let S, be the number of produé¢ts containing suffixes 
without repetition. ; 

Now the number of constituents containing any particular 
suffix p is clearly (7—1), for these constituents are of type 
A»sy, Where y has every value from 1 to , excepting p. Also 
for every such constituent as as, there are (7—2) suffixes 


a: a n 
remaining to form the remaining (4-1) constituents 


required to form the complete product of +2 constituents. 
Further, these (7—2) suffixes can be arranged into the 


required product of (7-1) constituents of the requisite 


type in S,-2 ways (by preceding notation). 
Hence 8S, =(”—1). Sy_2. 
Similarly S,-2=(”—3).S,-,, and so on. 
Hence S, = (n—1).S,-2= ("—1).(u—3)Sn-4= «se 
= (n—1).(n—3).(u—5) . . » 7.5-3.92 + - | (26) 
= ("=—1).(7—3).(u—5) . « 27.543.L. nee 
since obviously when n=2, there is only one pair of con- 
jugate constituents (viz., a,2,42;), so that S,=1 


_S _ n(n—1)(n—2)(n—3)(n—4) WH nice Mon ee 
x "y nm.  (n—2) (m—4). 5 = sie 3 6.4.2 
n : : - 
=——. , where » is an even integer. > + (27). 
n\n 
22.)5 


It is obvious that, if 2 be an odd number, the proposed 
product of n+2 pairs of conjugate constituents could not be 
formed, z.e. that 10 elements exist of type proposed. 

-, S, =0, when # is an odd integer ss’. Sy ee (28). 
A few values of S, may be recorded for reference, and note 
that S, is always an odd integer (when » is even), being 
itself the product of odd integers, Eq. (26). 


So=1, S2=1, S,=3, Ss=15, Sg=105, Sr= 945 - « » (20) 


VIII. Number of Elements in a Symmetric Determinant. 


Modify the preceding notation in capital letters for ordinary 
determinants by using the corresponding small letters with 
like meanings for symmetric determinants. 


1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 221 


Thus.A, [A], [A”], E,,[E,],[E”] become— 


6, [8] , (8"], ¢,, [e,], [1 - 
All the relations between E,,[E,],[E),] established in 


Problems (III.) and (IV.) obtain also between ¢,, [e,], [e, J, 
having been established in a general manner, as properties 
common to all determinants. 

The number of elements [e,] in the symmetric deter- 
minant [6], whose leading constituents vanish, will first be 
investigated. 


Number of Elements in a Symmetric Determinant whose Leading 
Constituents are Zero. 

In the ordinary determinant [A] whose leading constituents 
vanish, the elements may be divided into two classes :— 

(z), Of type {(apq.@ 4). (Grsasr,) - +» (@yz4zy)} Consisting 
of the product of +2 pairs of conjugate constituents (such 
aS (dyza:,) only. This number has been investigated in 
Problem (VII.), and denoted by S,.. 

(2). Of type— 

{(Apq.%qp)-(ArsMsy) « « « (yz. Azy) | X {Aye Agn.ani. » + + Amz}, 
consisting of the product of + pairs of conjugate constituents 
(such as ayz. @zy), and (1 — 27) other constituents (containing 
no conjugate pair; that is to say, consisting in part at least 
of the product of constituents containing o conjugate pair. 
The number of this type is clearly {[{E,]—S,},[E,] 
being (by the notation) the whole number of elements in the 
determinant [A]. 

In the corresponding symmetric determinant [6], in which 
(by definition) a,,=a.,, these classes become— 

Bet type: {(ap7.Grs:. «.- + . @y;}*, each element being 
the square of the product of +2 constituents, without 
repetition of any suffix. Also the number of these is clearly 
the same, viz., S, as in the corresponding ordinary deter- 
minant [A]. 

(2). Of type{as.a,s. . . . Ay, | x {Ajg.dghAni. + + + Ang} 
consisting of the product of the square of the product of 7 
constituents, without repetition of any suffix, and the product 
of (n—z2r), other constituents containing no conjugate pair, 
which therefore involves the remaining (n—2r) suffixes in a 
cyclic change, 7.¢., each occurring twice. 

Now in.the ordinary determinant [A], elements of this 
type (2) occur in pairs, 7.e., for every product of a particular 
set of conjugate constituents, as {(a pq Aap) -(ArsQsy,) + (ays, Gxy)}, 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2F 


222 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


there is a pair of conjugate products of (n—2r) other con- 
stituents, viz. {ajeMgn ni,» ++ + Amp} and {aym, «+ » Gin. Une. Aep.} y 
so that the type of the sum of a pair of such conjugate 
elements is { (@9.aqp).(@ys Asy ) + « (AyzAzy.)} X [ {Ape Agn.Ani + - Amst 
+ {Ajn- + Gin Ang Meg |), which pair reduces in the symmetric 
determinant [¢] to a single element of type— 
Z{Apg.Ayse sree Ay: |. (Ajg Agh.Ani.» + +++ Ams.) 
since by definition ay, =a.). “The number of elements of this 


type in the symmetric determinant [3] is therefore one-half 
that in the ordinary determinant [A], 7.c.is }{ [E,}{—Sn }, 


Adding the number of both classes together, there results— 


[Ey ] =S, +2 { [E,]—S, } = { [Bal +S, } o. ota o ee a ae (30). 
substituting for [E,] and S, from formule (21), (27), (28), t 
(én) =z [En] = e. an when 1 is odd 


(31). 


Js 8 


2 \3 


os ee ere : 

Pikes (LA et Ses Cae 5 gf when n is even 
Also, since [E,] is known to be an even integer when is odd, 
and an odd integer when % is even (see Problem VI.), and 
since also S,, is an odd integer when » is even, it is easily 
seen from (31) that [e,] is always an integer (as of course it 
should be). 

A relation between three successive values of [e,] may be 
deduced from that between three successive values of [E,], 
see Eq. (22)— 


Thus [E,] =(#—1).{ [E,—-1] + [E,-2] } 
sro 2? [en] — 3. (n—1).{2 [én—x] + 

+2 [én—2] —S,-:—Sn-2} ’ by Eq. (30). 
And when is odd— 


|n—1 
,—0; cee = 


u—I, 
2 


—— Sy-2=0, by (27), (28). 


And when 1 is even S,, =(n—1). S,—2) Sn-1=0, by (26), (28). 
+ [én] = (—1).{ [¢n—1] + [€n—2] } = -Sn—s 
when# is odd ./) "7, “21 3. saa 2). 
[én] = (n—1).{ [en—s] + [én—2] } G 
when 1” is even 


Thus the value of [e,] may be calculated for successive . 


1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 223 


values of ” by formula (32), from the known values of [e;], 


fe], &c., or may be directly calculated from formule (31). 


\ 


It will be useful to record a few values of [e,] for reference— 
[20] =I, [e,] =o[e,] =1, [e,] =, [e,] =6, [es] =22, 

[és] =140, [e,] =927, [es] = 7469, [e,] =66,748,+..- - (33). 
[ero] = 667,953 


IX. Numbers of Elements in a Symmetric Determinant. 


This may easily be calculated from the known number 
[én] of elements in the symmetric determinant [6], whose 
leading constituents are zero, by help of the relation between 
eand [e] (see Eq. 6). 

Thus é, =(1+ [e] )” 


_— id 
=1+ = [e] + enor eee Eel 


+ = [e.-1] + [én] +--+ (34)- 
It will be useful to record a few values of e, for reference, 
thus— 


=I, =I, &,=2, 6,=5, e,=17, €;= 73, &=398, ) 
¢, = 2636, €g= 20,542, €s= 182,750, €,,-=1,819,148 J 


~ » (35). 


X. Number of Elements in a Symmetrical Determinant, out of 
whose Leading Constituents only m are Fimte. 


This may be easily calculated, either directly from the 
relations (13) and (16), or for successive values of ~ from 
the relations (18) which have established for all deter- 
minants. Thus changing E to e— 


ie fe, | Fd 


m 


ag | 7. | m—r* -[én-r] +. +7. [En — m+xl aa [en pleas (36). 


m( m— 


— (J2)5 hm 


=€y SN ee eee spe atee+ [7 Tr [mar -€n-rt - 


m 


+(-1)"- hs » Cn- m+r+(—I)" Cn—m 2(37)- 

(P) = 61 + ME), and (5) = fe) — IT. . G8). 
On account of the great use of symmetric determinants 
in modern geometry, it will be useful to record the values 
of [e"] in a few cases. Thus, observing that fe. | = (eo); 


and that [e” ] = [e ], (by notation) — 


224 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


Table of Values of [c"].....-(39)- 


m 

d fe) “h li ili iv v vi. vii vili ix x 
oO I 

I ° I 

2 I I 2 

3 I 2 3 5 

4 6 7 9 12 17 

5 22 28 35 44 56 73 

6 140 162 Igo 225 269 325 308 

7h 927 1067 1229 1419 1644 1913 2238 2636 

8 7469| 8396 9463| xo692| 12111 13755 15668 17996} 20542 

9 || 66748] 74217] 82613] 92076)102768| 114879] 128634] 144302] 162208 182750 

10 || 667953 | 734701 | 808918 | 891531 | 983607 | 1086375 | 1201254 | 1329888 | 1474190 1636398 | 1819184 


XI. Number of Elements.in a Skew Symmetric Determinant. 


Denote the number of elements in a skew symmetric deter- 
minant of 7 rows by [e, ], the brackets being used to preserve 


the analogy with previous notation for determinants whose © 


leading constituents are zero. 

It is shown (Salmon, Art. 37) that every skew symmetric 
determinant of odd order vanishes; the number of its ele- 
ments is therefore zero. 

It is shown (Salmon, Art. 38, 39) that every skew sym- 
metric determinant of even order is a perfect square, and 
may be expressed by {3(+ap5q.drs...+Gyz)}?, 4.€., by the 


square of the sum of terms of type Gea . Ars.» bys), CACHE 


of which is the product of ~+2 constituents, involving all 
the suffixes without repetition. It has been shown (Problem 
VII.), that the number (S,) of such produéts in a deter- 
minant whose leading constituents vanish (as is the case in 
a skew symmetric determinant, see Salmon, Art. 37) is 


n 
Sn = [n+(2?- zs 
Also, since the determinant is the square of S, different 
terms, it follows that the number of its elements [e, ] is the 
same as the number of terms in the expanded square of the 
sum of S, quantities. 


ies (number of combinations of 
let eis +} S, things two together). 
=S, +3458, .(S, —1) 
a Sn . (Sn + I), 


- nN f 
|~.(|"+2?.) >) \ when # is even... . (40). 


gti. ( | -)* 


And [e, ] =o, when » is odd, (v. supra).... (41). 


1874.] Investigation of Determinants. 225 


Eq. (40) shows that [«, ] is always an integer (as it should 
be). It will be useful to record a few values of [e,] for 
reference. Thus— 

[6] =I, le] =1, [e,] =6, [e6] =120, [eg] eae «e(42) 
[ero] = 446,985 J ~~ 


XII. Number of Elements in a Skew Determinant. 

Denote the number of elements in a skew determinant of 
nm rows bys. Then, since a skew symmetric determinant 
is a skew determinant whose leading constituents are zero, 
‘the relation between them is the same as between [A] and 
A, so that the relations between [«, ] and «, will be the same 
as those between [E,, ] and E, demonstrated under Problems 
(III.) and (IV.) as common to all determinants. Thus, the 
values of «, may be calculated from Eq. (6), viz.:— 
& =(I+ [e]”) 

n(n —1) | 2 


E+ 5. lel tog - lel +++ +7ppnce- eI +--- 


+* [én—z] + len J..ee (43). 
A few values of «, may be recorded for reference— 
Si, G1, &,=2, €,=4, &=13, &=41, &= 220, 
&,= 1072, &= 9374, &= 60,968, &,.= 723,966 j sorte 
It is also seen that if [e”] denote the number of elements 
in a skew determinant out of whose leading constituents 
only m are finite, then changing E in Problem (IV.) into ¢, 
all the relations demonstrated under Problem (IV.) between 
E,, [E,], and [E;"] are true between «,, [e,], and [e,], so 
that [e] may be calculated from the known ¢,, [e,] by the 
formule of Problem (IV.). 


XIII. Number of Minors in a Determinant. 

By definition, a pth minor is formed by erasing £ rows and 
p columns from the original, so that evidently :— 

A pth minor is a determinant of (n—f) rows and ae 
A (n—p)th minor is a determinant of £ rows and columns 

Let ”M, be the number of pth minors that can be formed 
from a determinant of » rows. Then”M,-_» is the number 
of (~—p)th minors. 

It is obvious that, in this notation, the minor of zero 
order (6=0) being the original determinant itself, and the 
minors of mth order being zero— 

*“M, =I, and”M, =1 
in all determinants (which are finite).... (45). 


226 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


Now "C, being the number of combinations of things 
taken y together (as in Problem III.), it is clear that “C;, is 
the number of ways in which p rows can be selected out of 
nm rows, also that “Cy, is the number of ways in which 
fp columns can be selected out of ~ columns. But “My, is 
evidently the number of ways in which any p rows and any 
p columns can be selected simultaneously (for erasion) from 
the m rows and 2 columns in the determinant. 


nN nN n n | a 
nt es IG ec, Ss 2. 1(46). 
Eq. (46) shows that, as is also evident from the reasoning 
itself— 
"M, LS "Nig 4; a pa be uote Cie ve ke "pum (47). 


From the preceding reasoning, it may also be inferred 
that result (47) is a property common to all determinants 
whose minors are all finite (except in certain cases when 


these numbers ”M, ,”M,-» are unequally reduced, in conse- 
quence of the constituents being so related as to produce 
equality among some of the minors). 


As a particular case of Eq. (47), "M:= *Mu-z, 1.¢., “ The 
first minors are the same in number as the constituents 
(these being actually the »—1th minors).” 


XIV. Number of Minors in a Symmetric Determinant. 


In symmetric determinants it is clear that there is only one 
way in which a particular leading minor (which is itself 
also a symmetric determinant) can be selected, but that any 
other minor can always be selected in two ways, e.g., the 
same (non-leading) fth minor may be formed either by 
omitting a certain set of # rows and / columns from the 
original determinant, or by omitting the conjugate set of 
p columns and f rows. This amounts to saying that the 
non-leading minors occur in pairs of equal magnitude. 

Now the number of leading pth minors being those minors 
which contain (n—f) leading constituents of the original 
determinants in their own leading diagonals, is clearly equal 
to the number of ways in which (7—/) constituents can be 
selected from the whole 7 leading constituents, 7.e., is equal 
to CO or is 65 ° 

Also, the number of non-leading pth minors would in an ordi- 
nary determinant be (Problem XIII.) {("C,)? —"C, }, which 


reduces in a symmetric determinant to } {("C, )* —"C, } for 


1874.] - Investigation of Determinants. 227 


the reasons above. Hence the whole number of fth 
minors is— 
"Mp = "Cp +41("Cp)° —("Cp )} 
eC, ("C, +1), which is clearly an integer. || (48), 
mee ele: Laae 
a2 Cb: p=?) 
Since “C; = "C,_;, therefore in symmetric determinants— 
Siren Mig pert ta a a aes (49). 

On account of the great use of symmetric determinants 
in modern geometry, it will be useful to record some values 
of "M, for reference. 
N.B. In general "M,=1= "M,, 

"M,=3n(n+1)= "My-: - (50). 
"M,=4n.(1—1) (1 —n+2)="M 


; 


Nu—2 


Walses, Gf Mipsis ans or suls (51). 

Value of p. 

n. 
oO. I 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. bie 8. g. |10. 

I I I 
2 I 3 I 
3 I 6 6 I 
4 re, |. ro 2E Io I 
5 rT} 15 55 55 15 I 
6 eo I20 | 210 120 21 I 
b E28 231 630 630 231 28 I 
8 I | 36 | 406 | 1596 2485 1596 406 36 I 
9 I | 45 666 | 3570 8001 8001 3570 666 45 I 
Io Hee 55 |) L035) | 7260 | 22755 31878 22155 | 7260 | 1035 | 55 


XV. Number of Minors in a Skew Symmetric Determinant. 


Note that all leading minors are themselves skew sym- 
metric determinants, so that all leading minors containing 
an odd number of rows vanish (Salmon, Art. 38). Nowa 
pth minor contains (n—p) rows, and the number of leading 
pth minors in a symmetric determinant is in general 


2C, = iB aE (see Problem XIV.). Hence, in a skew sym- 


metric ee the number of leading pth minors is Zero, 
or "Cy according as (1—) is odd or even. And the number 
of non-leading pth minors will be the same as in a symmetric 
determinant in general, viz., }.{("C;)?— "C,}. Hence, 
in a skew symmetric determinant— 


228 Investigation of Determinants. (April, 


n n n |” |n— |é.|n-p 
Mp a re ( OF ie 8 he . “([p- =p)? ? 
when (n—f) is odd 
3 bs . [n  |n+|p.|n-p - (52). 
My =3- Cp. (Cp += + Cp [ap 


when (”—/) is even J 


These quantities are evidently both integers (as they 
should be). Eq. (47) is true of this class of determinants 
only when f and (m—) are both odd or both even, which 
cannot occur when 7 is odd, but always happens when » is 
even. Thus— 


"My = "Mu-», when is even...... (53). 


The following relation obtains between two successive 
values of "M,, the higher value of m being an even number; so 
that (n—p) =(n—1), an odd number, and (n—1—4) = (n—2), 
an even number. 

2. "M, =}. (n—1) =} (n—1). (n—1 +n) ="""M,, by (52), 
n being even .... (54). 

Eq. (52) shows that, 7m general, Eq. (45) is true of this 
class of determinants only when finite, 7z.¢c., only when of 
even order, thus— 

"M, =o= "M,, when is odd. | 
"M, =1= °M,,, when 1 is even. 


It will be useful to record a few values of "My, for this 
class of determinant. Thus— 


Viabuks:0f My «caja oneie (56). 
Value of p. 

im. 

fo) I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 g. |r0 
I || o oO 
2-|| I I I 
3 || o 6 3 oO 
4 I 6 21 6 I 
5 || 0 | 15 45 55 To ° 
Osx |) 25 120 | Igo 120 15 I 
7 {|| o | 28] 210] 630 595 231 21 o 
8 || r | 28] 406 | 1540 2485 1540 406 © 28 I 
9 || O | 45 | 630 | 3570 7875 8001 3486 666 36 | o 
Io I | 45 | 1035 | 7140 | 22155 31626 22155 | 7140 | 1035 | 45 | f° 


1874.} ( 229 ) 
NOTICES .OF BOOKS: 


Darwinism and Design; or Creation by Evolution. By GrorGE 
St. Crarr, F.G.S., M.A.1.A., &c. London: Hodder and 
Stoughton. 1873. 

WE have here yet another attempt at a reconciliation of theology 

with science; but it is one which differs in many respects from 

all that have gone before it. The doctrine of evolution, as ex- 
plained by Spencer and Darwin, is accepted in its entirety, and 
no objection is made to the most extreme consequences which 
those authors deduce from it; but it is argued with much force 
and ingenuity that design, and the constant action of a Supreme 

Ruler, is not thereby rendered inconceivable or unnecessary. 

A condensed but exceedingly accurate and well-written account of 

the most recent views of evolution is given in the first part of 

the volume; and this is a great merit, seeing how incapable 
most theological writers are of avoiding either positive misrepre- 
sentation or a partial and one-sided statement of the teachings 
of evolutionists. The theological treatment of the question is, 
however, somewhat peculiar and heterodox, and we fear will not 
meet with a favourable acceptance from the religious world; 
and this may render Mr. St. Clair’s book less generally useful in 
reconciling the modern Christian mind to the teachings of 

Darwin than it might otherwise have been. A short account of 

the author’s mode of treating the subject, and of the peculiarities 

above referred to, may not be uninteresting. 

Throughout the book we meet with expressions and arguments 
which show us that the Deity or Supreme Ruler spoken of by the 
author is not the being to whom those terms are applied either 
in philosophy or religion. It is not the “Absolute” of the 
philosophers; it is not the ‘‘Almighty” and ‘‘ Omnipresent”’ 
deity of the Christian; but it is a being subject, like ourselves, 
to the laws of matter and motion,—having to recognise the 
“nature of things,” but having infinite knowledge which enables 
him to make use of the universe and its ‘‘necessary laws” so as 
to work out his own purposes. This view, which appears to us 
an impossible or at least an imperfect one, seems to have been 
adopted owing to the supposed ‘inconceivability”’ of the creation 
of matter out of nothing—an inconceivability which vanishes to 
any one who can thoroughly grasp the conception of matter as 
being essentially a complex set of forces and nothing else. To 
hold that these forces are eternal and self-existent, and that they 
produce by their varied interactions all the forms of dead matter, 
while an omniscient mind—equally eternal and self-existent— 
finds itself face to face with this matter and these forces which 
it can neither destroy nor originate, but only guide, is surely to 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2G 


230 Notices of Books. (April, 


multiply difficulties. That the ‘forces” which we know as 
‘‘matter” are in some way dependent on the supreme mind 
appears to us the only alternative to pure materialism; and this 
view renders it perfectly conceivable that ‘‘matter” may ‘be 
made out of nothing,” or may be again resolved into nothing by 
the withdrawal of the mental action which is the sole cause of 
its existence. But if we conceive the material universe to be 
thus the product of the supreme mind, we may equally believe 
that there is a mental or spiritual universe, of which we our- 
selves form a part, and that the former is the means by which 
the latter is developed with the greatest capacity for happiness 
and eternal progress. Now Mr. St. Clair’s deity is just sucha 
being as we might suppose to be the highest in our material 
universe, and who might be charged with utilising to the utmost 
the powers of that universe in developing mind. He would 
“not violate natural law, but work by means of it,” and his work 
would be liable to those ‘incidental results” often temporarily 
painful, injurious, or useless, which are such a stumbling-block 
to the usual ideas of divine government. The slow process of 
development—first of systems, then of worlds, then of matter 
into complex forms and qualities, and lastly, of organisation and 
life—has probably its own high uses, of which we can form no 
adequate conception. It may help the development of higher 
intelligences than ourselves; it may be the only mode by which 
multiplied forms of those higher intelligences can be produced. 
At all events, it is the system of nature; and it is hardly likely 
that any other possible system would be more intelligible to 
beings like ourselves—produced by it and still forming part of it. 

Having thus indicated how we think Mr. St. Clair’s theory may 
be made more consistent and more comprehensive, we proceed 
to give a few examples of his style of illustration and mode of 
reasoning. ‘The argument against design from the existence of 


: 


fi 


rudimentary organs or traces of structures that were useful only — 


in ancestral forms, is answered by supposing a town, in which 
one of the main water-pipes goes half a mile into the country, 
and then bends back again with various windings for no useful 
purpose. ‘ We ask where is the wisdom of carrying the water 
through this mile of pipe when it might go by the short cut? 
Why waste the tubing, and waste the time, and do what has to 
be undone immediately, in sending the stream to a point from 
which there is no course but to return? On the supposition that 
the town was originally built as it now stands, every street and 
square having the position they now have, and not a house more 
or less—our objection is valid. But if we learn that the diverging 
bend of pipe follows the route of streets which formerly existed, 
and that although the shorter cut would now seem better, yet it 
would cost more to take up the old pipes from the long route and 
lay down pipes on the short route than could possibly be gained 
by the process, we see the wisdom of leaving the arrangement 


1874.] Notices of Books. 231 


as itis; and we read inthe existence of the bend of opipe a page 
of the past history of the town.’ 

To the objection as to the existence of carnivorous animals in 
all ages of the earth’s history, it is well replied that evolution 
shows struggle and death to be absolutely necessary to advance- 
ment and to render possible the eventual birth and perfecting of 
man. It is also very forcibly argued that there are many direct 
marks of beneficence in nature. So far as we know, there was 
no absolute need for life to appear at all on the earth; or, when it 
appeared, for it ever to have advanced beyond the lower forms ; 
or for the distinction of male and female ever to have arisen; 
or for the eye to have the capacity of distinguishing sensations 
of colour as distinct from light and shade; or for the ear to be 
attuned so admirably to vibrations of the atmosphere as to 
render music possible; or for the taste to be capable of delight- 
ing in such an endless variety of savours. When we look at the 
whole range of past and present life upon the globe, what an 
infinite amount of pure enjoyment has been derived from every 
one of these faculties and powers, so that the existence of pain, 
which is the necessary correlative of many of them, counts for 
nothing in the balance. Eventhat endless variety, which seems 
a first principle of the material universe, so absolutely universal 
is it, adds in an incalcuiable degree to our enjoyment. It alone 
enables us to appreciate beauty, and it is almost certain that we 
should receive no pleasure from any of our senses if there were 
not an ever-varying series of objects and properties to excite 
them to various degrees and kinds of action. The conception 
that these almost infinite possibilities of enjoyment have come 
into existence as a necessary result of certain self-existent laws 
of self-existent matter, and have therefore not been in any way 
foreseen or designed by any intelligence, is one which seems too 
improbable to be permanently held by any thinker who will care- 
fully examine the evidence from this point of view. 

The last chapter—on the Moral Aspects of Evolution—is very 
well written, and deserves careful consideration. We have only 
space to notice what is termed the origin of moral species. The 
world has ever persecuted its reformers and put its prophets to 
death. The best, the wisest, and the most unselfish men have 
often left no posterity to inherit their good qualities. How, then, 
has the world advanced morally and intellectually? Mr. St. Clair 
imputes it to the generative action of mind upon mind, a more 
powerful agent in spreading truth and goodness than hereditary 
transmission. Each great mind acts upon all those which are 
somewhat lower than itself, and tends to raise them to its own 
level. ‘‘The man in whom the higher truth or higher virtue is 
first found may be said to constitute a new moral ‘ species’ or 
‘variety.. The men who are nearest to him in the points 
in which he is distinguished are the species from which he 
probably has sprung, and being nearest to kim would require 


232 Notices of Books. (April, 


least alteration in themselves to make them quite like him. The 
influence fitted to produce this alteration is the presentation of 
his peculiarities before them in the example of his life or 
sufferings, in his verbal teaching or his written works. These, 
therefore, are the ‘ conditions of the environment’ which induce 
‘variation’ in a number of individuals, and convert them into 
the new species; it is not that offspring are generated in the 
parental likeness, but one species is evolved from another. 
Thus we have the wonderful fact that a new moral species can 
create the conditions which will cause others to vary into its 
likeness—the highest moral life agrees with the lowest physical 
life in possessing a protoplasmic power of multiplying itself 
indefinitely by contact. Not only has Natural Selection trans- 
ferred its action to the mind, but the environing conditions which 
occasion the mental variations before they are selected have also 
to a large extent become mental.” But this does not, as Mr. St. 
Clair remarks, explain how the variations arise which give purer 
conceptions and higher impulses to some men than to all 
the rest of mankind; neither does it explain why these danger- 
ous gifts, often bringing persecution and death to their pos- 
sessors, should have such a marvellous power of spreading, and 
prove so fascinating to many, to whom they will in all probability 
bring no better fate. He concludes that there is no other expla- 
nation but that truth and goodness have an immutable beauty 
proper to themselves, attractive to minds and consciences capable 
of perceiving the true relations of things; and that this can only 
be looked upon as due to the great Fount of all things. 

We can cordially recommend this book to all who take an 
interest in the wider bearings of the doctrine of evolution. The 
writer is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of his subject, and 
even the experienced student will find much that is suggestive in 
the way in which the facts of well-known writers are presented 
and discussed. Some of the greater philosophical difficulties 
are, it is true, avoided rather than overcome ; but we nevertheless 
feel that the book is well calculated to diminish anti-Darwinian 


prejudice, and to help forward the reconciliation of science with 
religion. 


The Conservation of Energy. Being an Elementary Treatise on 
Energy and its Laws. By Batrour Stewart, M.A., F.R.S., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Owen’s College, 
Manchester. London: Henry S. King and Co. 1874. 
Crown, 8vo. 180 pp. 

Tue Doctrine of the Conservation of Energy, which was 

indicated in Mr. Justice Grove’s work on the “ Correlation of the 

Physical Forces’ some thirty years ago, has been considerably 

developed since the exact determination of the relationship which 


1874.] Notices of Books. 253 


exists between heat and mechanical work. Professor Stewart 
has written an admirable treatise on Heat, and has elsewhere 
discussed the Conservation of Energy with consummate ability. 
We are not disappointed by this more comprehensive treatment 
of the subject. He tells us succinctly in the preface his mode 
of discussing the subject. He divides our knowledge of the 
universe into two branches: the one knowledge of it as a vast 
physical machine composed of atoms swimming intheluminiferous 
ether; the other, the laws which regulate the working of this 
machine; in other words, the laws of energy. 

In the first chapter, energy is defined as ‘‘the power of 
overcoming obstacles, or of doing work,” as instanced by a rifle 
bullet in motion. The work is to be measured by some unit, 
preférably the kilogramme for weight, and the metre for height ; 
and by multiplying a weight raised by the vertical height through 
which it is raised, we get the work done in kilogrammetres. 
Next we have various examples of the change of energy of 
position into energy of motion, and finally into heat. The usual 
and satisfactory examples of the head of water, the bent cross- 
bow, and the wound up watch are adduced, and the advantages 
of energy of position are exemplified by happily comparing a 
water-mill and a windmill with a rich and poorman. In the one 
case we may turn on the water whenever it is most convenient 
for us, but in the other we must wait until the wind happens to 
blow. The former has all the independence of a rich man; the 
latter all the obsequiousness of a poorone. If we pursue the 
analogy a step further, we shall see that the great capitalist, or 
the man who has acquired a lofty position, is respected because 
he has the disposal of a great quantity of energy; and whether 
he be a nobleman or a sovereign, or a general in command, he is 
powerful only from having something which enables him to make 
use of the services of others. When the man of wealth pays a 
labouring man to work for him, he is in truth converting somuch 
of his energy of position into actual energy, just as a miller lets 
out a portion of his head of water in order to do some work by 
“its means.” This (second) chapter continues with an account of 
the functions of machines, the conversion of motion of a mass 
into heat, and the nature of the motion called heat. The next 
chapter discusses the various kinds of energy; gravity, elastic 
forces, cohesion, chemical affinity, electricity, magnetism. The 
classification of elastic forces among the energies is unusual, and 
we have always regarded elasticity as a function of cohesion, not 
as due to any separate and distinctive force. Prof. Stewart 
speaks of the ‘‘ force of elasticity,” but is it not rather a property 
belonging to certain bodies under certain conditions than a force? 
It does indeed require energy to bend a bow, but is not that energy 
expended in partially overcoming the cohesion of the molecules 
in one direction, and in approximating the molecules against 
their molecular motion in another? A useful condensed list of 


234 Notices of Books. (April, 


energies is given (pp. 78-82), and this is immediately followed 
by the ‘‘ Law of Conservation.”. This law asserts that the sum 
of all the various energies of the universe is aconstant quantity, 
or as Prof. Stewart puts it— 

(A) + (B) + (C) + (D) + (E) +(F) + (G) +(H) =a constant quantity. 
Not that any single one energy is constant in itself, for they are 
perpetually changing into each other, but that the sum of these 
variable quantities is a constant quantity. The fourth chapter is 
entirely devoted to an account of the transmutations of energy, 
and the fifth gives the history of the idea from the earliest times, 
and then discusses at some length the dissipation of energy. 

In discussing the early atomic theories, Professor Stewart has 
omitted the claims of Kanada, a Hindu philosopher, whose 
atomic theory was not only more complete and philosophical than 
that of Leukippos and Demokritos, but was also much earlier. 
A very interesting account of this theory (too little known in 
this country) is given by Sir John Colebrooke in his admirable 
articles on the Philosophy of the Hindus (in the ‘‘ Proceedings of 
the Asiatic Society”). The statement that Demokritos ‘‘ was the 
originator of the doctrine of atoms”’ is also incorrect, even as 


regards Greek philosophy, because Demokritos took the idea, 


which he indeed extended, from Leukippos. Again, the idea of 
the ethereal medium pervading all space was originated by the 
Hindus long before the time of Aristotle, and we protest against 
the assertion that Aristotle “caught a glimpse of the idea of a 
medium,” when we find his constant mention of the AiOjp 
and remember that he introduced the very name for it which we 
now adopt. We claim for the ancients much more than our 
author is disposed to grant them: surely they possessed a very 
definite atomic theory, a fairly definite idea of an ethereal 
medium pervading space, an exact idea of the transformation of 
one kind of matter into another, through the intervention of some 
external principle of motion; and at an earlier date than all, a 
four-element theory, which we accept in a too literal sense, but 
which was philosophical and profound for those unexperimental 
ages. Professor Stewart next passes on to ‘“ Descartes, Newton, 
and Huyghens on a Medium.” ‘In modern times, he writes 
Descartes, author of the vertical hypothesis . . . ” (vertical 
should surely read vortical), but Anaxagoras of Klazomene 
conferred upon his v,ovs, which is essentially a mover of 
matter, the property of inducing the vortical motion of atoms; 
and of all modern philosophers, to our mind, Descartes has most 
drawn upon the ideas of the ancients in his Cosmogony. ‘The 
historical portion of this chapter is very slight and insufficient in 
our opinion, but no doubt a longer historical survey would have 
occupied space required for other matters. 

The theory of the dissipation of energy is indeed a startling 
one; we are perpetually converting work into heat, but it is 
impossible to reconvert all the heat produced into work again. 


o- 


1874.] Notices of Books. 235 


What must result? ‘The mechanical energy of the universe 
will be more and more transformed into universally diffused heat, 
until the universe will no longer be a fit abode for living beings.”’ 

ah “If we could view the universe as a candle not lit, 
then it is perhaps conceivable to regard it as having been always 
in existence; but if weregard it rather as a candle that has been 
lit, we become absolutely certain that it cannot have been burning 
from eternity; and that a time will come when it will cease to 
burn. We are led to look to a beginning, in which the particles 
of matter were in a diffuse chaotic state, but endowed with the 
power of gravitation, and we are led to look to an end in which 
the whole universe will be one equally heated inert mass, and 
from which everything like life, or motion, or beauty, will have 
utterly gone away.” 

The final chapter discusses the position of life:—An animal is 
defined asa machine of a delicacy which is practically infinite, the 
condition or motions of whichwe are utterly unable to predict. And 
what is life? ‘* Life is not a bully who swaggers out into the open 
universe, upsetting the laws of energy in all directions, but rather 
a consummate strategist, who, sitting in his secret chamber, 
before his wires, directs the movements of a great army.” 
Prof. Stewart has surely misread a statement made by Rumford :— 
“‘Tt was seen that in order to do work,” says our author, p. 163, 
‘(an animal must be fed; and, even at a still earlier period 
Count Rumford remarked that a ton of hay will be administered 
more economically by feeding a horse with it, and then getting 
work out of the horse, than by burning it as fuel in an engine.’ 
Mmgeord words are these:* . .-. ‘* Heat may thus: Be 

produced merely by the strength of a horse, and, in case 
of necessity, this heat might be used in cooking victuals. But 
no circumstances could be imagined in which this method of 
procuring heat would be advantageous ; for more heat might be 
obtained by using the fodder necessary for the support of the horse 
as fuel.” ‘This latter must be the right view of the case, for part 
of the energy derived from the consumed hay is dissipated in the 
very working of the horse’s great muscular mechanism, and a 
part of the work done by the horse is dissipated as heat by the 
friction of the working parts of the machine which it moves, 
whether that machine be one for producing heat by friction, as 
in Rumford’s experiment, or for any other purpose. 

Prof. Stewart’s work is interesting and very readable. We 
commend it to all readers, whether scientific or otherwise, who 
are desirous of learning the most recent ideas connected with 
the various transmutations of the different physical forces. 

* “An Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by 


Friction.” Read before the Royal Society, Jan. 25th, 1798. The italics are 
our own. 


236 Notices of Books. (April, 


Contemporary English Psychology. Translated from the French 
of Tu. Risor. London: Henry S. King and Co. 1873. 
8vo. 328 pp. 

Ir is always a matter of considerable interest to know the light 

in which our intellectual work is regarded by those who are not 

our own countrymen. The natural bias which causes a man or 

a people to view the literary or philosophical production of a 

fellow-countryman as unsurpassed works is not present in foreign 

criticism. We know how eargely M. Taine’s ‘‘ Notes on 

England,” and on English Literature, were received; and 

although without doubt this was partly due to the eminence of 

the man, the cause mentioned above had also much to do with it. 

We have a powerful school of Psychology in this country at the 

present time, and a comparison and differentiation of the views 

of the more prominent members of it is desirable and important. 
Philosophy was, in the beginning, universal science; it 
treated of ‘“‘the universality of things, the all.” Then came a 
separation of one of its parts, mathematics, some two centuries 
after the time of Pythagoras. But, according to M. Ribot, the 
old philosophy of Plato and Aristotle is still the universal 
science :—Metaphysics follow physics, politics follow morals, 
physiology follows psychology. In the middle ages, medicine 
and alchemy separated from it, and in the eighteenth century 
physics. Then philosophy in its broadest sense began to lose its 
comprehensiveness: nature was wrested from it; God and man 
remained to it. Philosophy once included all things, ‘ principles 
and consequences, causes and facts, general truths and results; ” 
ultimately ‘it will be metaphysics and nothing more.” It has 
been said that ‘‘ metaphysicians are poets who have missed their 
vocation,” and M. Ribot considers the assertion just, but we 
must venture to differ from him. For surely the precise, hard, 
logical mode of thought which the metaphysician must adopt ; 
his cold, lifeless theories and harsh unyielding laws ill consort 
with that warm flow of imagination which spontaneously should 
burst from the poet. Hegel’s logic may indeed ‘border on 

Faust;” but what a thoroughly metaphysical poem Faust is! 

If all poems were like Faust, then indeed the poet and the 

metaphysician would have much incommon. And what of the 

end of all philosophy? Let us suppose all our questions 
concerning God, nature, and ourselves, finally answered. What 
would remain for human intelligence todo? This solution would 
be its death. All enquiring and active minds will be of Lessing’s 
opinion on this point: ‘‘ There is more pleasure in coursing the 
hare than in catching it.” Philosophy will keep up its activity 
by its magical and deceiving mirage. Were it never to render 
any other service to human intelligence than that of keeping it 
always on the alert, of elevating it above a narrow dogmatism, by 
showing it that mysterious beyond which surrounds and presses 
upon it in every science, philosophy would do enough for it.” 


1874. ] Notzces of Books. 237 


M. Ribot considers at considerable length the proper definition 
of the Science of Psychology (a word first introduced by 
Goclenius). He shows that, during the seventeenth century, the 
science of the soul was called metaphysics; and that, hence, 
metaphysics and psychology have many points of connection. In 
its widest sense, he considers that psychology embraces ‘‘all the 
phenomena of mind in all animals,” or if we follow Mr. Stuart 
Mill, and make more exact divisions, we have General Psycho- 
logy: the study of the phenomena of consciousness, sensation, 
thought, emotions, relations, &c., considered under their most 
general aspects. This embraces Comparative Psychology, and 
Psychological Teratology, or a study of anomalies and monstro- 
sities. At the conclusion of his most interesting introduction, 
our author tells us that since the time of Hobbes and Locke, 
England has done most to forward Psychology. 

Then follows the main part of the book: a condensation of the 
psychological systems of Hartley, James Mill, Herbert Spencer, 
Alexander Bain, G. H. Lewes, Samuel Bailey, and John Stuart 
Mill. Thus the survey extends over about a century, but is 
mainly confined to the last thirty years. 

The agreement of these philosophers in regard to all main 
points in each other’s systems is clearly shown. These main 
points may be briefly stated as follows:—(a). Psychology 
examines the facts of consciousness, and connects those facts 
by definite laws. (b). It deals with phenomena, not knowing the 
nature of the soul or mind. (c). It studies these phenomena 
(1) objectively by signs and actions which interpret them, and 
(2) subjectively by memory and reason. Consciousness consists — 
of ‘“‘acontinuous current of sensations, ideas, volitions, feelings,” 
&c.; it is made up of the perception of a difference, and the 
perception of aresemblance. Perceptions are internal conditions 
corresponding to external conditions. These and many other 
definitions are given in the concluding remarks, in a clear, crisp 
form, very readable and understandable, and quite divested of 
unnecessary technicalities. We feel assured that the work will 
be received with open arms by the largely increasing school of 
English psychologists. 


Animal Locomotion; or Walking, Swimming, and Flying. 
With a Dissertation on Aéronautics. ByJ. BELL PETTIGREW, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., Pathologist to the Royal Infirmary 
of Edinburgh. London: Henry S. King and Co. 1873. 
Crown 8vo. Illustrated. 264 pp. 

Tuts work belongs to the ‘International Scientific Series,” five 

or six volumes of which, including Professor Stewart’s ‘‘ Con- 

servation of Energy,” have already appeared, and many more 
are announced. The object of the author is to explain various 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2H 


238 Notices of Books. (April, — 


difficult problems in animal mechanics, and to discuss some of 
his views concerning the possibility of flying. A somewhat 
long introduction treats of the various motions possible to dif- 
ferent creatures. It is herein shown that walking, swimming, 
and flying are only modifications of each other. ‘Walking ~ 
merges into swimming, and swimming into flying, by insensible — 
gradations,” and the various differences in the actions are due to 
the fact that the media of support differ in density, earth for 
walking, water for swimming, air for flying. The relation of 
these actions is well shown by the fact that birds and inse¢ts can 
perform them all, while a large number of creatures can both 
walk and swim. ‘‘The subject of flight has never until quite 
recently been investigated systematically or rationally, and as a 
result, very little is known of the laws which regulate it. If 
these laws were understood, and we were in possession of trust- 
worthy data for our guidance in devising artificial pinions, the 
formidable Gordian knot of flight there is reason to believe 
could be readily untied.” Thus early in the book (page 4) does 
our author introduce an evidently pet idea that artificial flight is 

a possibility. The introduction is continued with various dis- 
cussions of the operations performed during walking, swimming, 
and flying; thus we are told that the extremities of animals act 
as pendulums during walking, and describe curves like a figure 
of 8, as also do the bodies of fish in swimming, and the wings 
of birds in flying. Dr. Pettigrew, indeed, claims the discovery 
of the figure-of-8 theory. In the succeeding part of the work 
this theory is applied to, and illustrated by, the progression of * 
various birds, beasts, and fishes. Some beautiful original 
drawings are given to illustrate these motions; we may notice 
particularly those which illustrate the movements ofthe wings 
of the wasp and fly (pp. 139—141). 

Passing on to the subject of aéronautics, our author shows the 
extreme difficulty of the problem of artificial flight to consist, 
among other things, in ‘‘(3rd) the great rapidity with which 
wings, especially insect wings, are made to vibrate, and the 
difficulty experienced in analysing their movements; (4th) the 
great weight of all flying things when compared with a corre- 
sponding volume of air; and (5th) the discovery of the balloon, 
which has retarded the science of aérostation, by misleading 
men’s minds, and causing them to look for a solution of the 
problem by the aid of a machine lighter than the air and which 
has no analogue in nature.” The flightists may now be divided 
into two classes :—1st, those who advocate the use of balloons; 
andly, those who consider that weight greater than the air is 
essential. This second class has two divisions :—‘‘ (a) those 
who advocate the employment of rigid inclined planes driven 
forward in a straight line, or revolving planes (aérial screws) ; 
and (b) such as trust for elevation and propulsion to the vertical 
flapping of wings.” Dr. Pettigrew’s work, although it may not 


= 


1874.] Notices of Books. 239 


appeal to a large number of readers, is very readable, and will 
certainly be a great boon to the members of the Aéronautical 
Society. 


Fruits and Farinacea ; the Proper Food of Man. By the late 
Joun Smiru, of Malton. Manchester: John Heywood ; 
London: F. Pitman. 1873. 112 pp. Crown 8vo. 

Tus small work, which has been edited by Professor William 
Newman for the Vegetarian Society, contains the substance of a 
work bearing the same title first published in 1845. It is an 
essay on vegetarianism, and endeavours to prove that vegetables 
were the original, and are the natural and best food of man. 
That such diet was originally adopted by mankind the author 
tries to show by various quotations from Genesis and other early 
writings. In the second chapter proofs are derived from our 
organs; the teeth are said to be unsuited to the mastication of 
animal food; and the argument is forwarded by the alleged in- 
appropriateness of our salivary g glands, alimentary canal, stomach, 
colon, czecum, and liver. We “really begin to wonder how man 
can have lived for centuries on an omnivorous diet if all his 
organs are unsuitable for anything but a vegetable diet. A curious 
table is given in the third chapter, showing the various times 
which different substances take to digest, after Dr. Beaumont. 
The amount in each case is not mentioned,—presumably equal 
weights; if so, it is not to be wondered at that soft boiled rice 
should digest in one-third the time of beef or mutton. Surely 
the composition of the various kinds of food should be given, in 
order to enable one to form ajust estimate. We select a few 
substances :— 


Hours. Mins. 
Rice, boiled soft : I O 
Tapioca, stale bread, milk . 2 oO 
Apple dumpling . . see fo) 
Potatoes and turnips boiled, butter . 3 30 
Venison . t Vous I 35 
murkey  . 2 30 
Boiled pork, “hard- boiled eg Bes. B) 30 
Salt pork, boiled : 4 30 
_ Veal, roasted 5 30 


This table is surely no great support to our author’s argument, 
when we find that venison takes a shorter time to digest than 
tapioca, bread, cabbage, and milk, while boiled potatoes and 
turnips take longer than beef and mutton, and actually as long 
as that notoriously indigestible substance, boiled pork. Among 
other things, an attempt is made to prove that vegetable diet is 
es favourable to the moral state ;”’ the use of wine is said to follow 
the stimulus of animal food. Noah drank wine and became 


240 Notices of Books. (April, — 


drunken soon after receiving permission to eat animal food; 
Jacob, when he brought his father the savoury mess of pottage, 
likewise brought wine. ‘* Again,” says Mr. Smith, “ carnivorous 
animals are ferocious; the herbivorous are gentle, sociable, and 
playful.” But, we would ask, can anything be more “sociable 
and playful” than a dog or a cat, anything more ferocious than 
a wild bull? Those who have seen wild horses fight in the 
prairies will class the horse with the bull. We cannot discuss 
such arguments as these; a similar mode of reasoning to that 
employed by Mr. Smith could be made to prove that black is 
white. This book appeals to a small class of persons; that it 
will convince anyone that vegetarianism is better than our present 
system we confidently doubt. We have been unable to find a 
trace of sound logic or convincing argument in the whole book, 
and are more than ever assured that our omnivorous diet is the 
right one. 


Geology. By ArcuripaLp Geixiz, LL.D., F.R.S., Director of 
the Geological Survey of Scotland. Illustrated. London: 
Macmillan and Co. 1874. 18mo. 130 pp. 


Tus small volume forms the fifth of Messrs. Macmillan’s Science 
Primers, and immediately follows the Physical Geography Primer, 
by the same author. The first of the series, by Professor Huxley, 
has not yet appeared, and is somewhat eagerly expected, as it 
forms an introduction to the whole series, and will without doubt 
discuss the modes and advantages of elementary science teaching. 
The author of the book before us is well known as an eminent 
geologist, and there is nothing to be said about his book in the 
way of criticism. The arrangement is clear and good; the 
subject-matter treats of sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, and 
‘‘organic rocks,” that is, rocks consisting of the remains of 
plants and animals,—such as coal, chalk, and encrinitic limestone. 
At the conclusion we have various paragraphs relating to the 
crust of the earth considered as a whole, to prove that it has 
been upheaved and depressed at different epochs, which actions 
have produced tilting, crumpling, and breaking of the crust. We 
find here, too, a section on the origin of mountains. A few good 
illustrations help the beginner to realise the various descriptions. 


A Phrenologist Amongst the Todas, or the Study of a Primitive 
Tribe in South India; History, Character, Customs, Religion, 
Infanticide, Polyandry, Language. By WiLLt1AM MARSHALL, 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Her Majesty’s Bengal Staff Corps. 
London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1873. 


THE native inhabitants of the Indian peninsula may be broadly 
divided into two great races,—the Aryans, inhabiting the whole 


1874.] Notices of Books. 241 


of the northern and western plains,—the Dravidians, occupying 
the central and southern districts. ‘The first comprehend all the 
more civilised peoples—the Mahomedans and Hindoos; the 
second are in various lower stages of civilisation, and are mostly 
pagans. Besides these there are a number of obscure tribes, 
such as the Kols, whose language is allied to some dialects of 
Pegu, and the Pariahs and other servile castes, who may pro- 
bably represent a remnant of some of the earliest savage inha- 
bitants of the country. The Aryans belong to the great Aryan 
or Indo-Germanic race, and their language no less than their 
physical features allies them to the highest European peoples. 
The Dravidians, on the other hand, are more related to the 
Mongolian races; and their nearest affinity has been traced by 
language to the Finns and Lapps far in the north-western corner of 
Europe. Philologists look upon these Dravidians as a much 
older people than the Aryans. They probably once spread over 
a large portion of Europe and Asia, and entered India from the 
north and north-west, occupying the country, and exterminating, 
or making slaves of, the rude aborigines. At a later epoch the 
higher Aryan type was developed, and drove out the Dravidians 
from all the more fertile parts of Europe. This energetic people 
were the parents of the Celts in the west, of the Germans and 
‘Slavonians in mid-Europe, and of the Sanscrit-speaking Aryans 
in the east; and these latter entered India from the north-west, 
and took the place of the Dravidians in all the more fertile and 
accessible districts as these latter had taken the place of the 
older aborigines. 

The Dravidians of India now form eight tribes or nations, 
speaking distinct though allied languages. These are the Tamil, 
Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam, Tuluva, Toda, Génd, and Khond, 
the first five belonging to more civilised peoples possessing 
a written character, while the three last are spoken by compara- 
tively savage tribes. The smallest of these tribes, the Todas, 
is confined to the plateau of the Nilagiri Mountains, and consists 
of about 700 individuals. They formerly practised infanticide 
as an institution, and the result was that they were rapidly 
becoming extinct; but, owing to the influence of the Indian 
Government, this has been discontinued for many years, and 
they now increase in population with tolerable rapidity. These 
Todas are, in many respects, one of the most interesting and 
peculiar tribes in the world; and every student of man is in- 
debted to Colonel Marshall for the careful study he has made of 
their whole physical, mental, and moral nature, and for the well- 
illustrated and instructive volume in which he gives both his 
detailed observations and the conclusions which he draws from 
them. 

We will endeavour to sketch in outline the most curious features 
of Toda life, in the hope that we may induce many of our readers 
to go for fuller information to the book itself. 


~ 


242 Notices of Books. (April, 


The Todas live in very small village communities of from 
20 to 30 persons. Their houses, or huts, two or three together, 
and sometimes all under one roof, are low and somewhat of an 
inverted boat-shape, with very low doors (only about three feet 
high), and no windows. Attached to every village is a cattle- 
pen, and a separate building, which comprises the dairy and the 
dairyman’s abode. They live a purely pastoral life, and, perhaps 
more than any other people in the world, are absolutely dependent 
for their existence on one animal,—the buffalo. Though they 
live in a fertile land and a delightful climate, they grow no crops, 
and have no kind of cultivation whatever. Though their woods 
and hills abound in game, they neither hunt nor trap any living 
thing. They keep no domestic animals but the buffalo and the 
cat, although the populations around them possess .goats, pigs, 
and poultry. They eat no flesh, not even that of the buffalo, of 
which they often have a superabundance, but live wholly on milk 
and butter, with rice and such other vegetable food as they 
obtain in exchange for their surplus dairy produce and for the 
young male buffalos for which they have no use. Although 
surrounded by strong and often quarrelsome tribes, they possess 
no single weapon of offence or defence,—no bow, or spear, or 
sword, or club. They never fight among themselves or with 
their neighbours. They have no sports of activity or skill. 
They have no manufactures, even of the simplest kind. Two 
men in every village are set apart for the dairy-work, leaving all 
the rest to lead an almost absolutely idle life! Yet they are by 
no means savages of a very low type. They are quiet and 
dignified in their manners, amiable in disposition, and very good- 
looking, the excellent photographs with which the book is 
copiously illustrated showing us intelligent and often handsome 
faces, in no way distinguishable from those of many of our own 
country people. They are courteous to strangers and to each 
other, and have an elaborate system of salutations and cere- 
monies. Their absolute dependence on the buffalo has led them 
to a form of religion in which this animal is the central figure. 
They have a sacred breed of cattle, which are distinguished by 
carrying bells; and hence ancient bells are sacred. The dairy is 
sacred. No one except the dairyman and his assistant may 
enter it. During the term of their office, these two men have to 
pass absolutely solitary and celibate lives, they and their imple- 
ments being touched by no human being. ‘The dairymen who 
have charge of the sacred herds are for the time being looked 
upon as gods. They keep in the dairy certain relics,—old cow- 
bells, knives, and axes,—which are in the highest degree holy, 
and which the dairyman, also priest, salutes with certain ceremonies 
every morning. The people in general also salute the rising and 
setting sun, and have certain vague notions of a future state. 

Our author has minutely studied this curious people, and gives 
us interesting details of their every custom and ceremony, habit 


a 
4a 


1874.] Notices of Books. 243 


and superstition ; so that we obtain a complete picture of the 
entire course of their simple lives, and a considerable insight 
into their mental and moral nature. Perhaps with somewhat of 
a student’s partiality for his favourite subject, he arrives at the 
conclusion that they are a very ancient people, and that their 
existing customs and mode of life have come down, almost un- 
changed, from a period more remote than those of any other race 
known to us. He has also gone with extreme minuteness into 
their social statistics, taking an accurate census of a number of 
villages, and obtaining the ages, sex, and relationships of every 
individual. The results are exhibited in a series of tables, from 
which some very curious conclusions are drawn. The primitive 
custom of the Todas was to kill all female children except one 
ortwo. ‘This, of course, resulted in a superabundance of males, 
and hence arose the practice of polyandry, or of some women 
having two or more husbands, which practice continues to this 
day. Although infanticide of females has long entirely ceased, 
yet the number of males is still largely in excess. The census 
tables seem to show that considerably more male than female 
children are born; and it is very ingeniously argued that this is 
the necessary consequence of long-continued female infanticide. 
It is proved thus. The average Toda family is six children born 
to each woman. Now, if wetake three women, the first of whom 
has six daughters, the second six sons, and the third three sons 
and three daughters, we shall be able to trace the effects of 
infanticide on the proportionate numbers of the two sexes. The 
first mother has to destroy four daughters, keeping only two. 
The second keeps her six sons. ‘The third destroys two 
daughters, keeping three sons and one daughter. There will 
remain nine sons and three daughters, and these will be the 
parents of the next generation. But the majority of these will 
be derived from families which produced more males than 
females, and as such tendencies are hereditary, the constant 
preservation of a similar majority generation after generation 
will inevitably result in a male-producing race; and this pecu- 
liarity having been established by a long course of artificial 
selection, will continue to manifest itself for an unknown period 
after the depraved practice which gave rise to it has been 
abolished. 

The view that close interbreeding is not per se injurious is 
strongly supported by the case of the Todas. From time 
immemorial they have married together in the same or adjoining 
villages, till they are all closely related in various degrees of 
cousinship; yet the people seem to be as a whole healthy and 
vigorous, and remarkably free from all those diseases supposed 
to be produced by close interbreeding. Out of a population of 
196, only 2 were malformed. 

Colonel Marshall is an ardent phrenologist, yet that despised 
science nowhere appears prominently in his book beyond the two 


244 Notices of Books. (April, 


chapters which he devotes to it. He insists on the remarkable 
simplicity and uniformity in the form of the crania of savage 
races compared with those of civilised and highly complex 
nations like our own; and this agrees with the much greater 
uniformity in savage character, and the less frequent occurrence 
of men of exceptional mental peculiarities. The extreme care 
and minute accuracy with which all the facts relating to this in- 
teresting people have been investigated, should secure for the 
author the credit of impartiality in the table of the comparative 
development of the various phrenological organs in eighteen in- 
dividuals (males and females), taken, he assures us, without bias 
of any kind. The comparison of the average character denoted 
by the table and the observed peculiarities of the race are very 
interesting; and we can hardly believe that so intelligent 
an observer and reasoner could have failed to discover the 
unreality of phrenology if it were so entirely destitute of truth 
as it is the fashion with scientific men to assume. 

The skull of the Todas is extremely and universally dolicho- 
cephalic,—that is long in proportion to its width. This form is 
very characteristic of low types of man, unprogressive and 
unenergetic. The Ancient Britons, the Lapps, Fins, Siamese, 
and some others, are, on the other hand, highly brachycephalic, 
that is, the skull is short, and approaches the globular form. 
Now Colonel Marshall gives us a suggestive theory of the 
meaning of these marked differences of form, and we believe 
it is the first theory of the kind that has been advanced; for, 
while strenuously opposing phrenology, the craniologists of the 
present day have not made the slightest approach to a correlation 
of cranial form with national or individual character. Enormous 
collections of skulls have been made; they have been figured 
and measured with the most scrupulous accuracy; the various 
proportions of the different dimensions have been compared; the 
averages of different races have been taken,—and all with no 
result whatever! It is, indeed, pretty generally agreed that the 
higher and more civilised races have the larger brains, and 
therefore the larger crania; but as to why these crania should 
differ in form and proportion so widely as they do, we obtain no 
light whatever. Nor has the study of the anatomy of the brain 
led to any more definite results; and even the recent experiments 
of Professor Ferrier are capable of various interpretations, since, 
while the phrenologists see in them a confirmation of their own 
doctrines, Dr. Carpenter maintains that they support his view, 
which is that the higher intellectual faculties are situated in the 
back of the head, while the development of the forehead only in- 
dicates the predominance of faculties common to man and the 
lower animals! 

According to modern phrenology, the group of organs situated 
at the sides of the head, and which thus give it breadth and 
fulness, are termed invigorating, being those which give the 


1874.} Notices of Books. 245 


desire for conflict ; for overcoming obstacles ; for the acquisition 
of property; for animal food, and for elaborate dwellings, tools, 
and weapons, and which also incite to cunning and treachery. 
Tribes which have these faculties in excess will, as a rule, be 
warlike, cruel, treacherous, thievish, ingenious in constructing 
their weapons, huts, and canoes; fond of animal food, and good 
hunters, and sometimes cannibals. Tribes in which they are 
markedly deficient, will generally be the reverse of all this, 
peaceful, mild, open, honest, idle, careless in their food, huts, and 
clothing, and with few tools and weapons. Of course the 
proportions of the various organs may vary indefinitely in either 
form of cranium, and thus some one or other of these charac- 
teristics may be wanting; but, making allowance for this, we 
see a marked difference between such narrow-headed races as the 
low Australians, and the much higher broad-headed Sandwich 
Islanders, or the mild, narrow-headed Esquimaux, and the very 
broad-headed, warlike Araucanians. Colonel Marshall believes 
that the broad-headed type has been developed in the struggle 
for existence, and has in most cases driven out the narrow- 
headed where the two have come into contact. It must be 
remembered, however, that either extreme is an inferior type, and 
that it is the well-balanced organisation, with a brain inter- 
mediate in form, if sufficiently large, that will progress most in 
civilisation, and will be able to rule and conquer, or exterminate 
either extreme type. The objection, therefore, brought by 
mee. B&B. Lylor (‘‘* Nature,” Dec. 11, 1873) against our 
author’s view, that the comparatively narrow-headed Russians 
have subjugated many broader-headed Asiatic tribes, is not to 
the point. The Russians are more civilised, in a higher state of 
organisation and discipline; and it is this, not their individual 
energies, that has now rendered them superior to those Eastern 
hordes which, at an earlier period, when their state of civilisation 
was more equal, would probably have. overcome them. The 
warlike and ingenious Arabs, Afghans, and Malays, are all 
markedly brachycephalic. Dr. J. B. Davis states that his 
extensive collection of crania shows that, in most cases, the 
female skull is more dolichocephalic than the male, but that 
among many of the African races the reverse is the case. This 
has an interesting bearing on the fact, so strongly insisted on by 
our reporters of the Ashantee war, that the African women are 
much more industrious and energetic than the men; while we 
know that in Africa alone there exists an effective female army. 
These are suggestive facts; and it is to be hoped that they will 
induce phrenologists to utilise our large collections of the crania 
of various races, for the purpose of working out in detail the 
peculiarities of national character as indicated by them. This 
should be done by actual calliper measurements of every organ 
where practicable, so as to introduce precision into the results. 
The author of the present volume could do no better service to 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) Pay 


246 Notices of Books. (April, 


his favourite study than by applying himself to this work when 
he returns to Europe; and we hope he may be induced thus to bring 
prominently before the scientific world a study which the present 
writer believes to be founded inductively ona wide basis of observed 
facts, and calculated to be of immense importance in elucidating 
the mental nature of man, both individually and nationally. 

In this short notice we have not been able even to allude 
to many of the interesting topics discussed by our author. His 
beautifully illustrated volume should be read by every one who 
desires to see how much valuable matter a man of genius may 
obtain during a few months’ sick leave; and how much light may 
be thrown on curious social problems, and on the early history of 
mankind, by the careful study of a few scattered families of an 
almost extinct tribe of savages. 


The Ocean: Its Tides and Currents, and their Causes. By 
WILLIAM LEIGHTON JORDAN. Longmans, Green, and Co., 
1873. 

THIS is a most vexatious book. We cannot help admiring the 

industry with which the author has studied his special subject of 

ocean currents, and to a certain degree the originality of his 
method of treating it, but in the midst of this we are thrown back | 
by the extravagance of originality and error, in the author’s 
conceptions of the fundamental properties of matter, and the 
laws of motion. His great stumbling block isthe pre-Newtonian 
idea that the vis imertie of matter is a continual striving for 
rest, or an internal resistance to the continuance of motion. He 
endows inertia with positive activity, and makes that activity all 


Se ee ees 


one sided, by representing it as an inherent property or force of © 
matter which opposes all external force sproducing motion, but — 


offers no opposition to the external forces which resist or destroy 
motion, or, to use his own words, ‘‘ I have shown that vis inertié 


opposes motion in everything, and that its own inherent property — 
of vis inertia must tend to bring a body to rest under any — 


circumstances whatever, just as much, and in the same manner, 


as the action of any force from without; and, secondly, I have | 


shown that, as regards the motions of the planets in their orbits, 
the centrifugal force which opposes the centripetal force of the 
bodies which compose the solar system one towards another, and 


all towards their common centre of gravity, is the force of astral — 


gravitation opposing that of solar gravitation; so that in their 


courses they are borne smoothly along the lines of equlibrium 


lying between opposing forces of gravitation.” 


we 


Mr. Jordan evidently imagines that the quantity of matter — 


composing the stars compensates for their distance, and thus — 
enables them to control the gravitation of the sun upon the — 


planetary members of the solar system. This utter miscon-— 


1874.] Notices of Books. 247. 


ception of the quantitative force of gravitation due to its 
necessary inverse variation with the square of the distance 
vitiates completely all the reasoning based upon it. 

A further confusion is introduced by another paradox, which 
appears to be of Mr. Jordan’s own invention, viz., ‘the motive 
force termed evanescence.” We are told that it implies a motion 
of the evanescing particles, and gravitation tending to cause 
contraction necessitates a motion of the remaining particles; 
and since contraction is a necessary consequence of evanescence, 
having effect wherever evanescence occurs, it must act towards 
every point from which evanescence acts, and thus divide the 
universe into separate masses, and also that “‘ certain forces are 
in play, causing constant change of form and place; and to the 
combined action of these forces (to which no name has hitherto 
been given) I have applied the term evanescence.” 

In spite of these explanations and a good deal more of similar 
disquisition, we confess our inability to understand evanescence. 

When, however, Mr. Jordan fairly plunges into his proper 
subject, the Ocean, and deals with the phenomena of its currents 
apart from his paradoxical notions of “ inertia,” &c., he displays 
an amount of careful study and research that render his errors 
concerning fundamental physical laws the more vexatious. 
Some of his critical discussions of the theories of others are as 
remarkable for their clearness as his exposition of his own theories 
are for their obscurity. The following passage is an example.” 

“It seems to me that the manner in which gravitation 
would tend to restore disturbance of the normal level, such as 
those indicated by Dr. Carpenter, would naturally be by tidal 
movements, or easy, imperceptible movements of the whole 
mass of water intervening between the higher and lower levels, 
the former sinking and the latter rising simultaneously, just as 
when a trough half full of water is tilted on one side, the level 
of the water is maintained, not by the surface water streaming 
over the lower side, but, excepting the effects of friction against 
the sides and bottom of the trough, by an equable motion of the 
whole mass of water.” 

‘When a narrow channel lies between the higher and lower 
level, as in the case of the Mediterranean and Baltic, this 
movement would form a rush of water through the Strait, but not 
an upper rather than an under current. It so happens that, in 
both these cases, so elaborately considered by Dr. Carpenter, 
the higher level is also the lighter water; and, therefore, by 
Captain Maury’s simple theory, the specific gravity is restored, or 
an increase of the difference prevented by the heavier water 
running as an under current towards the lighter, and the lighter 
as an upper current towards the heavier. Suppose that instead 
of the lighter water being at the higher level, as in these two 
cases, the heavier were so, will any one contend that the level 
would be restored by a surface current from the higher to the 


248 Notices of Books. (April, 


lower level? Is it not evident that the sweeping assertion that 
differences of level will be restored by surface currents is a 
mistake? The course of currents, as the level is being restored, 
clearly depends upon the relative specific gravity of the water at 
the different levels. The heavier water will form the under 
current, and the lighter the upper, regardless as to which may be 
at the higher or lower level; and, if there be no difference of 
specific gravity, the level will be restored by a tidal movement 
forming a current through any narrow channel intervening, but 
not an upper rather than an under current. The systems of 
upper and under currents through the Straits of Gibraltar and 
the Sound are clearly the result of differences in specific gravity, 
as explained by Captain Maury’s theory, which had better be left 
in its origifal simplicity, for this modification with which 
Dr. Carpenter has attempted to encumber it is not an im- 
provement, but an erroneous complication.” 

Here we have the vulnerable point of Dr. Carpenter’s modified 
resuscitation of the old theory of oceanic circulation clearly — 
indicated, and a home-thrust of clear, sound reasoning fairly 
delivered through it. As this point is the very heart of Dr. 
Carpenter’s contribution to the subject, the thrust is fatal. It is 
followed by further and equally clear and able discussion of the 
details of Dr. Carpenter’s arguments, and of the theories off 
Maury, Rennell, Herschel, &c. This chapter xx. of Mr. Jordan’s 
book is really excellent, and worthy of careful reading, but we 
fear that it will not receive the attention it deserves, on account of 
the bad impression or prejudice which the author’s fundamental 
physical errors must induce. 

Cosmical theories are always dangerous, and their proprietors 
are always subject to a greater or lesser amount of martyrdom. 
Even if the theory is sound, its owner must die in order to obtain 
its acceptance; and if it is wrong, as usually happens, it is” 
liable to insinuate itself amidst all his sounder thoughts and 
positive researches, and poison or intoxicate his common sensé 
itself. Even if he has the exceptional strength of mind necessary 
for keeping his great theory from this sort of usurpation, he is 
a suspected visionary, and his most sober speculations are 
unnoticed.” We fear that Mr. Jordan will not escape these perils. 


Outlines of Natural History for Beginners. Being Descrip- 
tions of a Progressive Series of Zoological Types. By 
H. AtiteyNnE Nicnorson, M.D., D.Sc., M.A., PhD 
F.R.S.E., &c. London : Blackwood and Sons. ; 


Tuis is a clearly-written, unpretending sketch of the subject 
which it treats, and well adapted to its object, viz., to assist the 
teaching of zoology in schools. The mode of presenting the 


1874.] Notices of Books. 249 


subject differs somewhat from that which is commonly adopted. 
Instead of at first presenting a general view of the animal 
kingdom, and its greater divisions into sub-kingdoms, Dr. 
Nicholson at once describes the individual types representative 
of the smaller sub-divisions or classes, commencing with the 
Aniseba as typical of the class Rhizopoda, and so on up to the 
dog as the representative of the Mammalia. The sub-kingdoms 
are afterwards described in the concluding chapter. The types 
are well-selected, and their characteristic features plainly de- 
scribed, though, of course, only in outline, the reproductive 
organs and the more minute details of internal structure not 
being described, the attention of the pupil being directed to the 
conspicuous points of structure, more especially to those which 
are external. 

It is doubtless more in accordance with strict philosophy to 
take details first, and then to pass from them to the broader 
generalisation ; but, in teaching, this method is attended with 
some disadvantages. We think that, on the whole, it would 
have been better in a work of this kind to have commenced at 
first with an outline of the most general kind, and then to have 
filled it up with the matter which forms the bulk of this little 
work. The relations of the different classes to each other would 
have been better understood after the pupil had been made 
acquainted with the general characteristics and the broader dis- 
tinctions between the sub-kingdoms. As it stands, the step by 
which he is carried from the Cephalopoda to the fishes is made 
no broader than that by which he passes from the Crustacea to 
the Arachnida. Ina work of this kind, the greatest difficulty is 
to determine what should be omitted ; and opinions must neces- 
sarily vary rather widely on this point. As an expression of our 
own opinion, we think that Dr. Nicholson might advantageously 
have told the school-boy and girl just a little about the prede- 
cessors of the present generations of animal life; for instance, 
when he tells them of the rarity of the Brachiopoda, and his 
reasons for selecting an Australian representative of this group, 
he might have referred to the comparative abundance of their 
fossil remains. Thus some of the ancient links between the 
fishes, reptiles, and birds might have been described just suff- 
ciently to awaken the curiosity of the pupil and indicate the 
bearings of his present study upon that of the ancient history of 
our globe. 

We are rather inclined to quarrel with the title of the book, as 
it sanctions and maintains the very narrow, popular fallacy of 
regarding zoology as the whole of natural history. ‘‘ Outlines 
ey” would have been a sounder and more expressive 
mule, ° 


250 Notices of Books. (April, 


Manual of Lunacy ; a Handbook Relating to the Legal Care and 
Treatment of the Insane. By LytrLeton S. WInsLow, 
M.B., &c. With a preface by ForBes WINSLow, M.D., &c. 
London: Smith, Elder, and Co. 


Nort being learned in the law, it is with diffdence that we 
express an opinion upon the work before us. Still a careful 
perusal leads us to conclude that the author is thoroughly master 
of his subject, and that his book will be of great value to all 
those members of the medical profession who devote themselves 
to the care of the insane, or who are called upon to give evidence 
on the mental condition of persons accused of crime. The 
section on ‘** Medical Evidence in Court ” contains advice which 
may be useful to other scientific men as well as to physicians 
when they have the misfortune to appear as witnesses in a court 
of justice. The unfair stratagems of counsel in dealing with 
technical evidence are alluded to in a manner which some, 
doubtless, among our readers will be able to appreciate from 
personal experience. 

The statistics on the varying amount of insanity and idiocy in 
different countries give wide scope for speculative inquiry. Why, 
for instance, should an Englishman or an Irishman be nearly 
five times more liable to insanity than an Austrian? Why, in 
the little German state of Oldenburg, should 1 in every 301 of 
the gross population be insane, whilst in Saxony the ratio is only 
Iin 1427? Neither race, nor government, nor religion seems to 
offer any clue to such a discrepancy as the latter. 


Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry. By H. E, 
ArmstTRONG, Ph.D., &c. London: Longmans and Co. 


Tuis volume belongs to the useful series of ‘‘ Text-Books of 
Science’ which Messrs. Longmans are at present bringing out. 
We cannot say that the work displays any very striking 
characteristics either for good or evil. The author, having first 
explained organic chemistry as the chemistry of carbon com- 
pounds, touches briefly upon formule, empirical and rational, 
and upon the action of various reagents upon the carbon 
compounds. He then passes on to the family of hydrocarbons, 
and considers the remaining groups of carbon compounds in 
their relation to the hydrocarbons. Those who take up this 
volume as a book of reference, and search in it for information 
concerning animal and vegetable substances of importance in 
nature or in the arts will find themselves disappointed. But to 
furnish such information is certainly no part of the author’s plan. 
His object has been to describe only those compounds whose 
‘relations to other well-understood bodies have been satis- 
factorily established.” The work is in its nature systematic, 
and substances whose constitution and relations are unascer- 


1874.) Notices of Books. 251 


tained must, therefore, be left provisionally unnoticed. The 
more chemistry succeeds in developing itself as a primary and 
exact science, the more it must, of necessity, abandon the merely 
descriptive and concrete features which marked its earlier days. 
That by so doing it must lose a certain portion of its attractions, 
and appeal to a different class of minds, is undeniable. To the 
student prepared to accept these changes we believe that Dr. 
Armstrong’s work will be of value. 


The Birth of Cheniistry. (Nature Series). By G. F. RopweE tt, 
F.R.A.S., &c. London: Macmillan and Co. 


Is a knowledge of the history of chemistry necessary ? No, and 
yes! It is quite conceivable, for instance, that a man without 
any knowledge of the origin and early development of the science 
might be the most brilliant and successful experimenter,—the 
most accurate analyst the world has produced. Nor can it be 
contended that the practical applications of the science are in 
the smallest degree promoted by an acquaintance with its rise 
and progress. But it is difficult to comprehend the philosophy 
of chemistry, or to view it in its relation to other sciences, 
without an acquaintance with the rise, the reign, and the decay 
of the successive theories which have prevailed in past days. 
As a branch of culture and a means of intellectual discipline, 
the history of science may justly claim a high rank. It is with 
this view, evidently, that the author approaches his subject. “I 
have endeavoured,” says he, in his preface, ‘‘to trace the rise 
and early development of a very old science, mainly that we may 
mark the attitude of thought which actuated the scientific mind 
in bygone times, and may thus be led to compare the ancient 
with the modern method of evolving ideas and building them up 
into a connected whole.”’ The history of science is to be studied 
as a basis for the methodology of science. ‘The author likens 
the development of chemistry to the erection of a house. ‘ The 
time when the foundation-stone was laid is too remote to be even 
suggested ; the basis of the edifice is sunk deep in Eastern soil; 
the walls were slowly and laboriously raised during the middle 
ages, and were completed by Lavoisier, Black, and Priestley.” 
The similitude is, in one important sense, misleading. Succes- 
Sive generations of experimentalists and inquirers do not merely 
add to the works of their predecessors. As Mr. Rodwell has 
elsewhere shown, they pull down and rebuild; they modify, 
they transform. And ever as they execute such changes, they 
dream that their own work is final and unchangeable. The 
world has, not for the first time, had its ‘‘modern” chemical 
views taught from every professorial chair, and eagerly imbibed 
by crowds of students. But before half a century had passed, 
the ‘‘modern” had become obsolete, and had been swept into 


252 Notices of Books. (April, 


the limbo of forgottenness. Mr. Rodwell pursues his subject no 
further than to the dawn of modern pneumatic chemistry,—the 
epoch of Hales and Boerhaave, Lemery and Mayow. He has 
produced a thoughtful, suggestive, and decidedly readable book, 
which we hope will be duly appreciated. 


Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. By W. A. 
Mitter, M.D., LL.D. Revised by HrerBert McLeop, 
F.C.S. Fifth edition, with additions. London: Longmans, 
Green, and Co. 


‘Loox for it in Miller” we have repeatedly heard said, when 
some rather recondite piece of chemical information had been 
vainly sought for in more voluminous works, or in files of 
scientific periodicals. And very often in “Miller” the fact 
required was found. Hence it is no wonder that the ‘‘ Elements”’ 
have gradually secured that place in the favour of students which, 
consule Planco, was held by Graham and Turner. That a new 
edition was required is, therefore, perfectly natural. 

The revision which the work has undergone does not consist 
merely in the insertion of the most important novelties dis- 
covered since the appearance of the fourth edition, but in 
a re-arrangement of the non-metallic elements which the editor 
conceives will ‘facilitate the progress of the student in the 
theoretical part of the science.” 

Many of the compounds of carbon have been removed to an 
appendix, as also the section on gas-analysis. An account has 
also been given of the most recent researches in thermo- 
chemistry,—a subject which is attracting the attention of some 
of the ablest chemists of the day, and which promises to play an 
important part in the progress of the science. 


° 


The Preparation and Mounting of Microscopic Objects. By 
Tuomas Davies. Second Edition. Edited by JoHN 
Matruews, M.D., F.R.M.S. London: Robert Hardwicke. 
1873. 

Tue former edition of this valuable little work has long been 

known to microscopists for the eminently practical manner in 

which its special subjects are treated, making it one of the most 
useful aids to the student commencing microscopical work. 

The new edition will by no means disappoint its readers, the 
added matter amounting to fifty-eight pages. It is much to be 
regretted that the state of the author’s health has prevented his 
personal superintendence of the work, but he has an able editor 
in Dr. Matthews, in whose hands he placed his copious store of 


1874.] Notices of Books. 253 


material. The manuscript was also submitted to Mr. T. Charters 
White, late secretary of the Quekett Microscopical Club, who .- 
made several valuable additions. 

The book commences with an introductory chapter by the 
editor, containing an account derived from various sources of 
reagents used in histological inquiries; this will be of especial 
value to those commencing the study of minute anatomy. The 
original beginning of the work now forms chapter ii., which, 
under the title of ‘“‘ Apparatus,” treats upon the materials used 
in mounting objects, such as glass slides, covers, and the other 
necessaries of the microscopist’s work-table ; it is here, as else- 
where, evident that the writer has seen and done everything that 
he describes. 

The chapter on ‘‘ Dry Mounting,” in addition to what might 
fairly be expected on the subject, gives a somewhat detailed 
account of such objects as require special treatment before 
mounting in this manner, such as the collection, preparation, 
and cleaning of Diatomacee the mode of treating deep-sea 
soundings, both of which subjects are very fully treated, and 
much other valuable information. 

In the portion devoted to ‘‘Balsam Mounting” some useful 
hints are given respecting the preparation of crystals. 

The much disputed matter of ‘Fluid Mounting” is very fully 
dealt with, the author not only giving his own experience but 
also that of many other eminent microscopists. The chapter on 
dissection will prove useful to those interested in the subject, 
and to the same class of students the very full account of the 
processes of injecting and staining tissues will be welcome. 


” 


’ 


Half-Hours with the Microscope. Being a Popular Guide to the 
Use of the Microscope as a means of Amusement: and 
Instruction. By Epwrin LanxesTeErR, M.D. Illustrated from 
Nature by TuFFEN West. New edition, with a chapter on 
the Polariscope, by F. Kirron. London: Robert Hard- 
wicke. 1873. 

THE principal new feature in this edition is the chapter on the 

Polariscope, a subject generally avoided by writers on the micro- 

scope; and as a natural consequence this valuable aid to 

histological researches is, in too many instances, looked upon 
as a mere toy: the few pages by Mr. Kitton will be a great help 
to those needing information respecting the use of their 
polarising apparatus. The ‘“half-hours” are, ‘‘On the Structure 
of the Microscope,” ‘‘ With the Microscope in the Garden,” 

“In the Country,” ‘‘At the Pond Side,” ‘At the Sea-Side,” 

“Indoors,” and ‘‘On Polarised Light.” The work will be, as 

was the former edition, of great service in guiding young 

microscopists as to where they are to look for employment for 


VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2K 


254 Notices of Books. (April, 


their instruments; those who are without friends of kindred 
pursuits, or have not access to any of the now numerous micro- 
scopical clubs, will find Dr. Lankester a useful guide, and it will 
be their own fault if they do not learn something. 

With regard to the illustrations, the artist is so well known 
that comment is needless. 


Evenings at the Microscope ; or Researches among the Minuter 
Organs and Forms of Animal Life. By PuHit1p HENRY GossE, 
F.R.S. New Edition, 1874. Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 


Att who know the works of this most agreeable writer will be 
pleased to find that a second edition of this well-known work has 
been required; Mr. Gosse writes as those only can who have 
examined for themselves the objects they are describing. The 
greater part of the illustrations are from drawings on wood by 
the author, and it is to be regretted that so little pains should 
have been taken in printing to do them justice. 

The descriptions of the various objects are interspersed with 
the needful directions as to magnifying power and apparatus 
employed, as well as numerous hints for collecting; this is a 
matter too generally neglected in describing the results of 
microscopical observations : microscopists who are expert them- 


selves are apt to suppose that everyone knows as a matter of © 


course how to follow the author, who has probably in many cases 
arrived at his conclusions by some peculiar mode of operation. 
All praise is due to Mr. Gosse for his consideration of the wants 
of young students. 

In describing the structure of wool, the author still adheres to 
the old theory that the felting qualities of wool are dependent 
upon the serrations, instead of the undulations or waves which 
are very evident in the finer kinds of wool, merino for instance.* 
If hair was of good felting quality in proportion to its superficial 
roughness, surely the bat’s hairs with their whorls of scales, and 
the branched hairs of insects, would be the best of all materials 
for the manufacture of felt; such is, however, not the case. 

The Rotifere are very fully described, and many interesting 
points of their structure and life-history elucidated. This class is 


one which the author has made a special study, and the chapter 


contains a selection from his numerous papers on the subject 
supplemented by his more recent observations. 

As might be expected, it is in the portions of the work devoted 
to marine animals that this eminent sea-side naturalist gives the 


bar “wd 


7 


most interesting details; here he is perfectly at home, and it is — 


* See paper by N. Burcess, Trans. Quekett Microscopical Club, vol. i., p. 25 
in which the subject of felting is very fully treated. 


1874.] Notices of Books. 255 


evident that the reader is under the guidance of one who is 
familiar with the results of shore and dredge collecting, and long 
and patient aquarium observations. 

A considerable space is devoted to the structure of insects. In 
remarking on their eyes and ears, the author writes: ‘It is not 
impossible, judging from the great diversity which we find in the 
form and structure of these and similar organs in this immense 
class of beings, compared with the uniformity that prevails in the 
organs of sense bestowed in ourselves and other vertebrate 
animals, that a far wider sphere of perception is open to them 
than to us. Perhaps conditions that are perceptible to us only 
by the aid of the most delicate instruments of modern science 
may be perceptible to their acute faculties, and may govern their 
instinéts and actions. Among such we may mention, con- 
jecturally, the comparative moisture or dryness of the atmosphere, 
delicate changes in its temperature, in its density, the presence 
of gaseous exhalations, the proximity of solid bodies indicated 
by subtle vibrations of the air, the height above the earth at 
which flight is performed, measured barometrically, the various 
electrical conditions of the atmosphere ; and perhaps many other 
physical qualities which cannot be classed under sight, smell, 
taste, or touch, and which may be altogether imperceptible, and 
therefore altogether inconceivable by us.”’ 

It is to be regretted that the author should have contented 
himself with borrowing a cut on page 151, representing the 
proboscis of the blow-fly, instead of supplying a figure more in 
accordance with recent observations drawn by himself. 

The work can be safely recommended as a guide to those 
really in earnest as to their microscopical studies, and will prove 
an admirable companion to those who take their microscopes to 
the sea-side during the approaching summer holidays. 


A Handbook of Practical Telegraphy. By R.S. CuLttey, Member 
Inst. C.E., Engineer-in-Chief of Telegraphs to the Post- 
Office. Adopted by the Post-Office and by the Department 
of Telegraphs for India. Sixth edition, revised and enlarged. 
London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. 1874. 8vo., 
PP- 443- 

It is a sure sign of the high estimation in which Mr. Culley’s 
work is held, and of the soundness of his electrical knowledge, 
when we find that his volume has already reached its sixth 
edition. Holding a foremost position in his profession, and sur- 
rounded by the whole telegraphic network of the British Isles, 
he necessarily constitutes the centre towards which a vast mass 
of electrical and telegraphic information naturally concentrates ; 
and, as a consequence, his writings may be considered the digest 
of these experiences. 


256 Notices of Books. |April, 


We are informed in the preface that many portions of the’ 
book have been re-written,—incumbent on the author by reason 
of the rapid extension of all the branches of the profession. So 
numerous have been-the alterations and additions that we do not 
hesitate to state that the labour of passing the book through the 
press must have cost Mr. Culley great time and close application; 
in fact, as much as would be necessary to compile the whole 
volume. Amongst the extra matter, we find an important and 
lengthy chapter on the Duplex System, which will be eagerly 


read. In this chapter, the author undertakes the explanation of — 


the question from the commencement; and in so clear and 
popular a manner does he carry the reader along with him 
through the different stages that everyone who studies the 
subject can most easily follow him. There are various methods 
of telegraphing by the duplex system, three of which are well 
known, viz., ‘‘the Bridge,” ‘the Differential,” and ‘the 
Leakage.” The two former, however, are the systems that Mr. 
Culley has treated of; the third he does not refer to, because, 
as we suppose, he does not consider it of sufficient practicability 
to deserve attention. Students, however, we are sure, would 
have been glad to have had his experience on the subject, and to 
have had an explanation of the modus operandi from his pen. 

The comprehension of the work is large and varied. It 
includes :— 

Part I., Sources of Electricity. Part II., Resistance and the 
Laws of the Current. Part III., Magnetism and Electro- 
Magnetism. Part IV., Induction. Part V., Atmospheric 
Electricity and Earth Currents. Part VI., Insulation. Part 
VII., The Construction of a Line of Telegraph. Part VIILI., 
Ordinary Testing. Part IX., Description of Instruments, © 
Part X., Submarine and Underground Wires. Addenda of 
various useful tables of reference. 

The same determination has guided Mr. Culley inthis asin former 
editions ; he has excluded from his work all theories based upon 
unproved hypotheses, and has thereby maintained its character 
as a ‘¢ practical handbook” on all matters relating to the science 
of telegraphy. Asa handbook it is unexceptional, and is rendered 
far more readable from the profuse illustrations interspersing the 
book at almost every page. Some idea may be formed of its 
rich endowment in this respect, when we mention that it contains 
over a hundred and fifty engravings, exclusive of nine full page 
illustrations, and six large folding plates of very useful designs. 
With such a work in his hands, we believe every operator on our 
lines, however backward he may be in his electrical knowledge, 
would soon acquire a sound acquaintance with the practice of the 
science, and to them, as well as to general scientific students, we — 
heartily recommend the work. 


1874.] Notices of Books. 257 


Student’s Class Book of Animal Physiology. By T. Austin 
: Buttock, LL.D. London: Relfe Brothers. 


Tue author tells us in his preface that ‘‘ This book, whatever 
be its fate, has come of a careful and earnest endeavour to meet 
the requirements of higher and middle class schools, and of all 
teachers who may desire to prepare pupils for Government or 
other science examinations.” 

We quite believe in the care and earnestness of the manufacture 
of this book. Every page displays the result of careful and 
earnest cramming on the part of the author himself, and an 
equally careful and earnest effort to transfer the cram to his 
readers or pupils. The machinery by which he seeks to effect 
this is a series of questions followed by mechanical answers 
suitable for the requirements of those michievous people who. 
call themselves teachers, and whose teaching consists in putting 
certain books in the hands of their unfortunate pupils, marking 
so many lines to be “ got off by heart,” and then listening to 
their misguided victims while they ‘‘ say their lessons.” 

The following is a sample :— 

Q. What are the names and positions of the interior bodies 
of the brain?” 

“©A, From the base upwards we have (1.) The Posterior and 
Anterior Pyramids, and quite close -by the side of the latter are 
(2.) The Olivary Bodies, with the Restiform Bodies on their outer 
sides; (3.) The Pons Varoli, a mass of neurine an inch wide, with 
its fibres running like a bridge across the Medulla Ob.; (4.) The 
Corpus Dentatum, a mass of grey neurine with a tooth-shaped 
edge, in the anterior of that part of the cerebellum at the sides 
of the Pons; (5.) The Crura Cerebri (legs of the brain) rounded 
masses of nerve fibres, which, from the Medulla Ob., emerge at 
the upper end of the Pons; (6.) The Corpora Albicantia, two 
pear-shaped silvery bodies at the base of the brain, but connected 
with the cerebrum; (7.) The Corpus Callosum which unites the 
two hemispheres of the cerebrum; (8.) The Pituitary Bodies, 
between the Olfactory Nerves; and (9,) The Tuber Cinereum 
just under the latter (Fig. 25, V. between V and W; S.E.P.M.; 
Corpus Callosum between I. and G.; I. K). 

Fig. 25, to which these utterly unintelligible references are 
made, is a representation of the exterior of the base of the brain. 
The next question is— 

«Q. What are the other bodies in the interior of the brain.” 

This is answered in like manner by simply enumerating the 
Thalami, Corpora Striata, Corpora Quadrigemina, and the 
Commissures in the same parrot-like manner, and again referring 
to Fig. 25, in which none of these ‘‘ Bodies”’ are shown. 

_ This is all the information afforded on this part of the subject. 
Anybody at all acquainted with the structure of the brain may 
imagine the state of mind of the unfortunate pupil who strives to 
obtain any ideas from such a string of merenames. What must 


258 Notices of Books. (April, 


be his notions of the anterior and posterior pyramids, of the legs 
of the brain, &c.? 

From this sample of anatomical exposition let us pass to one 
ortwo physiological disquisitions. The following is the answer 
to the question ‘‘ What is the Sensorium ?” 

‘‘ That ideal point of the brain which the older physiologists, 
and some modern school books, call the Sensorium, and regard 
as the seat and abode of soul, is merely a fancy organ which has 
no existence; but the Sensorium of modern physiologists is a 
series of ganglionic centres at the base of the brain, including 
the Olfactory Bulb, or ganglion, and the auditory and optic 
ganglia.” 

The spinal cord is described as ‘‘ the seat of a set of definite 
and combined muscular movements, which are altogether 
independent of sensation and volition ; and it gives to the whole 
muscular mechanism a healthy contraction and tone, which at 
once disappear on its destruction.” 

‘‘Q. What is the reason that certain kinds of animals live in 
the human stomach in spite of the powerful action of the gastric 
juice? 
ah A. On living substances the juice has no power, but it acts 
immediately after death, and it has been found that it sometimes 
dissolves and perforates the stomachs of the dead. Bone, even 
iron, and other metals gradually yield to its action; and there 
are instances of nails and clasped knives having been reduced to 
mere fragments in the human stomach.” 

Lesson 14 is headed ‘‘ Gases in Blood.” ‘The first question 
of this lesson is :—‘‘ How is the colour of the blood affected by 
O and CO,, and why is O constantly supplied and CO, as 
constantly thrown off?” This and the next question, ‘*‘ Why 
is CO, found in the blood, and how is it related to the tem- 
perature of the body?” are answered as though oxygen and 
carbonic acid gases are actually and abundantly mixed with 
the blood ‘‘thrown off,” and circulate with it. In reply to the 
question, ‘‘ What is the exact chemical composition of albuminous 
substances ?” the pupil is told ‘‘that all these substances consist 
of C, H, O, N, S, and that some of them possess P in addition,” 
and further on, that ‘‘ gelatine consists of the same elements as 
albumen, but combined in smaller proportions.” This style of 
actual looseness and inaccuracy, with affected technical pro- 
fundity, prevails throughout, and is calculated, even where no 
actual blunders are made by the author, to convey most erroneous 
ideas to the pupil. 

The author, in his preface, says, ‘‘ We have dealt little in 
general description, or in those ‘bird’s-eye views’ which try hard 
to exhibit all, succeed well in showing nothing. A really earnest 
student who prepares to meet remorseless examiners must see 
the subject not in bird's-eye view but from the plane of the facts 
and circumstances themselves.’ We pity any ‘earnest student” 


1874.] Notices of Books. 259 


who relies on this or any of the kindred works that are written 
by incompetent teachers for the mere purpose of cramming with 
phrases and technicalities in order to pass examinations. Inthe 
learning of languages, whether living or dead, this wretched 
method of packing the memory may be sufficient; but we warn 
all candidates for science examinations against any attempts to 
‘eet up” any branch of science by mere efforts of memory. 
Something higher than this is demanded of the scientific student. 
He must not merely learn his lesson,—he must understand his 
subject ; for the remorseless examiner in science at once detects 
the ignorance of the candidate who merely answers by rote. If 
he is at all qualified to conduct a scientific examination, he will 
always include among his questions some theoretical and practical 
problems which ignominiously convict the crammed candidates, 
and he condemns their blunders far more remorselessly than the 
shortcomings of the conscientious student who has learned 
much less but understands a little more. A simple rudimentary 
treatise on physiology which, in the same space as the book 
before us, attempted to teach conscientiously and thoroughly 
about one-tenth of what is here pedantically heaped together, 
might enable a student to pass some of the more elementary 
examinations on physiology adapted to junior pupils; but this 
** Student’s Class Book” is utterly worthless for the purpose of 
the ‘‘really earnest student,” and can only serve as a delusion 
and a snare even to the student who is so misguided as to 
attempt to pass an examination .in physiology by merely 
cramming the memory with technicalities and learned phrases. 


A Treatise on Watch-Work, Past and Present. By the Rev. 
H. L. Nevturopp, M.A., F.S.A. London: E. and F. N. 
Spon. 1873. 


LET no one suppose that it is the watch-maker alone who will 
be interested in this little treatise. Indeed we doubt whether 
the work will find much favour in the trade; for the reverend 
writer exposes so many of the malpractices of the watch-maker’s 
craft that he will probably find himself as unpopular in Clerk- 
enwell as Mrs. Stowe is said to have been in the Southern 
States after the publication of her anti-slavery novels. 

During a century and a half, dating from about 1660, when 
Dr. Robert Hooke invented and applied the balance or pendulum- 
spring, the science of horology made great advances in this 
country. Those were the palmy days of watch-making when 
the workman took an intelligent interest in his work and sought 
to gain a reputation by the quality of his escapements. But, 
tempora mutantur, and at the present day our author maintains 
that there is not a rising man to lay claim to the sceptre of such 
makers as Mudge, Arnold, or Earnshaw, and that “in a few 


260 Notices of Books. _ (April, 


years it is not probable it will be possible to find in Clerkenwell 
a workman capable of doing first-class work.” To remedy this 
lamentable state of things, Mr. Nelthropp suggests that it would 
be desirable to establish a school in connection with South Ken- 
sington, and to revive, in some measure, the powers of the 
Clock-makers’ Company, so that members should be elected 
only after examination by a competent governing body. 

Although watch-making seems to be falling into this state of 
decay in England, there are yet many amateurs who take great 
interest in the art. But with the exception of Mr. Denison’s 
excellent ‘‘ Rudimentary Treatise,” published some years ago in 
Weale’s series, we do not remember any modern English work 
on this subject. 

After defining the terms used in watch-work, and describing 
the tools used by the watch-maker, Mr. Nelthropp presents the 
reader with a sketch of the history of time-keepers. ‘ Le ciel 
est une horloge constante et perpétuelle,’’ and therefore the sun- 
dial was the earliest form of time-piece. As to watches, the 
antiquary knows that they were first made by Peter Hele, of 
Nuremberg, about the year 1500, and were called—from their 
place of manufacture and from their shape—‘‘ Nuremberg eggs.” 

Passing from the historical to the technical portion of the 
work, we find rules for calculating the number of teeth of wheels 
and leaves of pinions, and the necessary calculations for trains. 
Descriptions are then given of the five principal scapements— 
the verge, the horizontal, the duplex, the lever, and the detached 
escapement. A translation of a treatise on the pitching of 
wheels and pinions, by the astronomer M. de Lalande, is given 
in the shape of an Appendix. 

Although Mr. Nelthropp’s volume is not the work of a man 
practically engaged in the trade, it may be recommended not 
only to the antiquary who delves into the history of the watch- 
maker’s craft, but also to every intelligent person who seeks to 
know something about the anatomy of the little time-keeper 
which he carries in his pocket. 


4 


1874.] ( 261 ) 


PROGRESS IN SCIENCE. 


MINING. 


Owinc to the alteration in the system of colle@ing the Mineral Statistics of 
Great Britain, introduced by the new Mines’ Regulation Ads, the publication 
of the last volume of Mr. Robert Hunt’s valuable Statistics, giving the 
returns for 1872, was unavoidably delayed until so late in 1873 that we were 
unable to notice them in the last number of this Journal. The method of 
obtaining voluntary returns, originally initiated and for many years success- 
fully carried out by the present Keeper of Mining Records, has been displaced 
by a compulsory system, under which the returns are forwarded, through the 
local Mining Inspectors, to the Secretary of State for the Home Department. 
It may be well to point out that the working of this system, in its present 
form, is fraught with much inconvenience. Thus, by a curious accident in 
the wording of one of the clauses of the Coal Mines’ Regulation Act, no one, 
except the Inspector and the Home Secretary, is permitted to see the returns, 
unless express consent be given by the coal-owner. Hence the Keeper of 
Mining Records himself is actually shut out, in most cases, from consulting 
the very returns which it is his duty to collate and present, in an aggregated 
form, to the public. 

One great cause of delay in the publication of the last volume of ‘‘ Mineral 
Statistics ” is attributable to the faé that, although the Metalliferous Mines’ 
Regulation A@, 1872, requires that all returns shall be made to the Inspectors 
by the rst of August in each year, yet many of the returns on this first occa- 
sion were not in the Inspector’s hands until late in November. Moreover, the 
Aé& requires only a return of the ores raised, and consequently their value and 
percentage of metal have to be obtained from other sources. Mr. Hunt has 
therefore made use of the returns to the Stannary Court for the ores of Devon 
and Cornwall, and the Public Ticketings for the copper-ores sold in Cornwall 
and Swansea. 


Following our usual course, we here present a general summary of the 
quantity and value of the minerals raised in the United Kingdom during the 
year 1872 :— 


No. of Mines. Tons. Cwrts. Value. 

STMT ya) <0!) fc) | Sa) se 2 5) 3007 123,497,316 o £ 46,311,143 
oon One, GAS noes 266 16,584,857 0 71774874 
SG! ORS 4 AGB SGN soba aac moe 117 91,983 O 443,738 
OS Ge re 162 14,266 o 1,246,135 
neti! 282, 2 Qe 455 83,968 3 1,146,105 
Zinc ore .. BEV eoe 63 18,542 12 73,951 
Tron pyrites (sulphur ore) ot MRE 35 65,916 3 39,470 
ARSENIC .. . ‘ Bteate ts 15 PEG aueds 17,964 
Bee CINIMM sry 'ofsy & sis ssid fehl) co's 3 88 5 993 
Cobalt of TLC Ween Bis Me Ban ice I ro 20 
Manganese co Pek She price 3 773110 38,865 
Fluor spar. RS ese te I 80 12 40 
Ochres, umbers, ‘&e. Sess Het sts 5 35320) 55 8,227 
Bismuth OLE by, siz we I 250 — 

Barytes and chloride of barium .. 26 0,157 17 7,208 
Clays, fine and fire (estimated) .. — I,200,000 Oo 450,000 
Other earthy minerals (estimated) — — 650,000 
a a tia. ees 1,309,497 10 654,748 
Coprolites (estimated) Se) Sele. tots — 35,000 oO 50,000 


Total value of minerals produced in the United Kingdom in 1872..£58,913,541 
VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2L 


262 Progress in Science. (April, 


Under the name of the Aérophore, M. Denayrouze has brought out an 
ingenious apparatus for furnishing to the miner a supply of fresh air in the 
midst of a deleterious atmosphere. The air is compressed by a double- 
barrelled pump of peculiar construction, the cylinders being movable, whilst 
the pistons are fixed, thus reversing the usual arrangement. By means of a 
regulator the pressure of the air may be adjusted at pleasure. The miner 
inhales the air through an india-rubber mouth-piece, whilst a supply is 
delivered on similar principles to hislamp. The Denayrouze lamp is specially 
construéed to burn independently of the surrounding atmosphere, and derives 
its air solely from the lamp-regulator. In one form of the Denayrouze appa- 
ratus the air is compressed into strong reservoirs, at a pressure of 20 atmo- 
spheres. Experiments putting the apparatus to tests which seem to be 
sufficiently severe have recently been conducted in this country,—it is said 
with much success. No doubt such an apparatus might be of special service 
in re-opening a pit after an explosion, and before it is expedient to admit 
fresh air; but it is evident that apparatus of this kind can have but a limited 
application, and is not likely to be used for prolonged work. 


To prevent the collier from tampering with his Davy-lamp, Messrs. Bailey 
and Waddington have patented the application of a seal to the locked lamp. 
This seal is enclosed in a case, and so arranged that the miner cannot un- 
screw his lamp and expose the light without breaking the seal, and thus 
convicting himself. 

At a recent meeting of the North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers, a paper was read, by Mr. T. M. Goddard, on “ Better 
Communication in Pit-Signalling by means of Electricity.” He described the 
system of eleGrical signalling employed with much success at the Golden- 
hill Colliery. This system was said to be much more economical than the 
ordinary method of using a stranded bell-wire, and not so liable to get out of 
repair. Moreover, less room is required in the shaft with this system. 


The subje@ of coal-cutting by machinery was recently brought before the 
Cleveland Institution of Engineers, by Mr. J. S. Jeans, of Darlington. After 
tracing the history of such machinery, he described two of the most popular 
coal-cutters,—namely, Mr. W. Firth’s machine, and the Gartsherrie coal- 
cutter of Messrs. Baird. The latter has been successfully working at the 
Hetton Colliery. 


‘An Essay on the Prevention of Colliery Explosions,” by Mr. Emerson 
Bainbridge, of Sheffield, has appeared in the columns of the *“ Colliery 
Guardian.” After enquiring into the cause of such accidents, the author 
examines how far the means now used for their prevention can be considered 
successful, and points out what he considers should be done by legislation 
and by mining-engineers to prevent such explosions, and to lessen their fatal 
effects when they do occur. Mr. Bainbridge’s experience and position should 
secure a respectful attention to his views. This essay is one of those written 
in competition for the Hermon prizes. The three prize-essays—those of 
Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. W. Creswick, and Mr. W. Hopton—have been pub- 
lished in a separate volume. Another of the competitive essays, by Mr. J. 
Harrison, of Eastwood, Notts, has appeared in the *“t Mining Journal.” 

An “ Official Report on the Coal-Fields of Victoria,” prepared by Mr. J. 
Mackenzie, the Government Examiner of Coal-fields in New South Wales, 
has been recently issued. It contains a careful description of the several 
coal-deposits of the Colony, illustrated by sections, and offers suggestions 
where search should and should not be made for payable seams of coal. 


Mr. H. B. Medlicott has published, in the ‘‘ Memoirs of the Geological 


Survey of India,’ some ‘‘ Notes on the Narbada or SatparA Coal-Basin.” It 
seems probable that we have in this basin a more complete representation of — 


the great plant-bearing rock-series of India than in any other part of the 
Peninsula. The writer advises that the experiment of boring for coal within 
the field, at a distance from the actual outcrop, should be made at Budi, in 
the Dudhi Valley. 


c 


1874.] Metallurgy. 263 


The peculiar conditions under which diamonds occur in the fields of South 
Africa have been well described by Mr. E. J. Dunn, who, before his recent 
return to the Cape, contributed to the Geological Society of London an inte- 
resting paper on this subje@. The so-called “dry diggings,” such as the 
well-known Colesberg Koppje and Du Toit’s Pan, are circular areas surrounded 
by horizontal shales. As to the diamond-bearing rock itself, Mr. Dunn 
describes it as an eruptive mass brought up to the surface through pipes which 
have penetrated the shales, and turned up their edges. On sinking into these 
pipes, the general sequence of deposits is—first, a few feet of sand; then, a 
layer of calcareous tufa; and this deposit passes gradually into an altered 
igneous rock, the true character of which is still an enigma. It has been sug- 
gested that it may be a gabbro or euphotide, serving as the base of a breccia 
which contains fragments of shale, dolerite, and other rocks. Can this 
euphrotide breccia be regarded as the actual mother-rock of the South-African 
diamonds ? 


METALLURGY. 


Under the head of ‘‘ Mining”’ we publish this quarter a summary of the 
‘Mineral Statistics’ for 1872, showing the quantities of ores raised in the 
United Kingdom during that year. In connection with these returns, and to 
show the position of our metallurgical industries, we may present the following 
statement, which exhibits the quantities and values of the several metals 
obtained from-the ores raised in 1872:—* 


Quantity. Value. 
EIPCITOMM sles sl ae) LOS! 6;741,929 £ 18,540,304 
BROMMEEN (Sat tu srw sijelo) Nav 7 5,703 583,232 
WIRTON en rere pTeiw, p Vicish, ie asl nf 9,560 1,459,990 
Lead Scfpicich poco an rad . 60,455 1,209,115 
SuUIVCIEE Tacit eo tenia | OZS.. 628/920 157,230 
Zine Be a) see Paves ee,  ROons 5,191 118,076 
Other metals (estimated) .. — 2,500 


£ 22,070,447 


An interesting feature is this year introduced into the ‘‘ Mineral Statistics,” 
in the shape of returns giving the consumption of coal in our blast-furnaces. 
These figures show that the quantity of coal consumed, on an average, for 
every ton of pig-iron produced, in 1872, amounted to 51 cwts. The economy 
of our iron-masters becomes evident on remembering that it was computed by 
the Royal Coal Commission that 3 tons of coal were consumed per ton of 
pig-iron. 


Mr. T. Hughes, of the Geological Survey of India, has contributed to a 
recent number of the Survey ‘‘ Records”’ some notes on the ‘ Iron-Deposits 
of Chandra in the Central Provinces,” in which he gives some interesting 
details respecting the relative amounts of ore and fuel ordinarily employed by 
the natives in their furnaces. The wealth of Chandra in iron ores is consider- 
able, and the value of the deposits is likely to be increased by the occurrence 
of coal in the neighbourhood. The native furnaces, though still liliputian, are 
larger than those commonly in use in Bengal, and several attain a height of 
nearly 6 feet. The section of the furnace is that of a cone; the hearth, as 
usual, slopes from behind forwards; the tuyeres are each g inches long, 
1} inches diameter at the larger and 2 inch at the smaller end; and the 
bellows are usually worked by hand. Taking the mean of several experiments, 
and reducing the weights to English units, we find that 8 tons of ore and 
14; tons of charcoal are consumed in the manufacture of 1 ton of wrought- 
iron by this method. 


* Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the Year 1872. 
With an Appendix. By Rosert Hunt, F.R.S., Keeper of Mining Records. Longmans, 1873. 


264 Progress in Science. April, — 


The Cleveland Institution of Engineers has been lately engaged in discussing 
Mr. Wood’s methods of utilising blast-furnace slag. The slag is allowed to 
run from the furnace into water placed at the bottom of an iron drum rotating 
in a vertical plane. By this means the slag is disintegrated, and forms a 
powder called “ slag-sand,” which may be mixed with lime and used as mortar. 
The slag, in another of Mr. Wood’s processes, is received on a flat, circular, 
rotating table of iron, where it is suddenly cooled, and spreads out into thin 
layers, which may be readily broken up and used in the preparation of con- 
crete. Although there is perhaps no great novelty in Mr. Wood’s methods, — 
they are nevertheless likely to be of much value in using up a great deal of 
the Cleveland slag. In 1862 Mr. Gjers obtained a patent for running a stream 
of slag into water, but he allowed his patent to lapse. One great feature in 
Mr. Wood’s machine is its economy of water. Mr. Jeremiah Head calculated 
that the cost of water would be only about th of a penny per ton of slag 
disintegrated. 


To determine the elasticity of metals, two different methods may be em- 
ployed—either dire@& tra&tion or transverse flexion. The discrepancy in the 
values obtained by these two methods in experiments with steel have been 
theoretically investigated by M. Peslin, in a paper, ‘Sur la Ténacité de 
l’Acier,” published in a recent number of the ‘‘ Annales des Mines.” 


In connection with this subje& we may refer to a paper on ‘‘ Tests of Steel,” 
by Mr. A. L. Holley, read before the American Institution of Mining 
Engineers, in which the writer strongly condemns the practice of confining 
ourselves to mechanical tests, and staunchly advocates that all tested samples 
should be submitted to chemical analysis. In order that engineers may know 
what to specify, and that manufacturers may know what to make, a knowledge 
of the chemical composition of steel becomes absolutely necessary. 


We observe that a paper ‘* On the Molecular Changes produced in Iron by _ 
Variations of Temperature,” by Prof. R. H. Thurston, of the Stevens Institute 
of Technology, has been reproduced in “Iron.” : 


M. Pirsch-Baudvin has patented a new alloy, said to bear a strong resem- 
blance to silver in many of its physical characters. A very white metal, 
forming a good imitation of silver, may be made of—Copper, 71; nickel, 16°5; 
cobalt, 1°75; tin, 2°5; iron, 1°25}; and zinc, 7: about 1°5 per cent of aluminium 
may be added. In the preparation of this alloy certain precautions are neces- 
sary in the order and manner in which the constituents are mixed. The © 
cobalt is said to determine many of the characters of this alloy. 


The well-known ‘ Revue Universelle des Mines, de la Métallurgie, des 
Travaux Publies, des Sciences, et des Arts appliqués a l’Industrie”’ is about to 
appear in an English dress. The proprietors have arranged for an English 
translation of each number, which will appear almost simultaneously with the 
French edition. This ‘* Review” has recently contained a capital Report of 
the Liége Meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute. 


MINERALOGY. 


Corundum has been discovered, within the last two or three years, in 
deposits of considerable extent, and under conditions of unusual interest, at a 
locality, now known as Corundum Hill, in Macon County, North Carolina. 
Colonel Jenks, who discovered these deposits and has established workings 
for corundum at the Culsagee Mine, has recently visited this country, bringing 
with him a collection of specimens of great beauty and scientific interest. 
These have been submitted to the Geological Society, accompanied by notes 
on their mode of occurrence. It appears that the corundum is found in veins 
in a hill of serpentine, and is largely associated with chloritic minerals, such 
as ripidolite and jefferisite. Some of the crystals are notable for the intimate 
manner in which they are blended with these minerals, whilst others exhibit 
such brilliancy as to suggest that but little more is needed, in the way of purity 
of colour and freedom from flaws, to transfer them to the category of true 
gem-stones. It is hardly too much to expea& that sapphires, rubies, and the 


1874.1] Mineralogy. 265 


other valuable forms of alumina, may be yielded by the further working of 
these deposits. We understand that some of the crystals have been examined 
microscopically by Mr. H. C. Sorby. 

For several years past Dr. F. A. Genth has devoted much attention to the 
study of Corundum, especially noting the characters of the associated minerals 
and the changes which corundum is supposed to undergo. ‘The results of his 
studies have been published in theshape of the first part of the ‘* Contributions 
from the Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania.’? Although corundum 
has been found in America both in the Laurentian system and in rocks 
referred to the Taconic system, yet the greater part of the American corundum 
occurs in what is termed the chromiferous serpentine or chrysolite formation, 
and in the adjacent rocks. By comparing the associated minerals and the 
general conditions of occurrence of the emery and corundum of Asia Minor 
and the Grecian Archipelago with those of the most important American 
deposits, Dr. Genth is led to suggest a correspondence of geological age in 
the two cases. The author gives a long catalogue of minerals supposed to be 
produced by the alteration of corundum, and refers in some instances to true 
pseudomorphs as evidence of suchchanges, There are probably few geologists, 
however, who will be prepared to receive Dr. Genth’s theory which seeks to 
explain the origin of certain beds of mica-schist, chlorite-schist, and paragonite- 
slate, by the alteration of larger deposits of corundum. Among the minerals 
associated with the American corundum are four described as new species, or 
varieties, under the names of Dudleyite, Kerrite, Maconite, and Willcoxite. 


Dr. Fischer, well known for his microscopic studies of various minerals, has 
examined a number of specimens of so-called Cat’s-eye ; that is to say, quartz 
which presents, when polished, a curious band of light generally referred to 
the presence of enclosed fibres of asbestos. In all the specimens examined 
by Fischer he could find no trace of any fibres of asbestos, so that we are 
compelled to seek a new explanation of the fibrous character of the cat’s-eye. 
The quartz may either possess a true fibrous structure of its own, or it may 
have replaced some mineral which originally possessed such a structure. It 
is the latter conclusion that Dr. Fischer is disposed to accept. This conclusion 
is interesting in connection with Wibel’s examination of the cat’s-eye of the 
Cape, noticed in last quarter’s chronicles. Fischer’s paper will be found in 
Tschermak’s ‘‘ Mineralogische Mittheilungen,” published in Vienna. 

A new mineral-species belonging to the group of felspars has been lately 
described by Von Kobell, in the ‘* Journal fur Praktische Chemie,” under the 
name of Tschermakite,a name proposed in honour of Dr. Tschermak, who 
has done so much to simplify our views of this important group of rock- 
forming minerals. Tschermakite occurs at Bamle, in Norway, where it is 
associated with Kjerulfine. The new species is found in compact masses, 
with very perfe& cleavage in two directions, making an angle of 94°. These 
cleavage-planes show fine strie, similar to those on other triclinic felspars, 
Analysis gives—Silica, 66°57; alumina, 15°80; magnesia, 8-00; soda, with 
trace of potash, 6°80; water, 2°70=99'87. From this analysis may be deduced 
the formula -3(RO.3SiO2)+A1,03.3Si02. Tschermakite may therefore be 
regarded as a peculiar species of felspar, related to oligoclase, but containing no 
lime. 

An excellent monograph of the minerals grouped together under the 
general name of Brochantite, has been laid before the Vienna Academy. by Dr. 
Schrauf, and published in its ‘“‘Sitzungsberichte.”” He describes in much 
detail, and illustrates by admirable figures, the several forms of this mineral, 
of which four distinét types are recognised. It appears that Brochantite is not 
prismatic in crystallisation, but that most varieties are either monoclinic or 
triclinic. 

' The peculiar form of silica which Prof. Maskelyne some time ago discovered 
in the Breitenbach meteorite, and described under the name of Asmanite, has 
been recently studied by Prof. Vom Rath. His conclusions confirm those of 
Maskelyne, respecting the specific gravity, degree of hardness, and chemical 


266 Progress in Science. (Apri, 


composition. Vom Rath’s analysis gives—Silica, 96:3; ferric oxide, 2; 
magnesia, I°1; lime, trace. There seems, therefore, no doubt that Asmanite 
is a new form of silica crystallising in the rhombic system, so that we are now 
acquainted with three species of crystallised silica, distinguished by their 
specific gravity in this wise :— 


QUIATEZ 9: Bie Lahet pie ot Sela obo gf ois) une SPU 
Dtdsyanite eveie aie) made) Bieta fodeedatt ote 5 2°3 
ASiMaTHce ete Gwe tee tls teks tele e Rete 4 2°24 


by Levy in 1824, and named in honour of Gustav Rose. It appears that only. 
two specimens are known, the one in the Werner Collection at Freiberg, in © 
Saxony, and the other in the Turner Collection in this country. Both came ~ 
from Schneeberg, in Saxony. Two new specimens, recently found at this 
locality by Herr Tréger, have been described by Prof. Weisbach. 


A continuation of Rammelsberg’s researches ‘‘On the Composition of the 
Natural Compounds of Tantalium and Niobium” has appeared in a recent 
number of ‘‘ Poggendorff’s Annalen.”’ The present portion of the investigation 
relates to the minerals called pyrochlore, yttrotantalite, fergusonite, polyclase, 
euxenite, wohlerite, samarskite, and zschynite. 7 

Prof. Zepharovich has presented to the Vienna Academy a further description 
of his new mineral, Syngenite. He now finds that the species must be 
referred to the monoclinic and not to the rhombic system; that the artificial 
salt having the same composition (namely, CaSO,+Na,50,+H20) is also 
monoclinic; and that Rumpfe’s mineral, Kaluszite, is in all probability identical 
with syngenite. 

Dr. Burkart, of Bonn, has described in Leonhard and Geinitz’s ‘**‘ Neues 
Jahrbuch” the mass of meteoric iron known as the Descubridora meteorite. 
This was found near Poblazon,in Mexico. The same mineralogist has a paper 
on the occurrence of the various minerals of tellurium and bismuth in the ~ 
United States. 


Among recently-published papers bearing as much on physics as on 
mineralogy, we may cite a memoir by Dr. Carl Klein, of Heidelberg, on the 
optical characters of the Epidote of Sulzbach; a paper by Prof. Néggerath, 
of Bonn, on the phosphorescent glow exhibited by agates and other siliceous 
stones when ground on the large wheels used in the polishing-mills at Oberstein 


} 
and Idar; and a paper by Dr. Behrens, of Kiel, on the spectrum of the precious 
opal. 

ENGINEERING—CI1VIL AND MECHANICAL. 
; 
s 


One of the rarest known mineral-species is Roselite, a substance determined { 
4 
uJ 


. 


Boilervs.—At the present day when every manufacture is carried on with the 
aid of steam, the strength of boilers is a most important question with- 
reference to the duty they are expected to perform. This, as a seétion of 
experimental science, has been very much neglected in this country. From 
- an article which appeared in the ‘‘ Nautical Magazine,’’ on the United States 
Experimental Commission, it appears that the majority of the experiments 
made by Fairbairn, on the collapsing of tubes, and upon which’a rule was 
based for the construction of steam-boilers, were with tubes of No. 19 
wire gauge, or about j,rd of an inch in thickness. According to the 
practical rule based upon these experiments, the strength against collapsing 
is directly as the square of the thickness, and inversely as the length, 
but the constant multiplier for collapsing pressure is given 71 per cent 
above the mean of the experiments, and 25 per cent above the maximum 
result obtained. Before September, 1871, Mr. Francis B. Stevens, of Hoboken, 
New Jersey, had made several experiments on the strength and proper 
management of boilers belonging to the United Railroad Companies of New 
Jersey; and so valuable did the results appear, that the Executive 
Committee of the United Companies voted 10,000 dollars for the continuance 
of the experiments, which were made on real boilers and with steam- 
power. The paper from which we quote was written before the com- 
pletion of the experiments; but, so far as they had gone, they fully indicated 


1874.] Engineering. 267 


the danger produced by constructing a boiler so that the failure of any one 
stay would be fatal to the whole structure; and this is the more important 
since stays are seldom made to take the strain equally. The importance of 
the proceedings of this Experimental Commission was considered so great 
that the subject was brought before Congress, by whom 100,000 dollars have 
been voted to carry out similar experiments on a larger scale, and the Com- 
mission appointed for that purpose has made a beginning, but has not yet 
issued its report. : 


According to the report of the Midland Steam-Boiler Inspe&ion and 
Insurance Company for the last half of 1873, they had 3555 boilers under 
their care, and during that period there had been no explosion of any boiler 
under their inspection. In consequence of the explosion of a blast-furnace 
boiler, attention has been directed to the safer working of such boilers of 
considerable length, it is suggested that they should be divided into separate 
lengths connected with narrow necks or pipe connections so arranged as to 
prevent rigidity. The feed water, in such case, would enter the back com- 
partment and overflow into the next one, and then again into the front com- 
partment, supposing the boiler to be in three compartments. The last 
compartment alone would require a water-gauge. The water, therefore, 
would gradually advance from back to front, while the heat would be greatest 
in the front. In this arrangement, apart from the diminished danger of 
explosion, it will be seen that the mud would be deposited in the back end, 
where, the heat not being sufficient to form it into a hard scale, it could be 
discharged by the blow-cock. 


With regard to tube boilers, it is remarked that they can evidently be 
worked with success where the high pressure for which they were designed 
is required, and where good water can be obtained, but they do not offer much 
advantage for low pressure, or with the average scale making water. The 
experience of the past year confirms the opinion that no boiler is free from 
the danger of explosion if not well looked after; and that the best means of 
preventing explosion is to insist upon frequent inspection and careful attendants. 


London Water Supply.—The Kent Company are now giving a constant 
supply to about 2200 houses in Deptford, and is extending the constant 
service to other parts of its distri. ‘The New River Company have now the 
power of affording effective constant service in their district; and they have 
also commenced a new high service covered reservoir, to contain one million 
gallons, at Southgate, in anticipation of the requirements of the water supply 
to Edmonton parish. This Company has, in a number of cases, afforded 
constant supply by means of stand pipes, and have agreed with a Committee 
of the Corporation of the City of London to furnish constant supply at once 
to a large number of the houses of the poor within the City bounds, wherever 
the arrangements of the officers of the Corporation in connection therewith 
are completed. The East London Company are extending the constant 
system of supply in their distri@, and have completed the arrangements for 
supplying the houses in one of their distri¢ts. The Southwark and Vauxhall 
Company are constructing covered service reservoirs at Nunhead, to contain 
18,000,000 gallons, and are erecting additional engine power for high-pressure 
constant supply. Additional boilers and works are also being constructed at 
Hampton. The West Middlesex Company are giving constant supply to a 
number of houses on the application of the owners, who have provided 
fittings according to the Board of Trade Regulations. This Company is also 
constructing extensive works and additional engine-power at Hammersmith 
and at Hampton to ensure effective constant supply. The Grand Junction 
Company have completed a high service reservoir near Kilburn, to contain 
6,000,000 gallons for constant supply, and have laid a line of main pipes to 
connec up this reservoir with the works at Campden Hill, and are likewise 
erecting additional boilers and works at Hampton. The Lambeth Company 
are also carrying out extensions and improvements to their Works. At 
Moulsey the construétion of reservoirs is being proceeded with, to contain 


268 Progress in Science. (April, | 


II0,000,000 to 120,000,000 gallons of water, with pumping engines to fill 


them to a level of 12 feet above the river. When full these reservoirs will 


contain ten to-twelve days’ water supply to the distri. The water from the 
reservoirs will run by gravitation through the new conduit to the filters at 
Ditton, which are in course of extension by the conversion of the reservoirs 
there into filter beds. The Chelsea Company are proceeding rapidly with the 
construétion of new filter beds at Ditton, and are laying down a new 30-inch 
pumping main between Kingston and Putney for the constant service supply, 
besides covering in a reservoir at Putney Heath—not hitherto in use—capable 
of containing 1,000,000 gallons of filtered water, to improve the supply of the 
high service. : 

Street Pavements.—Mr. Haywood, the Engineer and Surveyor to the Com- 
missioners of Sewers of the City of London, in a recent report on the 
different kinds of pavement now in use, states that, from observations taken, 
it was found that, of “falls on knees,” wood pavement had the greatest pro- 
portion, and that asphalt has the fewest of that class of accidents. Of falls 
on haunches, the asphalt had the largest proportion, and these accidents on 
it were very largely in excess of those on either of the other pavements, while 
the wood had the smallest proportion. Of complete falls there were fewest 
on wood and most on the granite, but the difference between the asphalt and 
granite was in this respect small. - It appeared generally that horses travelling 
on the wood pavement were on the whole subjected to falls of a character less 
inconvenient to the general traffic in the street, and also less likely to be 
injurious to the horses, than those travelling on the other two pavements, and 
that in this respect the ligno-mineral was superior to the improved wood 
pavement. It was also noticed that, whatever was the nature of the accident, 
the horses recovered their feet more easily on wood than they did on either 
asphalt or granite. On the average of the observations made, the granite 
was found to be the most slippery, the asphalt the next so, and the wood the 
least. The conditions of the different pavements varied, however, in some 
respect with the state of the weather. Further observations than have yet 
_ been taken appear necessary before any final and conclusive judgment can be 
given for or against any one class of pavement. 


Steam Economy.—On the 28th of January last Mr. Spence exhibited to 
a distinguished audience, at Stafford House, a plan by which he proposes to 
employ the heat of waste’steam as a substitute for fuel. This method is 
founded upon a discovery made by the father of the inventor, that steam 


liberated at atmospheric pressure, and passed into any saline solution haying — 


a boiling temperature higher than that of water, would raise this saline 
solution to its own boiling-point. In utilising the exhaust steam from a high- 
pressure engine, Mr. Spence brings it into contacé with a solution of caustic 
soda, which it will raise to a temperature of 375 degrees, or thereabouts, and 
the heated solution is then circulated through pipes in an ordinary boiler, and 
its heat is radiated for the purpose of generating steam in the place of heat 
derived from fresh fuel. . 


Brighton and Hove Gas-Works.—A paper on this subject was recently read 
before the Institution of Civil Engineers, by Mr. John Birch Paddon. The 
site of these works is the widest, most level, and highest part of a tra& of 
shingle lying between the sea and the canal forming the eastern entrance to 
Shoreham Harbour. This shingle was formerly arrested in its eastward 


zy 
f 
i 
=I 
| 


movement by the entrance-works to the harbour, but since the construction of 


the present westerly entrance it has been greatly wasted by the sea. Between 
1865 and 1870, in front of the site of the gas-works, the high-water mark ad- 
vanced landwards too feet. To obtain a deposit of shingle along the sea- 
front, aS a protection, two groynes were first constructed, and others were 
subsequently built along the coast to be protected. The foundations of the 
walls of the buildings are laid on concrete, and so extended as to make the 
proportion of the weight of the superstructure to the bearing surface of 
15 cwts. per square foot. The concrete bed under the retort benches is 7 feet 
6 inches thick. The retort-house is 286 feet 6 inches long and 80 feet wide. 


CdD Gee 


1874.] Engineering. 269 


The chimneys are constructed with the lower parts. of brick and the upper 
parts of wrought-iron, and are sufficiently light to be placed on the benches, 
so that no floor space is occupied by them: they are 71 feet 6 inches high, 
3 feet square at the bottom, and 3 feet in diameter at the top, the least sec- 
tional area giving 1 square inch for each lineal foot of retort—a proportion 
which has proved satisfactory. There are twenty-four benches of retorts, each 
bench having eight long retorts, there being two mouth-pieces to a retort, or 
384 mouth-pieces in all. The retorts are cylinders, 16 inches in diameter and 
20 feet long, and each retort will carbonise r ton of coal per day. Allowing 
one-sixth as the number for reserve, the remainder will produce 1,500,000 cubic 
feet of gas every twenty-four hours, or 300 millions per annum. The engine- 
house contains four exhausters, each exhauster being driven diredtly by an 
independent engine. The entire cost of the works has been about £72,000; 
and when a proposed second retort-house and coal-store are erected upon the 
site allotted for them, the total expenditure will amount to £100,000. The 
works will then be capable of producing 600 millions cubic feet of gas per 
annum, at a cost of £166 per million on the capital expended. 


Concrete Blocks.—The use of concrete blocks, of large size, in the construc- 
tion of marine works, has, within recent years, come to be greatly extended. 
An interesting paper, ‘‘ On the Construction of Harbour and Marine Works 
with Artificial Blocks of Large Size,” by Mr. B. B. Stoney, formed one of the 
subjects under discussion at the Institution of Civil Engineers last February. 
The author described a new method of submarine construction with blocks of 
masonry, or concrete, far exceeding in bulk anything hitherto attempted. 
The blocks are built in the open air, on a quay or wharf, and, after from two 
to three months’ consolidation, they are lifted by a powerful pair of shear- 
legs, erected on an iron barge or pontoon. When afloat, they are conveyed 
to their destination in the foundations of a quay wall, breakwater, or similar 
Structure, where each biock occupies several feet of the permanent work, and 
reaches from the bottom to a little above low-water level. The superstructure 
is afterwards built on the top of the blocks, in the usual manner. By this 
method the expenses of coffer-dams, pumping, staging, and similar temporary 
works are avoided, and economy and rapidity of execution are gained, as well 
as massiveness of construction, so essential for works exposed to the violence 
of the sea. There is now being built in this manner an extension, nearly 
43 feet in height, of the North Wall Quay, in the port of Dublin. Each of 
the blocks composing the lower part of the wall is 27 feet high, 21 feet 4 inches 
wide at the base, 12 feet long in the direction of the wall, and weighs 350 tons. 
The foundations for the blocks are excavated and levelled by means of a 
divine-bell. The hull of the floating shears is rectangular in cross section, 
48 feet wide, and 130 feet long. The aft end forms a tank, into which water 
is pumped to balance the weight of the block suspended from the shears at 
the bow of the vessel. 


Dublin Water Supply.—*‘ The Water Supply of the City of Dublin” formed 
the subje&@ of a paper, by Mr. Parke Neville, at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, on the 24th of February. The water supply of the City of Dublin 
was for several centuries derived from the River Dodder. In 1775 this source 
was found to be insufficient, and the Corporation entered into contracts with 
the then Grand Canal Company for a supplemental supply, which were 
extended in 1808. The water from this source was hard and subjeé to pollu- 
tion, and from 1850 to 1857 the question of obtaining a better supply was 
constantly under consideration. This ultimately led to the appointment of a 
Royal Commission, and Sir John Hawkshaw was appointed by the Govern- 
ment as Commissioner. . The result of his enquiries was the recommendation 
of the River Vartry as the best source, and works for that object were com- 
menced in November, 1862, and finished in 18608. The Vartry rises at the 
base of the Sugar-Loaf Mountain, in the county of Wicklow, and the place 
selected for the storage reservoir is near the village of Roundwood, about 
7% miles below the source of the river. The embankment across the valley, 
at its deepest point, is 66 feet high, and its total length is 1640 feet. The 


VOL. IV. (N. S.) 2M 


270 Progress in Science. (April, 


greatest depth of water impounded is 60 feet, and the average depth 22 feet. 
The area of the réServoir is 409 acres, and it is capable of holding 2400 million 
gallons of water, equal to two hundred days’ supply for the city of Dublin and 
suburbs. Two mains, 48 inches and 33 inches in diameter respectively, are 
carried through the bank, in a tunnel excavated out of the rock, and arched 
over. The 48-inch main, which terminates in the bye-wash, is a provision 
solely for the purpose of being able rapidly to lower the water in the reservoir, 
if necessary. The 33-inch main conveys the water to a circular receiving-— 
basin, situated at, the outer toe of the embankment, and from this basin the 
water is distributed by side canals on to seven filter-beds. After being fil- 
tered, the water is colle¢ted into two pure-water tanks, from whence it is 
carried for about 700 yards in an iron pipe, 42 inches in diameter, with a fall — 
of 6 feet per mile, until it reaches the tunnel, into which it is laid for 120 yards, | 
The tunnel is 4367 yards long, and conveys the water from the natural valley 
of the Vartry, under a range of hills separating that valley from the distriés 
sloping towards the sea to the east. This tunnel is from 5 feet to 6 feet high 
and 4 feet wide, with a gradient of 4 feet in a mile. At Callow Hill, the 
northern or Dublin end of the tunnel, there is a circular receiving-tank, © 
go feet in diameter, from which a main, 33 inches in diameter, conveys the 
water to the distributing reservoir at Stillorgan a distance of 17} miles. 
Three tanks relieve the pressure at different points, viz., at Kilmurray, Kil-— 
croney, and Rathmichael. The water is distributed through the streets of the = 

- 

. 

J 

y 


city by mains varying from 27 inches to 18 inches in diameter, which form a 
zone round the central parts of the city, from which the service-mains — 
diverge. Screw-valves at the intersection of the streets enable the waterto 
be turned off or on, either to repair the mains or to concentrate the pressure 
in case of fire. Hydrants are placed in every street at intervals of 100 yards, 
and the system is so perfect that since the introduction of the Vartry water 
no steam or hand fire-engine has been used to extinguish fires. The total 
cost of the works has been £610,000, or at the rate of about £1 16s. 6d. per t 
head of the population. , 


Great Basses Lighthouse.—In 1855 instructions were given for the prepara-_ 
tion of a design for the erection of a beacon on the Great Basses Rocks, off — 
the coast of Ceylon. The design submitted was for a cylindrical cast-iron 
tower, secured within an enlarged basement of masonry, which basement was 
to be enclosed within an outer casing of cast-iron, and both tower and casing 
were to be sunk into the rock. After three years’ operations, and the ex- 
penditure of £40,000, only a few landings had been effected on the rock, and 
the authorities therefore suspended further proceedings. In June, 1867, the 
whole question was referred to the Trinity House authorities, who recom- 
mended for approval a design prepared by their Engineer, Mr. J. N. Douglas, 
for a granite structure in which the base of the former structure was proposed 
to be utilised. The lighthouse, which has now been constructed, consists of 
a cylindrical base, 30 feet in height and 32 feet in diameter, on which is placed 
a tower, 67 feet 5 inches in height, 23 feet in diameter at the base, and 17 fee 
in diameter at the springing of the curve of the cavetto. The thickness of 
the wall is, at the base of the tower, 5 feet, and at the top 2 feet. The 
accommodation within consists of six circular rooms, each 13 feet in diameter; 
and there is also a room, 12 feet in diameter, in the basement, for coals and 
water, and a rain-water tank below, 7 feet 6 inches in diameter. The tower 
contains 12,288 cubic feet of granite, and the cylindrical base 25,077 cubic feet, 
making a total of 37,365 cubic feet, weighing about 2768 tons. Above the 
tower is a lantern and dioptric revolving apparatus of the first order. 
cylindrical 14-feet lantern of the Trinity House has been adopted. The 
dioptric apparatus has eight panels of refractors, with upper and lower prisms 
for emitting flashes of red light at intervals of 45 seconds. A 5-cwt. bell, for” 
a signal during foggy weather, is fixed on the lantern gallery. The cost of the 
building was £64,300, and the light was first exhibited on the roth of March, 
1873, and has since been regularly continued every night from sunset to” 
sunrise. 


* 


1874.] Geology. 271 


GEOLOGY. 


Physical Geology.—Perhaps the most important contributions to geological 
science made of late years are the observations of Mr. J. W. Judd, on the 
* Ancient Volcanoes of the Highlands, and their Relations to the Mesozoic 
Strata,” which he has recently communicated to the Geological Society of 
London. The vestiges of the secondary strata on the west coast of Scotland 
have been preserved, like the interesting relics of Pompeii, by being buried 
under the products of volcanic eruptions. The deposition of these strata was 
both preceded and followed by exhibitions of volcanic phenomena on the 
grandest scale. The rocks forming the great plateaux of the Hebrides are 
really the vestiges of innumerable lava-streams, and it is proved that these 
lavas were of sub-aérial origin, by the absence of all contemporaneous inter- 
bedded sedimentary rocks, by the evidently terrestrial origin of the surfaces on 
which they lie, and by the intercalation among them of old soils, forests, 
mud-streams, river-gravels, lake-deposits, and masses of unstratified tuffs and 
ashes. Mr. Judd points out that the great accumulations of igneous 
products, which in places exhibit a thickness of 2000 feet, must have been 
ejected from great volcanic mountains, and in the course of his observations 
he has endeavoured to determine the sites of these old volcanoes, to estimate 
their dimensions, to investigate their internal structure, and to trace the history 
of their formation. 


Origin of Lake Basins.—Mr. J. Clifton Ward, in discussing the origin of the 
basins of Derwentwater, Bassenthwaite, Buttermere, Crummock, and Lowes- 
water, pointed out that they were not moraine-dammed lakes, but true rock- 
basins, and, considering all the features they presented, he was of opinion that 
the immediate cause of the basins was the onward movement of the old 
glaciers in the neighbourhood, ploughing up their beds to the comparatively 
slight depth of the basins which now form the lakes. 


Geological Record.—A Record of Geological and Paleontological Literature 
is being carried out under the direGtion of the British Association. It is to 
embrace brief abstra¢ts of all papers published abroad or in the provinces, and 
will appear regularly in the ‘‘ Geological Magazine,” after which it will be 
‘issued in a separate form. Two parts appear in the February and March 
numbers of the Magazine. 


Mr. Whitaker has rendered great service to geologists by preparing lists of 
papers published on the Geology, Mineralogy, and Paleontology of different 
counties and districts. He has published those relating to Devonshire, the 
Hampshire Basin, and Cambridgeshire. 


Geology and Parish Boundaries.—The relation of the parish boundaries in 
the south-east of England to great physical features, and particularly to the 
chalk escarpment, is a subject to which attention has been called by 
Mr. Topley. He has shown how the earliest settlements, and the manorial 
and parochial boundaries, have been dependent upon the original state of the 
country, whether wooded or open land, and upon the easily accessible water- 
supply, features which are intimately connected with geological structure. 


Palezontology.—Mr. Henry Woodward has described a new star-fish, 
Helianthaster filiciformis, from the Devonian rocks of Harbertonford, South 
Devon. 


Mr. A. Wyatt Edgell has made some additions to the list of fossils from the 
Budleigh-Salterton pebble-beds. These include species of Modiolopsis, San- 
guinolites ?, Aviculopecten, Pterinca, Palearca, Avicula, Cleidophorus ?, Lunu- 
locardium, Ctenodonta, and Orthonota? The peculiar assemblage of fossils 
found in the pebbles of this triassic bed was first pointed out by Mr. Vicary, 
whilst Mr. Salter assigned their parentage to beds on the coast of France. 
Mr. Edgell notices the accordance between many of the pebbles of Budleigh- 
Salterton and beds occurring on the opposite side of the Channel, in Brittany. 
In the discussion which took place after the reading of his paper at the 
Geological Society of London, Mr. Godwin-Austen observed that, in the same 
manner as the shingle of Lake Superior is carried away and re-deposited by 


272 Progress in Science. (April, 


shore-ice, so he thought it possible that some action of the same kind might 
—during a portion of the New Red Sandstone period—have drifted materials 
off from the French shore of the Triassic lake, and deposited them in this” 
shingle-bed at Budleigh-Salterton. 


Dr. H. A. Nicholson has for some time been engaged in collecting and 
studying the organic remains of the Corniferous limestone and Hamilton 
formation of the western portion of the province of Ontario, which are consi-— 
dered to be of Devonian age. These deposits are richly fossiliferous: the 
total number of species comprised in his colletions amounts to about 160 or 
170, of which between 30 and 4o are apparently new. Of this number no 
less than 75 are corals, about 40 are Brachiopods, and the remainder are dis- 
tributed amongst the Polyzoa, Gasteropoda, Lamellibranchiata, Annelida, 
Trilobita, and Crinoidea. 


Diamonds in South Africa.—The occurrence of diamonds in South Africa 
has during the past few years attracted a considerable amount of public 
attention. Mr.E. J. Dunn observes that they occur in peculiar circular areas, 
which he regards as “ pipes,’ which formerly constituted the connection 
between molten matter below and surface volcanoes. The surrounding 
country consists of horizontal shales, through which these pipes ascend nearly 
vertically, bending upwards the edges of the shales at the contaé. Mr. Dunn 
is of opinion that the rock of the pipes was only instrumental in bringing the 
diamonds to the surface, a large proportion of them being found in a frag- 
mentary state. Prof. Tennant has stated that during the month of November, — 
1873, no less than £100,000 worth of diamonds were brought from South 
Africa by three persons. At present about twenty thousand persons are 
employed in the diamond-fields, and he considers the stones equal to anyin the 
world. 


Sub-Wealden Exploration.—In regard to the progress of this boring, Mr. 
Henry Willett reports (Feb. 12) that the new contractors (the Diamond Rock- 
Boring Company) are putting forth great energy and skill in the prosecution — 
of their enterprise, so as to make him very sanguine that nothing but wan 
of money will prevent the exploration being extended, if found necessary, to 
2000 feet. A depth of 350 feet has now been reached, and the rock there 
obtained is still Kimeridge clay. We understand that Mr. W. Topley, of the 
Geological Survey of England, is now resident near the spot where the boring 
is being made, to examine the specimens as they are brought to the surface. 


Proposed Channel Tunnel.—Mr. Prestwich has lately reviewed the geological 
conditions affecting the construction of a tunnel between France and 
England, which subje&, it will be remembered, was discussed not long ag 
by Mr. Topley in the “Quarterly Journal of Science.” Mr. Prestwich 
pointed out the geological features of all the strata between Harwich 
on the one side, and between Ostend and St. Valery on the other side of the 
Channel, and stated his opinion that the most feasible plan, and one that 
would be perfectly pra&ticable, so far as safety from an influx of sea-water 
was concerned, was to drive a tunnel through the Paleozoic rocks under the 
Channel between Blanc Nez and Dover. 


Geological Society of London.—At the anniversary meeting of the Geological 
Society, held on February 20th, the Duke of Argyll announced the award of 
the Wollaston Gold Medal to Professor Heer, of Zurich, in acknowledgmen 
of his extensive researches in fossil botany and entomology. The balance of 
the proceeds of the Wollaston Donation Fund was given to Dr. H. Nyst, 0 
Brussels, in recognition of his admirable researches upon the Molluscan and 
other fossil remains of his native country. The Murchison Medal wa 
awarded to Dr. Bigsley in recognition of his long and valuable labours im 
that department of geology and paleontology with which the name of 
Murchison is more particularly connected. The balance of the proceeds of 
the Murchison Geological Fund was divided between Mr. Ralph Tate and 
Mr. Alfred Bell as a testimony of the value set by the Society upon thei 
paleontological researches. John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., &c., was elected 4 
President for the ensuing year. 


1874.] Phystes. 273 


PHYSICS. 


Microscopy.— The Quekett Microscopical Club has recently been presented 
with a series of insect preparations in balsam, from Ceylon. They are remark- 
able, inasmuch as the usual eviscerating and laying-out processes have not 
been adopted, but the insects mounted as much as possible in their natural 
position, and with the minimum amount of compression: the preparations are 
in many cases very thick, but this is no disadvantage, but rather the contrary, 
for observations with low powers and the binocular microscope. The insects 
were merely dried between the leaves of a book, and then mounted in balsam, 
sometimes after a soaking in turpentine; liquor potasse has in no instance 
been employed. The hardening of the balsam has been effected entirely by 
exposure to the sun; the collection is totally free from milkiness from damp, 
and the penetration of the balsam is perfect. This mode of preparation is, of 
course, only available in tropical climates. Such preparations would probably 
be best made here by drying the insects by immersion in absolute alcohol, then 
soaking in oil of cloves, and, when the preparation has cleared, mounting in 
balsam. This process is much used on the Continent for anatomical subjects, 
frequently stained and injected, and is but little known in this country: it will 
be found invaluable where other modes of drying cannot be made available. 


In illustrating a paper on the ‘ Life-History of Monads,” read before the 
Royal Microscopical Society, the Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.M.S., executed 
the drawings in a manner which rendered them available for lecture illustration 
with the magic-lantern. The material chosen is finely-ground glass, upon 
which the drawing is made as readily as upon paper: the camera-lucida, or 
other instrument, is available for obtaining the sketch from the microscope. 
The pencils used should be harder than those employed in drawing upon 
paper; the engraver’s 6H will prove useful, HB being strong enough for the 
deepest shadows. When the drawing is finished, it is to be rendered trans- 
parent by the application of Canada balsam, thinned with benzol to the con- 
sistence of cream: this is poured on the plate, and evenly distributed, some- 
what in the manner of collodion in photography. When hard, the varnished 
surface is protected from injury by a glass fastened on it by strips of paper 
at the edges, with small pieces of card at the corners to prevent contac. 
Water-colour is available upon the ground-glass surface. The process will be 
found in every way easier than the usual mode of producing magic-lantern 
slides, and equally effective. 


The “ Sand-blast”’ process has been*successfully employed by Mr. H. F. 
Hailes, of the Quekett Club, for excavating hollows in glass slides to be used 
as cells. For dry mounting they answer admirably, and the roughness of the 
bottom is no hindrance to mounting objects in balsam, as the lower surface of 


the cell is rendered perfectly transparent by contact with the mounting 
material. 


Messrs. Underhill and Allen communicate to the March number of ‘‘ Science 
Gossip” the following formula for glycerin jelly :—‘ Soak } oz. best amber 
gelatin (as sold by the chemist or grocer) in r oz. distilled water; when it has 
absorbed all the water, put it in a Florence flask with 50 grains of powdered 
chloride of barium; warm it in a water-bath, and agitate till the barium salt 
is dissolved. Allow it to cool below 35° C., and while still fluid add 1 oz. 
of Price’s glycerin and a teaspoonful of white of egg; shake until well mixed, 
replace in the water-bath, and boil at full speed until the albumen completely 
separates from the jelly in the form of a single lump. Now filter through 
well-washed fine flannel, and it should be as clear as crystal; but if through 
Mismanagement it be a little cloudy, filter it again, this second time using 
filtering-paper, and placing the funnel with the jelly, &c., in a ‘cool’ oven. 
During the coagulation of the albumen, the jelly must on no account be 
stirred. It is well to beat up the white of egg before use, lest it should be 
stringy. The jelly made after this recipe is of the proper consistency for 
entomological objects, but for delicate vegetable structures it should be softened 
by adding to it a third of its volume of a mixture of equal parts of glycerin 


274 Progress in Science. (April, 


and distilled water. Put the jelly into test-tubes 3 inch in diameter, and when 
you wish to mount a slide warm the upper part of the tube: in this way you 
can pour out any quantity free from bubbles. It is perhaps well to put a trace 
of varnish, or some essential oil, on the corks, lest they should get mouldy. 
The chloride of barium prevents fungi in the jelly, and is the best preservative 
we know of; but something is absolutely necessary. By all means avoid 
putting alcohol, creosote, &c., in the jelly, as they dissolve varnishes, and also 
spoil the colour of some objects.”” The hints on mounting in this paper are of 
great value. 


An object-glass of American manufacture has arrived in London, engraved 
‘““R. B. Tolles, Boston. Immersion, 3th. 180°!! Balsam angle, 98.” It 
performs well, defining splendidly, but is wanting—as are some good English 
objectives—in flatness of field. Why stop at 180°? Surely an enlightened 
citizen of a free and independent country will not be trammelled by the laws 
of mathematics and optics. 


Heat.—In a paper communicated to the Royal Society, ‘* On the Aétion 
of Heat on Gravitating Masses,’ the Editor of this Journal has recorded 
experiments which arose from observations made when using the vacuum- 
balance, described by the author in his paper ‘‘On the Atomic weight of 
Thallium,” * for weighing substances which were of a higher temperature 
than the surrounding air and the weights. There appeared to be a diminution 
of the force of gravitation, and experiments were instituted to render the 
action more sensible, and to eliminate sources of error. After an historical 
résumé of the state of our knowledge on the subject of attraction or repulsion ~ 
by heat, the author describes numerous forms of apparatus successively more 
and more delicate, which enabled him to detect, and then to render very 
sensible, an action exerted by heat on gravitating bodies, which is not due to 
air-currents, or to any other known force. The following experiment with a 
balance made of a straw beam with pith-ball masses at the ends enclosed in 
a glass tube, and connected with a Sprengel pump, may be quoted from the 
paper :—‘‘ The whole being fitted up as here shown, and the apparatus being 
full of air to begin:with, I passed a spirit-flame across the lower part of the 
tube at b, observing the movement by a low-power micrometer ; the pith-ball 
(a, b) descended slightly, and then immediately rose to considerably above its 
original position. It seemed as if the true action of the heat was one of 
attraction, instantly overcome by ascending currents of air. . . . 31. In order 
to apply the heat in a more regular manner, a thermometer was inserted in a 
glass tube, having at its extremity a glass bulb, about 1} inches diameter; it 
was filled with water, and then sealed up... . The water was kept heated to 
70° C., the temperature of the laboratory being about 15°C. 32. The baro- 
meter being at 767 millims., and the gauge at zero, the hot bulb was placed 
beneath the pith-ball at'b. The ball rose rapidly; as soon as equilibrium was 
restored, I placed the hot-water bulb above the pith-ball at a, when it rose 
again, more slowly, however, than when the heat was applied beneath it. 
33. The pump was set to work, and when the gauge was 147 millims. below 
the barometer, the experiment was tried again; the same result, only more 
feeble, was obtained. The exhaustion was continued, stopping the pump from 
time to time, to observe the effect of heat, when it was seen that the effect of 
the hot body regularly diminished as the rarefaction increased, until when the 
gauge was about 12 millims. below the barometer the action of the hot body 
was scarcly noticeable. At ro millims. below it.»was still less; whilst when 
there was only a difference of 7 millims.. between the barometer and the 
gauge, neither the hot-water bulb, the hot rod, nor the spirit-flame caused the 
ball to move in an appreciable degree. ‘The inference was almost irresistible 
that the rising of the pith was only due to currents of air, and that at this 
near approach to a vacuum the residual air was too highly rarefied to have 
power in its rising to overcome the inertia of the straw beam and the pith 
balls. A more delicate instrument would doubtless show traces of movement 


* Phil. Trans., cxliii., part 1, p. 277. 


1874.] | Physics. 275 


at a still nearer approach to a vacuum; but it seemed evident that when the 
last trace of air had been removed from the tube surrounding the balance 
(when the balance was suspended in empty space only), the pith-ball would 
remain motionless wherever the hot body were applied to it. 34. I continued 
exhausting. On next applying heat, the result showed that I was far from 
having discovered the law governing these phenomena; the pith-ball rose 
steadily, and without that hesitation which had been observed at lower rare- 
factions. With the gauge 3 millims. below the barometer, the ascension of the 
pith when a hot body was placed beneath it was equal to what it had been in 
air of ordinary density ; whilst with the gauge and barometer level its upward 
movements were not only sharper than they had been in air, but they took 
place under the influence of far less heat; the finger, for example, instantly 
sending the ball up to its fullest extent.” A piece of ice produced exactly the 
opposite effect to a hot body. Numerous experiments are next given to prove 
that the action is not due to electricity. The presence of air having so 
marked an influence on the action of heat, an apparatus was fitted up in 
which the source of heat (a platinum spiral rendered incandescent by 
electricity) was inside the balance-tube instead of outside it as before; and 
the pith-balls of the former apparatus were replaced by brass balls. By care- 
ful management, and turning the tube round, the author could place the 
equipoised brass pole either over, under, or at the side of the source of heat. 
With this apparatus it was intended to ascertain more about the behaviour of 
the balance during the progress of the exhaustion, both below and above the 
point of no action, and also to ascertain the pressure corresponding with this 
critical point. After describing many experiments with the ball in various 
positions in respect to the incandescent spiral, and at different pressures, the 
general result appeared to be expressed by the statement that the tendency 
in each case was to bring the centre of gravity of the brass ball as near as 
possible to the source of heat, when air of ordinary density, or even highly 
rarefied, surrounded the balance. The author continues :—‘‘ 44. The pump 
was then worked until the gauge had risen to 5 millims. of the barometric 
height. On arranging the ball above the spiral (and making contact with the 
battery), the attraction was still strong, drawing the ball downwards a 
distance of 2 millims. The pump continuing to work, the gauge rose until it 
was within 1 millim. of the barometer. The attraction of the hot spiral for 
the ball was still evident, drawing it down when placed below it, and up when 
placed above it. The movement was, however, much less decided than 
before; and in spite of previous experience (33, 34) the inference was very 
strong that the attraGtion would gradually diminish until the vacuum was 
absolute, and that then, and not till then, the neutral point would be 
reached. Within x millimetre of a vacuum there appeared to be no room for 
a.change of sign. 45. The gauge rose until there was only half a millimetre 
between it and the barometer. The metallic hammering heard when the 
rarefaction is close upon a vacuum commenced, and the failing mercury only 
occasionally took down a bubble of air. On turning on the battery current, 
there was the faintest possible movement of the brass ball (towards the spiral) 
in the direction of attraction. 46. The working of the pump was continued. 
On next making conta& with the battery no movement could be detected. 
The red-hot spiral neither attra@ed nor repelled; I had arrived at the critical 
point. On looking at the gauge I saw it was level with the barometer. 
47. The pump was now kept at full work for an hour. The gauge did not 
Tise perceptibly, but the metallic hammer increased in sharpness, and I could 
see that a bubble or two of air had been carried down. On igniting the spiral, 
I saw that the critical point had been passed. The sign had changed, and the 
action was faint but unmistakable repulsion. The pump was still kept. going, 
and an observation was taken from time to time during several hours. The 
repulsion continued to increase. The tubes of the pump were now washed 
out with oil of vitriol,* and the working was continued for an hour. 48. The 
action of the incandescent spiral was now found to be energetically repellent, 


* This can be effeted without interfering with the exhaustion, 


276 Progress in Science. (April, 


whether it was placed above or below the brass ball. The fingers exerted a 
repellent action, as did also a warm glass rod, a spirit-flame, and a piece of 
hot copper.” In order to decide once for all whether these actions really were 
due to air-currents, a form of apparatus was fitted up, which, whilst it would 
settle the question indisputably, would at the same time be likely to afford 
information of much interest. By chemical means a vacuum was obtained in 
an apparatus so nearly perfect that it weuld not carry a current from a 
Ruhmffork’s coil when connected with platinum wires sealed into the tube. 
In such a vacuum the repulsion by heat is decided and energetic. An experi- 
ment is next described, in which the rays of the sun, and then the different 
portions of the solar spectrum, are projected into the delicately suspended 
pith-ball balance. In vacuo the repulsion is so strong as to cause danger to 
the apparatus, and resembles that which would be produced by the physical 
impact of a material body. Experiments are next described in which various 
substances are used as the gravitating masses. Amongst these are ivory, 
brass, pith, platinum, gilt pith, silver, bismuth, selenium, copper, mica 
(horizontal and vertical), charcoal, &c. The behaviour of a glass beam with 
glass ends in a chemical vacuum, and at lower exhaustion, is next accurately 
examined, when heat is applied in different ways. On suspending the light 
index by means of a cocoon fibre in a long glass tube, furnished with a bulb 
at the end, and exhausting in various ways, the author finds that the attraction 
to a hot body in air, and the repulsion from a hot body in vacuo, are very 
apparent. Speaking of Cavendish’s celebrated experiment, the author says 
that he has experimented for some months on an apparatus of this kind, and 
gives the following outline of one of the results he has obtained :—‘‘ A heavy 
metallic mass, when brought near a delicately suspended light ball, attracts 
or repels it under the following circumstances. 


“© T, When the ball is in air of ordinary density. 


a. If the mass is colder than the ball, it repels the ball. 
b. If the mass is Aotter than the ball, it attracts the ball. 


“TI. When the ball is in a vacuum. 


a. If the mass is colder than the ball, it attracts the ball. 
b. If the mass is hotter than the ball, it repels the ball.” 


The author continues :—‘ The density of the medium surrounding the ball, 
the material of which the ball is made, and a very slight difference between 
the temperatures of the mass and the ball, exert so strong an influence over the 
attraGive and repulsive force, and it has been so difficult for me to eliminate 
all interfering actions of temperature, electricity, &c., that I have not yet been 
able to get distiné& evidence of an independent force (not being of the nature 
of heat) urging the ball and the mass together. ‘‘ Experiment has, however, 
showed me that, whilst the action is in one direction in dense air, and in 
the opposite direG&ion in a vacuum, there is an intermediate pressure at 
which differences of temperature appear to exert little or no interfering 
action. By experimenting at this critical pressure, it would seem that such 
an action as was obtained by Cavendish, Reich, and Bailey, should be 
rendered evident.’’ After discussing the explanations which may be given 
of these actions, and showing that they cannot be due to air-currents, the 
author refers to evidences of this repulsive action of heat, and attractive 
action of cold, in Nature. In that portion of the sun’s radiation which is 
called heat, we have the radial repulsive force possessing successive pro- 
pagation required to explain the phenomena of comets and the shape and 
changes of the nebula. To compare small things with great (to argue 
from pieces of straw up to heavenly bodies), it is not improbable that the 
attraction now shown to exist between a cold and a warm body will equally 
prevail when, for the temperature of melting ice is substituted the cold of 
space, for a pith ball a celestial sphere, and for an artificial vacuum a stellar 
void. In the radiant molecular energy of cosmical masses may at last be 
foundthat ‘‘ agent adiing constantly according to certain laws,” which Newton 
held to be the cause of gravity. 


1874.] Physics. 


277 


Messrs. Negretti and Zambra have recently communicated to the Royal 
Society the description of a new Deep-sea Thermometer. For the purpose of 
ascertaining the temperature of the sea at various depths, and on the bottom 
itself, a peculiar thermometer was, and is, used, having its bulb protected by 


an outer bulb or casing, in order that its indications may not 
be vitiated by the pressure of the water at various depths, 
that pressure being about 1 ton per square inch to every 
800 fathoms. This thermometer, as regards the protection 
of the bulb and its non-liability to be affected by pressure, 
is all that can ‘e desired; but unfortunately the only ther- 
mometer available for the purpose of registering temperature 
and bringing those indications to the surface is that which 
is commonly known as the Six’s thermometer—an in- 
strument acting by means of alcohol and mercury, and having 
movable indices with delicate springs of human hair tied 
to them. This form of instrument registers both max- 
imum and minimum temperatures, and as an ordinary 
out-door thermometer it is very useful; but it is unsatis- 
factory for scientific purposes, and for the obje@ which it is 
now used it leaves much to be desired. Thus the alcohol 
and mercury are liable to get mixed in travelling, or even by 
merely holding the instrument in a horizontal position; the 
indices also are liable either to slip if too free, or to stick if 
too tight. A sudden jerk or concussion will also cause the 
instrument to give erroneous readings, by lowering the in- 
dices if the blow be downwards, or by raising them if the 
blow be upwards. Besides these drawbacks, the Six’s ther- 
mometer causes the observer additional anxiety on the score 
of inaccuracy ; for, although we get a minimum temperature, 
we are by no means sure of the point where this minimum 
lies. Messrs. Negretti and Zambra have constructed an in- 
strument on a plan different from that of any other self- 
registering thermometers. Its construction is most novel, 
and may be said to overthrow our previous ideas of handling 
delicate instruments, inasmuch as its indications are only 
given by upsetting the instrument. Having said this much, 
it will not be very difficult to guess the action of the thermo- 
meter; for it is by upsetting or throwing out the mercury 
from the indicating column into a reservoir, at a particular 
moment and in a particular spot, that we obtain a correct 
reading of the temperature at that moment and in that spot. 
The instrument has a protected bulb thermometer, like a 
syphon with parallel legs, all in one piece, and having a con- 
tinuous communication, as in the annexed figure. The scale 
of this thermometer is pivotted on a centre, and being at- 
tached in a perpendicular position to a simple apparatus 
(presently described), is lowered to any depth that may be 
desired. In its descent the thermometer aéts as an ordinary 
instrument, the mercury rising or falling according to the 
temperature of the stratum through which it passes; but so 
soon as the descent ceases, and a reverse motion is given to 
the line, so as to pull the thermometer to the surface, the 
instrument turns once on its centre, first bulb uppermost, and 
afterwards bulb downwards. This causesthe mercury, which 
was in the left-hand column, first to pass into the dilated 
syphon bend at the top, and thence into the right-hand tube, 
where it remains, indicating on a graduated scale the exact 
‘temperature at the time it was turned over. The woodcut 
shows the position of the mercury after the instrument has 
been thus turned on its centre. A is the bulb; B the outer 


LONDON 


& ZAMBRA 
| 
{= 


ese 


Piya 


NGEGa Essent 


ati 


ttt 


coating or protecting cylinder; c is the space of rarefied air, which is reduced 
if the outer casing be compressed ; p is a small glass plug, on the principle of 


VOL. Iv. (N.S.) 


2N 


278 Progress in Science. [April, | 


Negretti and Zambra’s patent maximum thermometer, which cuts off, in the 
moment of turning, the mercury in the column from that of the bulb in 
the tube, thereby ensuring that none but the mercury in the tube can be 
transferred into the indicating column; E is an enlargement made in the 
bend, so as to enable the mercury to pass quickly from one tube to another 

in revolving; and F is the indicating tube, or thermometer proper. In its t 
action, as soon as the thermometer is put in motion, and immediately the 
tube has acquired a slightly oblique position, the mercury breaks off at 
the point p, runs into the curved and enlarged portion E, and eventually 
falls into the tube F, when this tube resumes its original perpendicular 
position. The contrivance for turning the thermometer over may be 
described as a short length of wood or metal having attached to it a small : 
rudder or fan: this fan is placed on a pivot in connection with a second; on 
the centre of this is fixed the thermometer. The fan or rudder points up- 
wards in its descent through the water, and necessarily reverses its position 
in ascending. This simple motion, or half-turn of the rudder, gives a whole — 
turn to the thermometer, and has been found very effective. Various other — 
methods may be used for turning the thermometer, such as a simple pulley — 
with a weight which might be released on touching the bottom, ora small — 
vertical propeller which would revolve in passing through the water. Messrs, 
Negretti and Zambra have also adopted a very simple and inexpensive clock- — 
work to their thermometer, and by these means an observer may have a record 
of the exact temperature at any hour of the day or night. We need hardly © 
say of what utility the instrument will prove to meteorologists, and even — 
manufacturers, to whom an exact record of temperature is of importance. { 
Hitherto we have had no simple and inexpensive instrument adapted for this 
purpose: the thermograph in use at most observatories is an elaborate and 
expensive apparatus, which, in connection with photography, will record on 
paper the temperature during day or night; it necessitates the use of gas, or 
any artificial light, and of course is only available to persons who can have a 
building specially adapted for it. 

ELEctTrRIcITY.—At a recent meeting of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society Professor Osborne Reynolds, M.A., read a paper “ On the 
Bursting of Trees and Objects struck by Lightning.” In a previous paper on 
this subject he stated that the tube which was burst by a discharge from a 
jar would probably withstand an internal pressure from 2 to 5 tons on the 
square inch; and he made use of the expression the tube might be fired like 
a gun without bursting. These statements were based on the calculated 
strength of the tube, and with a view to show that there was no mistake, the 
author tried it in the following manner:—He made three guns of the same 
tube. No. 1, which was 6 inches long, had its end stopped with a brass plug 
containing the fuze hole. Nos. 2 and 3 were 6 inches long, and had their 
breeches drawn down so as only to leave a fuze hole. These tubes were 
loaded with gunpowder and shotted with slugs of wire which fitted them, 
and which were all 3? inch long. No. 1 was first fired with } inch of powder, 
the shot penetrated } inch into a deal board, and the gun was uninjured. 
No 2. was then fired with 1} inches of powder, and the shot went through the 
1 inch deal board and } inch into some mahogany behind, thus penetratin 
altogether 1} inches; the tube, however, was burst to fragments. Some at 
these were recovered, and although they were small they did not show cracks” 
and signs of crushing like those from the electrical fracture. No. 3 was then 
fired with ? inch of powder, and the shot penetrated } inch into the deal 
board. It was again fired with 1 inch of powder, and the shot penetrated 
1 inch into the deal. Again it was a third time fired with 1} inches of powder, 
when it burst, and the shot only just dented the wood. These experiments: 
seem to prove conclusively the great strength of the tube and the enormous 
bursting force of the electrical discharge. 

At the first meeting of the Physical Society of London the Chairman (Dr. 
Gladstone, F.R.S.) gave a brief description of the objects and organisation of 
the Society, and announced that ninety-nine gentlemen had already expressed 
their desire to join the Society as original members. 


1874.] Physics. 279 


Mr. J. A. Fleming, B.Sc., read a paper on the “Contact Theory of the 
Battery.” After discussing the most recent views regarding the conta& and 
chemical theories, Mr. Fleming exhibited the action of his new battery, in 
which metallic contact of dissimilar metals is completely avoided. The 
battery consisted of thirty test-tubes of dilute nitric acid alternating with the 
same number of tubes of pentasulphide of sodium, all well insulated. Bent 
strips of alternate lead and copper connected the neighbouring tubes. By this 
device the terminal poles are of the same metal. On connecting with a 
coarse galvanometer, the needle was violently and permanently deflected. 
Tested by the quadrant electrometer, the potential was shown to increase 
regularly with the number of cells. The sixty cells on first immersion showed 
a potential exceeding that of 14 Daniell’s cells. The principle upon which 
the action depends is that, in the acid, lead is positive to copper; in the sul- 
phide it is negative. Mr. Fleming further showed how, by using the single 
liquid, nitric acid, and the single metal, iron, a single battery could be con- 
structed, provided one-half of each iron strip were rendered passive. In 
this form, also, no metallic conta& occurred. 


Prof. F. Guthrie exhibited experiments illustrating the distribution of a 
galvanic current on entering and leaving a conducting medium. This was 
shown in the case of solids by the stratification of iron-filings on sheets of 
copper and lead. The effect of the distribution on a'magnetic needle which 
is hung near a condu@ting vertical sheet in the magnetic meridian—into the 
upper horizontal edge of which a current enters, and out of which it passes 
at the same elevation—is to alter the direction of the needle’s direction of 
turning, according as the needle is lowered or raised. At a distance from the 
upper edge of one-third the distance of the interval between the poles, the 
needle is at rest. A similar effect was shown in a liquid conductor. 

The following are the officers of the Society for the first Session :—President, 
J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents, Prof W. G. Adams, F.R.S.; 
Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. Secretaries, Prof. E. Atkinson, Ph.D., York Town, 
Surrey; Prof. A. W. Reinold, M.A., Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 
Treasurer, Prof. E. Atkinson, Ph.D. Demonstrator, Prof. Frederick Guthrie. 
Other Members of the Council, W. Crookes, F.R.S.; Prof. A. Dupré; Prof. 
T. M. Goodeve, M.A.; Prof. O. Henrici; B. Loewy; E. J. Mills, D.Sc. ; 
H. Sprengel, Ph.D. 


Dr. Geissler, of Bonn, Germany, whose name is inseparably associated 
with some of the most beautiful experiments that can be performed 
by the agency of electricity, makes an electrical vacuum tube that may be 
lighted without either induction coil or frictional machine. It consists of a 
tube an inch or so in diameter, filled with air as dry as can be obtained, and 
hermeticaliy sealed after the introduction of a smaller exhausted tube. If 
this outward tube be rubbed with a piece of flannel, or any of the furs gene- 
rally used in exciting the electrophorus, the inner tube will be illumined with 
flashes of mellow light. The light is faint at first, but gradually becomes 
brighter and softer. It is momentary in duration; but if the tube be rapidly 
frictioned, an optical delusion will render it continuous. If the operator have 
at his disposal a piece of vulcanite, previously excited, he may, after educing 
signs of electrical excitement within the tube, entirely dispense with the use 
of his flannel or fur. This will be found to minister very much to his personal 
€ase and comfort. He may continue the experiments, and with enhanced 
effect, by moving the sheet of vulcanite rapidly up and downat a slight distance 
from the tube. This beautiful phenomenon is an effec of indudtion. 


In a note on a remarkable production of light in grinding of hard stones, 
Dr. Noéggerath refers to a visit made to some agate works at Oberstein 
and Idar, in which various kinds of hard stone are pressed by the 
workmen (with their hands) against quickly-revolving grindstones. The 
transparent stones become pervaded throughout with a yellowish-red light, 
like that of red-hot iron. Opaque stones give a red light at the place of con- 
tact, with halo and sparks. Dr. Noggerath thinks the phenomena worth 


280 Progress in Science. (April, 


studying by physicists, especially as regards development of heat and 
electricity. 

In some researches on change in pitch of tones through movement of the 
source of sound, and determination, by this means of the velocity of sound, 
Dr. Schiingel experimented with two tuning forks, No. 1 giving 512, and No. 2 
508 vibrations in a second, Sounded together they gave four beats in a 
second. But suppose No. 2 moved towards the observer (situated beside 
No. 1), its quantity of vibrations would be increased and the number of beats 
diminished. Dr. Schiingel sought to measure—(z) the time in which a certain 
number of successive beats was audible; and (2) the velocity of the moved 
fork. His apparatus (which was eleGrical) may be briefly described :—A 
seconds pendulum at each swing closed a circuit, which, through a relay, 
caused a series of dots to be marked on a telegraph strip at intervals cor- 
responding to seconds. By pressing a key another battery circuit could be 
closed, which had two effects: part of the current went to the relay, and pro- 
duced a line in the telegraph paper so long as the key was held down ; but the 
greater part went through an eleétro-magnet, which attracted an armature at 
one end of a lever, having at its other end a roller rotated by a cord from a 
fly-wheel. The roller was thus pressed against the edge of a disc, which, thus 
set in motion, wound in, by a cord about its axis, a little wagon bearing the 
tuning fork (No. 2) with its case towards the observer. The method, with 
some suggested modifications, is commended to the attention of physicists 
for an accurate determination of the velocity of sound. 


TECHNOLOGY. 


Count Sokolnicki, a proprietor of vineyards at Medoc, states that a chemist, 
so-called, is selling to the wine-forgers of the Gironde a liquid of which a few 
drops suffice to coloura wine. An cenanthic liquor, simulating the bouquet 
of Medocs, is sold openly at Bordeaux. A solution of sugar is allowed to 
ferment on the pressed grapes, the colour and the flavour are added, and with 
these materials wines of the best growths are counterfeited. 


For the manufacture of permanent beer M. Pasteur recommends the use of 
a pure yeast,—the mode of preparing which he does not describe,—free from 
vibriones, baéteria, Mycoderma aceti, &c. With such yeast, the process of 
fermentation can be carried on in the absence of air, or in the presence only 
of limited quantities of pure air. Beers thus made can, he declares, be pre- 
served for an indefinite length of time, even at temperatures of 20° to 25° C. 


M. Paul has effected an improvement in photo-lithography. He produces a 
positive image on paper covered with a layer of albumen mixed with a con- 
centrated solution of bichromate of potash. After a sufficient insolation 
under the negative, the paper is covered with lithographic ink, and then im- 
mersed in cold water to dissolve the unaltered albumen. 


As a test for the colouring matter of wines, M. de Cherville gives the fol- 
lowing process:—Pour into a glass a small quantity of the wine under 
examination, and dissolve in it a morsel of potassa. If there is no deposit, 
and if the wine takes a greenish tint, it has not been artificially coloured. If 
a violet deposit has been formed, the wine has been coloured with elderberries 
or mulberries; if the deposit is red, beet-root or peach-wood has been used; 
and if violet-red, logwood. If the sediment is violet-blue, privet berries have 
been employed; and if a bright violet, litmus. 


A paper ‘*On Coloured Tapers,” by Mr. James MacFarlane, Assistant to 
the Professor of Chemistry, St. Andrews, was recently read before the 
Chemical Section of the Glasgow Philosophical Society. The author detailed 
a series of experiments which he had prosecuted for the purpose of deter- 
mining the nature of the colouring matter in the green and red wax tapers. 
He distinétly ascertained that the former owed their colour to the presence of 
Scheele’s green (arsenite of copper). Their average weight was 2 grms., and 
the average time occupied in burning was seventeen minutes. Guided by the 


Rp tS 


1874.] Technology. 281 


colour and by the alliaceous odour evolved during combustion, he had no dif- 
ficulty in pronouncing that arsenic was present; its presence was experi- 
mentally determined, and its quantity estimated to be o-6o0 per cent of the 
taper, equal to 0°35 grm., or 5°43 grs. of arsenious acid—quite enough to 
poison two people if taken directly in the solid form. The red tapers weighed, 
on an average, about 8-94 grms., and burned seventeen minutes, leaving 
3 milligrms. of ash totally devoid of metallic appearance. Mercury, existing 
as vermillion, was found by Reinsch’s process, and its quantity was afterwards 
carefully determined. The amount of mercuric sulphide ultimately colle@ed, 
washed, and dried, was 1°66 per cent. In one series of experiments the fol- 
lowing results were arrived at—white, yellow, blue, red, and green tapers, 
being experimented upon :— 

White.—Perfe@ly harmless; little ash. 

Yellow.—Harmless ; coloured with chromate of lead; ash, metallic. 

Blue.—Harmless; coloured with ultramarine. 

Red.—Highly poisonous, containing 1°93 per cent of vermillion; the tapers 

very highly coloured ; slight ash. 
Green.—Poisonous ; colour due to arsenic ; metallic ash ; quantity of arsenic 
not determined, but probably about 1 per cent. 

These tapers burned, on an average, twelve minutes, and in number and 
quality were much superior to the first, which were of the spiral character. 
The table is a summary of the results of the examination of the spiral tapers. 
The author afterwards proceeded to consider the effe&t arising, or which might 
arise, from the use of coloured wax tapers, and the inhalation of the vapours 
resulting from their combustion. 


Red. Green. 
Time occupied in burning... .. .. .. «I2mins. 17 mins. 
\WGIEIE 56) G8" “ean “Saad: Mode wee somlOMsE ped guts 2 grms. 
ELCeMtAgelOR WAX arlene 72500 71°30 
Retcentage Of Wicks js es ee sees | 25°44: 26°89 
Weight of wax, pertaper..°.. .. .. 24°85 22°53 
Weight of wick, pertaper.. .. .. . 8°67 8°49 
Percentage of arsenious acid .. .. .. 1°81 


Percentage of vermillion .. .. .. .. 1°66 to 1°93 — 


The, same author submitted a communication on arsenical papers, in the 
course of which he reviewed the theories and cases for and against the alleged 
unhealthiness of rooms papered with hangings having Scheele’s green as one 
of their colouring matters. He mentioned several cases of severe illness, and 
even of death, distin@tly traceable to the inhalation of the green arsenical 
compound used in the preparation of the cheaper kinds of paper-hangings. 


Referring to the opinion expressed by Mr. S. Barber on page 36 of the 
“ Quarterly Journal of Science,” for January, 1874, that mock suns outside 
the sun are an unusual phenomenon, Mr. T. W. Backhouse writes to say this is 
not the case, and that Flammarion’s book, ‘“‘ The Atmosphere,” states that mock 
suns are only on the halo when the sun is low, and that as its altitude 
increases they gradually emerge from it. With reference to the halo of go°, 
which Mr. Barber says he believes is not seen in summer, our correspondent 
Says that, if the halo about go° im diameter is alluded to, he has seen it 
in summer, viz., in 1869, on June 11th and on August roth. Both these days 
were, however, cool, with a maximum temperature of 58°. 


( 282 ) [April, 


LIST OF PUBLICATIONS AND PERIODICALS RECEIVED 
FOR REVIEW. 


Cholera: how to Avoid and Treat it. By Henry Blane, M.D., M.R.C.S. 
Henry S. King and Co. 


Catalogue of Stars observed at the United States Naval Observatory during 
the Years 1845 to 1871. Prepared by Prof. M. Varnall, U.S.N. 
Washington : 1873. 


Treatise on Pra¢tical, Solid, or Descriptive Geometry. By W. T. Pierce. 
Longmans and Co. 


The Naturalist in Nicaragua. By Thomas Belt, F.G.S. Fohn Murray. 
Personal Recollections, from Early Life to Old Age, of Mary Somerville. By 
her Daughter, Martha Somerville. Fohn Murray. 


The Galvanometer and its Uses: a Manual for Ele@ricians and Students. 
By C. H. Haskins. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 


Relique Aquitanice ; being Contributions to the Archeology and Paleontology 
of Périgord and the Adjoining Provinces of Southern France. By 
Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy. Edited by Thomas Rupert Jones, 
F.R.S., &c. Williams and Norgate. 


Hydraulics of Great Rivers: the Parana, the Uruguay, and the La Plata 
Estuary. By J. J. Révy, Memb. Inst. C.E., Vienna and London. 
E. and F. N. Spon. 


Substance of the Work entitled “ Fruits and Farinacea the Proper Food of 


Man. Edited by Emeritus Prof. F. W. Newman. F. Pitman. 
Our Ironclads and Merchant-Ships. By Rear-Admiral E. Gardiner Fish- 
bourne, C.B. E. and F. N. Spon. 


The Nature and Formation of Flint and Allied Bodies. By M. Hawkins 
Johnson, F.G.S. 


Legal Responsibility in Old Age. By George M. Beard, A.M., M.D. 
New York: T. L. Clacher. 


An Elementary Treatise on Steam. By John Perry, B.E. 
Macmillan and Co. 


The Psychology of Scepticism and Phenomenalism. By James Andrews. 
Glasgow: $. Maclehose. 


Principles of Mental Physiology, with their Applications to the Training and 
Discipline of the Mind and the Study of its Morbid Conditions. By 


W. B. Carpenter, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. Henry S. King and Co. 
Handbook of Natural Philosophy. By Dionysius Lardner, D.C.L. Edited 
by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.G.S. Lockwood and Co. 


Inklings of Aérial Autonometry. By William Houlston. 
Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 


The Induétion of Sleep and Insensibility to Pain, by the Self-Administration 
of Anesthetics. By J. M. Crombie, M.A., M.D, F.and A. Churchill. 


Elements of Physical Manipulation. By Edward C. Pickering. Part I. 
: Macmillan and Co. 


Principles of Mechanics. By T. M. Goodeve, M.A. Longmans and Co. 


1874.) ( 283 ) 
Cremation: the Treatment of the Body after Death. By Sir Henry Thomp- 
son, F.R.C.S., M.B., &c. Henry S. King and Co. 


The Universe and the Coming Transits. By Richard A. Prog@or, B.A. 
Longmans and Co. 


PERIODICALS. 
Macmillan’s Magazine. 


Naval Science. 

The Popular Science Review. 
The Geological Magazine. 
The American Chemist. 

The Westminster Review. 


PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES, &c. 


Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1873. 
Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool. 

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

Monthly Microscopical Journal. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society. 


NOTICE TO AUTHORS. 


*.* Authors of ORIGINAL PAPERS wishing REPRINTS for 
private circulation may have them on application to the 
Printer of the Journal, 3, Horse-Shoe Court, Ludgate Hill, 
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~ 


CONTENTS OF No. XLII. 


Wp T he Flint and Chert Implements F ound i in Kent's Cav : 
near Torquay, Devonshire. — , i atom 
II. Recent Extraordinary Oscillations of the Waters i in nL 
Ontario and the Sea Shores of Peru, Australia, 
shire, Cornwall, &c. Bie: 
III. The Native Copper Mines of Lake Superior. ie i 
IV. The Modern ig eae of Atomic Matterand é uminiferou 
Ether. : otom 7 
V. Exhibition in Manchester of Apia for te 
and Economical Use of Fuel. 2 
VI. An Investigation of the Number of Constituen 
and Minors of a Determinant. : 


NOTICES OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS. 
St. Clair’s ‘“‘ Darwinism and Design; or Creation by Evoluti 
Stewart’s ‘“* The Conservation of Energy.” 
Ribot’s ‘‘ Contemporary English Psychology.” _ ges aa 
Pettigrew’s “ Animal Locomotion; or Walking, Swimmingvand Fyn 
Smith’s ‘ Fruits and Farinacea ; ‘the Proper Food of Man.” Si 
Geikie’s ** Geology.” 
Marshall's as Phrenologist Amongst the Todas, or 
. Primitive Tribe in South India; History, Chara 
e Religion, Infanticide, Polyandry, Langua uage. 
Jordan’s ‘The Ocean; its Tides and Currents, an their Caus 
Alleyne Nicholson’s “Outlines of Natural Fissboty for a 
Rodwell’s “‘ The Birth of Chemistry.” De eae 
Winslow's “Manual of Lunacy.” | 
Armstrong’s “ Introduétion to the Study of ae 
Miller’s ‘*‘ Elements of Chemistry.” > aaa 
Kirkaldy’s ‘‘ Results of an Experimental Enquiry into the Lechanic 
-” Property of Steel Manufaétured by Charles As ae 
Davies’s ‘“‘ The Preparation and Mounting of Microscoy bjects. 
Lankester’s ‘‘ Half Hours with the Microscope.” 
Gosse’s ‘‘Evenings at the Microscope, or Resea 
Minuter Organs and Forms of Animal Life.” 
Culley’s “‘ Handbook of Praétical Telegraphy.” s ee 
Bullock’s ‘*Student’s Class Book of Animal ‘Physiology. at 


: 25 v are 


7 : 


PROGRESS IN SCIENCE, 


(Including the Proceedings of Learned Societies ut Home and Abroa d, d, ar 
Notices of Recent Scientific Literature ae — 


oo a 
, oo 
I 

— 
Suan 
7 


THE QUARTERLY 


OURNAL OF SCIENCE, 


4 4 : ie: 


Ce 
ei 


AND ANNALS OF | 


MANUFACTURES, AND TECHNOLOGY. 


J 


Seen BY 


eel TM CROOKES, BURRS 26 k0eG 


‘No. XLIII. 


foe er ae. eaee pat 


Communications Se the Editor and Books for Review may be addressed. 
oS aoe Paris : Leipzig : 
FRI RIEDRICH -KLINCKSIECK. ALFONS DURR. 
—- £96 3-0-— 
PRICE FIVE SHILLINGS. 


[The Copyright of Articles in this Yournal is Reserved.] 


SONDGENTS OF No. XLITE 


Arr. PAGE 
I. THe PoLe STAR AND THE Pointers. By Lieut.-Colonel 
A. W. Drayson, R.A., F.R.A.S. . : ‘ ‘ 2285 
Mo reser Bocs. By G. BH. Kinahan, M.R.1.4., &c. : 2) 204 
III. Tue Past History oF our Moon. By Richard A. 
Proctor, BA. ‘ : ; - : : ‘ - 306 
IV. Moprern RESEARCHES IN TROPICAL ZOOLOGY. : a Bi71o) 
V. ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL ExuiBiTions. By F.C. Danvers, 
Assoc: Inst. C.E. ” . : : 2 : : - aa 
VI. Tue Iowa anv Itiinois TornapDo oF May 22, 1873. By 
James Mackintosh, M.A. ; : 3 : 3 330 
NOTICES OF SCIENTIFIC’ WORKS: 
Perry’s ‘“‘An Elementary Treatise on Steam” : ‘ : - 395 
Fishbourne’s ‘‘Our Ironclads and Merchant Ships” . : 3-590 
Pierce’s “‘ Practical Solid or Descriptive Geometry” . : 397 


Kirkaldy’s ‘Results of an Experimental Enquiry into the 


Mechanical Properties of Steel of Different Degrees of 


Hardness, under Various Conditiens” . ‘ - 398 


CONTENTS. 


Baird’s “Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1873” - 398 
Beard’s “‘ Legal Responsibility in Old Age” . : : : - 400 


Timbs’s ‘ The Year Book of Facts in Science and Art”. . Bes 

Maunder’s ‘The Treasury of Natural History, or a Popular 
Dictionary of Zoology”’. : : 4 : : - 404 

‘‘ United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries” . : » 405 


PROGRESS IN -SCIENGE: 


Including Proceedings of Learned Societies at Home and Abroad, and 
Notices of Recent Scientific Literature. 


MINING . : - ; , . ; : ; : . - 406 
METALLURGY . ° : : ; : § : ; ° - 407 
MINERALOGY . : . : s : ; 5 : é - 409 
ENGINEERING . ; : : 5 . 4 : : : - 4II 
GEOLOGY . : : : : : ° . : : : - 414 
PHYSICS: ; 5 : 5 ; ? - : : : ; - 416 
TECHNOLOGY . . ° : : - . : ». Ae 


THE QUARTERLY 


BOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 


JULY.) 2874: 


Pe tae POLE STAR AND THE POINTERS. 
fy Lieut.-Colonel A. W. Drayson,’ K.A., “F.R.A-S. 


Ne every educated person is sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the familiar objects in the heavens to 
be able to recognise the constellation known as the 

“creat bear.” Two stars of this constellation are termed 
“the pointers,’ because they point towards a third star 
called the “‘ pole star.” The great bear, the pointers, and 
the pole star may therefore be called well-known objects ; 
for as these stars always remain above the horizon in our 
latitude, they may be seen every clear night throughout the 
year. 

Among the hundreds of thousands of persons who look:at 
the pole star and the pointers, probably a hundred times a 
year, we have hitherto found only about four who have re- 
marked a singular and interesting fact connected with these 
objects. When, however, we have pointed out the inte- 
resting fact, then many persons have asserted that they had 
noticed the peculiarity we referred to, but that want of con- 
fidence in their own observational powers had caused them 
to conclude that what they fancied they saw was an optical 
delusion, and not an actual fact. Results, however, of a 
valuable kind emanate from the peculiarity we shall here 
refer to; and though in the present article we are compelled 
to treat the subject in a somewhat popular or superficial 
manner, it is yet connected with problems of considerable 
difficulty and of great practical utility, which have hitherto 
to a considerable extent escaped notice, in consequence of 
the science of Geometry having in modern times been 
greatly neglected. 

Many years ago it was our fate to make a voyage from 
England towards the Southern Hemisphere ; it was part of 
our duty to keep what are called ‘‘ watches” on board ship. 
We had sometimes to remain on deck from 8 o’clock P.M. 
till midnight, and at other times from 4 A.M. till 8 A.M., and 
during these hours we had every opportunity of observing 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 20 


286 The Pole Star and the Pointers. (July, 


the changes in various celestial bodies, due to the half rota- 
tion of the earth, which had occurred from 8 P.M. to 8 A.M. 

The pole star and the pointers particularly attracted our 
attention, for we could easily perceive how the pole star 
appeared to sink nearer and nearer to the horizon as we 
passed each day two or three degrees nearer the equator, 
and we realised one of the first elementary laws of Astro- 
nomy, viz., that the altitude of the pole above the northern 
horizon was always equal to the latitude of the place from 
which the pole was seen. In 52° N. latitude the altitude of 
the pole was therefore 52°, whilst in N. latitude 40° the alti- 
tude of the pole is only 40’, and so on. 

Whilst observing the pole star and the pointers, at inter- 
vals of about twelve hours, and when consequently the 


pointers were at one time east of the pole star and at other — 


times west of it, we noticed that at one time, and under one 
condition, the pointers appeared to point more dire¢tly to- 
wards the pole star than they did at other times. When 
this peculiarity was at first noticed we believed it was in 
consequence of our want of observation; for we naturally 
argued that, as the fixed stars did not alter their relative 
position as regards each other, it must follow that if the 
pointers pointed towards the pole star at one time, they 
must do so with equal exactitude at another time. To 
imagine that the mere rotation of the earth on its axis 
could cause any alteration in the relative position of three 
stars in the heavens seemed almost an absurdity, and al- 
though night after night, and morning after morning, we 
observed that it really appeared as if the pointers did point 
in a variable manner as regards the pole star, yet the fact 
was passed over—as facts too often are—by those who 
cannot account for them. 


It was several years after our first notice of the pole star 


and the pointers that our attention was again directed to 
these celestial bodies, and we once more noticed the same 
facts as those already referred to, and very shortly recog- 
nised the law or cause which produced the appearance, and 
found how more than one interesting problem depended 
thereon. 

In order that the whole of the problems resulting from 
the above law should be thoroughly understood, the reader 
ought to be acquainted with what we may term the geometry 
of the sphere, and also the various terms used in Astronomy, 
but to comprehend these problems will require but average 
intelligence, a careful perusal of the following pages, and a 


sufficient amount of imagination to picture, as it were, on — 


1874.] The Pole Star and the Pointers. 287 


the sphere of the heavens lines that of course cannot be 
drawn there. 

The first problem that we shall submit to the reader refers 
to the apparent course of the sun in the heavens, from its 
rising to its setting on the 21st of March. 

We will suppose that a person is situated at a locality in 
52 north latitude, and facing the south. At 6 o'clock in the 
morning on the 21st of March the sun would rise above the 
eastern point of the horizon, trace a curve or arch in the 
heavens, until at the south it would attain an elevation above 
the horizon of 38°. When exactly south the sun would 
move nearly horizontally for a short part of its course; it 
wouid then gradually descend, slowly at first, but more 
rapidly afterwards, and at 6 o’clock p.M. would set below the 
western point of the horizon. 

If we could mark out on the heavens the course traced by 
the sun, as stated above, we should draw a curve similar to 
HS Rin the annexed diagram. In this diagram the horizon 


Fig. 1. 


H o R 


is represented by the straight line HOR, H being the east, 
0 the south, and Rr the west points on the horizon. s would 
be the position of the sun relative to HOR when the sun 
was south, and the arc OS, representing the sun’s altitude, 
would be 38°. 

It will be seen that, if we could sketch or mark on the 
sky the course traced by the sun, this course would appear 
to us a great arch, as shown by HSR. 

Now this arch traced by the sun on the 2ist of March 
is the position which the earth’s equator would occupy if 
produced to the distant sky, and this arch is termed the 
equinoctial. The equinoctial therefore cuts the east and 
west points of the horizon, traces a curve in the heavens, 
and at its south point is as many degrees above the horizon 
as go exceeds the latitude of the place of observation. 

We will now suppose that the observer turns round and 
faces the north, and traces out on the sky the half of a great 


288 The Pole Star and the Pointers. (July, 


circle which cuts the east and west points of the horizon, 
and passes through the pole of the heavens. This circle 
the reader, on reflection, will perceive must be a circle at 
right angles to the equino¢ctial, and its trace in the sky would 
be as follows :—Starting from the east point of the horizon, 
this circle would trace an arch in the heavens the highest 
part of which would be at the pole, when its altitude above 
the horizon would be equal in degrees and minutes to the — 
latitude of the place of observation ; the curve would con- 
tinue its arch-like form, and would cut the western point of 
the horizon. This curve or arch traced in the sky by a 
great circle passing through the pole, and cutting the east 
and west parts of the horizon, vem appear as shown in the 
following diagram. 

In this diagram N represents the north portion of the 
horizon, P ane pole of the heavens, E the east and wthe | 
west points on the horizon, whilst the curve E P W shows 


FIG. 2. 
P 


w 


the curve or arch traced by a great circle in the sky, which 
great circle is at right angles to the equino¢tial, and cuts the 
east and west portions of the horizon. 

The reader may perhaps wonder what these arches have 
to do with the pole star and the pointers: they have every- 
thing to do with them, and in fact are the key to this and to 
other mysterious problems which seem to have hitherto 
greatly perplexed some persons, for both this and the pre- 
ceding arch are in reality straight lines, though they appear as 
curves to us; for both this curve and the arch traced by the 
equinoctial would appear like straight lines to a person at 
the north pole of the earth, the equino¢tial there appearing 
coincident with the horizon, and therefore like a straight 
line, the curve E P W appearing like a vertical line and as 
straight as a plumb-line. 

We will now place relatively to the curved line WPE 
three stars, and show what would be the relative changes 


1874.] The Pole Star and the Pointers. 289 


in twelve hours of these three stars, and due merely to the 
rotation of the earth on its axis. 

W N Erepresents, as before, the horizon; the curved line 
PE a portion of the great circle, at right angles to the equi- 
noctial, and cutting the east point on the horizon. P repre- 
sents the pole of the heavens, and p w the remaining portion 
of the great circle that is above the horizon. 

Mivthe arc’ of the circle PE we represent: two stars; 
aand gp. A straight line joining these two stars, and pro- 
duced in the direction of the pole, would reach a point L. 
We will suppose a star situated at L on the meridian, and 
above the pole. 

Under the conditions given above the stars 8 and a point 
with great exactitude towards L, because an apparently 
straight line joining 6 and a, and produced, would pass 
through L. 


FIG. 3. 


w N E 


In consequence of the rotation of the earth on its axis 
the star at L and above the pole would in twelve hours be 
carried round the true pole, P, and would trace a semicircle, 
and reach the point L’ below the pole, the arc PL being equal 
to PL’. Due to the same cause the stars a and 6 would 
appear to trace semicircles round Pp, and would occupy, in 
twelve hours from the time at which they were at a and £, 
the positions shown by a’ and P’. 

A line joining a’ and g’, and produced towards the pole, 
would now reach the point L, as before, but the star which 
was at L is now at L’, below the pole. Consequently the 
two stars «’ and 6’ do not now point towards the same star 
at which they pointed when they were in the positions shown 
by « and p. 

In order to illustrate the problem we have selected three 
stars in such a relative position as to show the effects in a 
prominent manner, and it happens that the actual position 
of the pole star and the pointers is not so very different from 
that of the three stars given above. We will now map out, 


290 The Pole Star and the Pointers. (July, 


as it were, the pole star and the pointers according to their 
true position relative to one another, and as seen by an ob- 
server in N. latitude 52°, at various times. 

The pole star is not situated exactly at the pole of the 
heavens, but is distant about 1° 27’ from the true pole, and 
therefore describes every twenty-four hours a circle round 
the pole, the radius of which circle is about 1° 27',—that is, 
nearly three times the apparent angular diameter of the 
sun, for the diameter of the sun subtends an angle of 
about 32’. 

The pointer nearest the pole is about 27° 34' from the pole, 
whilst the second pointer is about 32° 49’ from the pole. 
These two stars during every twenty-four hours appear 
to trace circles in the heavens round the pole of the heavens, 
the radius of each circle being 27° 34’ and 32° 49’. 

We will next refer to the lateral divergence of these three 
stars from what we may term a straight line, and in order 
to do this we must refer to what is called ‘“‘ Right 
Ascension ;”’ a term which probably some readers may not 
be acquainted with, but we will give such a popular descrip- 
tion thereof as shall render the explanation intelligible to any 
person. 

The right ascension of the pole star is about one hour 
and twelve minutes, which converted into degrees is 18°. 
The right ascension of the nearest of the pointers, viz., 
a Urse Majoris, is ten hours fifty-five minutes, whilst the 
second pointer 8 Urse Majoris has a right ascension of 
ten hours fifty-three minutes. Converting these differences 
of right ascension into degrees it follows that the difference 
in right ascension between the pole star and the pointers is, 
in round numbers, 145° 43’. 

Let us now explain this fact in more popular language. 

If in the following diagram P represent the pole of the 
heavens, Ss the position of the pole star distant 1° 27’ from 
Pp, aand @ the two pointers, then the angle s P a will be 
145° 43’ 

Fic. 4. 
Ss 


[pase ae PUY 


Now the point p always remains fixed in the heavens, and 
whilst s revolves round Pp, and a and £ also revolve round P, 
yet the angle s pa will always remain a constant in value, 
and will always be 145° 43’. 

Wecan now trace out the changes which occur in the 
apparent relative positions of the pointers and the pole star 


1874.] The Pole Star and the Pointers. 291 


under certain conditions, and ‘we will@first describe these 
when the pointers are east of the pole star. 

In the following diagram P represents the pole, s the pole 
star,a and @ the pointers, H N E the horizon, E the east, N 


FIG. 5. 


H N E 

the north, and H the west points. Under these conditions 
the pointers point with tolerable exactitude towards the pole 
star. When twelve hours have elapsed the pole star will be 
seen at S’ in its circle, the stars a and 6 will appear in the 
positions a’, 6’, and it is now evident that these two stars 
do not point at the pole star, although as before the angle 
Bera iS t45 43’. 

In six hours after the stars a’ and #' were in the position 
shown in the last diagram they would be on the meridian 
and below the pole, and as these two stars differ only two 
minutes in right ascension they would, when on the meridian 
and below the pole, point almost vertically upwards. The 
pole star, however, would now be go° in its circle from s' 
in the last diagram, consequently the pole star and the 
pointers would as regards each other then occupy the relative 
positions shown in the following diagram, where H 0 R 


Fic. 6. 
“A 


H co) R 
represents the horizon, 0 the north point of the horizon, 
P the pole of the heavens, s the pole star,a and P the 
pointers. The angle s Pa being as before 145° 43’. 


292 The Pole Star and the Pointers. (July, 


It is evident that under the above conditions the pole star 
is not pointed at directly by the pointers, nor will it be until ~ 
the stars a and 8 ascend to the east and reach nearly the 
same altitude as the pole star. 

It will be evident from the preceding demonstrations that 
the pointers point with the least exactitude towards the pole 
star when then they are west of that star and on the great 
circle nearly at right angles to the meridian. It may 
appear somewhat singular to many readers when we state 
that this appearance (for it is but an appearance) will hold 
good for our latitudes, but it would not occur to a person 
who might be situated at the North Pole. Such a statement 
may seem incorrect, but it is a truth, the reason for which © 
may be understood by the following description :— 

To a person situated at the North Pole every star in the 
heavens would appear to trace a circle during twenty-four 
hours round a point exactly over his head. Every’star, 
therefore, would appear to move parallel to the horizon. If 
these four or five stars were arranged in a _ straight 
line from the horizon up towards the zenith, these four or 
five stars would always appear to an observer at the pole to 
lie in the same straight line. The curve or arch joining 
p and R in the last diagram would appear to an observer at 
the pole a straight line rising from the horizon dire¢tly to the 
point over his head, and not a curve or arch, as it appears 
to a person in such a latitude as 52°. 

Here, then, we have the key to the peculiar fact that the 
pointers do not always appear to us to point with equal 
accuracy towards the pole star. It is because owing to what 
we may term the peculiar perspective of the sphere of the 
heavens that which appears under one condition as a straight 
line may appear under another condition as a curved line, 
and as the pointers are on the apparent sphere of the 
heavens, and alter their relative positions as regards the — 
horizon, the effects are such as we have stated them to be. 

In order to render this problem as intelligible as it should 
be, we will again refer to the course or trace of the equino¢tial 
on the sphere of the heavens, and described in an early page 
of this article. We pointed out that the equinoétial, if it 
could be marked out on the sphere of the heavens, would be 
represented by a great arch which cut the east and west 
points of the horizon, and attained an altitude at the south 
equal to go° less the latitude of the place of observation. 
This curve would remain constantly marked on the sky 
during any number of rotations. It would be evident to our 
senses that a line must be a curved line which could be 


1874.] The Pole Star and the Pointers. 293 


drawn on the sky commencing from the east part of the 
horizon, rising rapidly at first as an arch does rise, then as 
the equinoctial approached the south the arch would be 
traced nearly horizontally, then it would slowly descend, 
afterwards more rapidly, and finally cut the west point of 
the horizon. Therefore every portion of this equinoctial 
would appear a portion of a curve, and it could not be con- 
sidered a straight line any more than a rainbow appears a 
straight line. 

What shall we say, however, when we trace out the 
equinoctial on the sky as it would appear to a person at the 
North Pole ? 

To an observer at the North Pole the terms east and west 
do not exist. The south is beneath his feet, the north 
exactly over his head, and the east and west undefined. To 
him the equinoctial would not rise above his horizon as it 
would to an observer in middle latitudes, but the equino¢tial 
would coincide with his horizon in all directions. 

To every person who may be on the same level as the 
sea, and when a clear defined sea outline is visible, the 
horizon appears like a straight line, and all parts of the 
horizon appear like portions of a straight line: therefore to 
an observer at the Pole the equino¢tial will appear like a 
straight line, and will be coincident with the horizon, yet to 
an observer in middle latitudes the equinoctial will always 
appear as an arch in the heavens. 

' The same geometrical or optical laws which cause the 
equino¢ctial to appear a straight or a curved line, according 
as the observer is in one part or another part of the earth, 
also cause the pointers to appear under certain conditions 
to point exactly towards the pole star, whilst under other 
conditions they will not appear to point with equal accuracy 
to the same object. 

The same laws produce other effeéts in connection with 
certain celestial bodies, some of which effects are so palpable 
as to attract the attention of every observer, whilst other 
phenomena are noticed (spontaneously as we may term it) 
only by those who possess good observational powers. When, 
however, the peculiar facts are pointed out, and the celestial 
objects themselves illustrate the problem, few persons are 
incapable of perceiving the paradox, and the majority are 
anxious to learn the causes which produced it. 

In the present article we have confined our description to 
the pole star and the pointers, but on a future occasion we 
purpose treating two other phenomena even more easily 
observed than is the fact connected with the pointers; yet 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 2P 


294 Peat Bogs. (July, 


these others have long remained mysteries to certain in- 
dividuals. 

The reader who has read and mastered the preceding 
problem may amuse himself by testing the observational 
power of his friends. He may enquire whether his friend 
has ever remarked the pole star and the pointers. Then he 
should carefully word his next question somewhat in the 
following terms :—‘‘ Of course the pointers always point 
with equal accuracy towards the pole star,’ and in the 
majority of cases he will obtain for his answer, “‘ Of course 
they must do so, as the stars never alter their relative 
positions from each other.” If the reader, instead of the 
above careful question, were to say, ‘‘ Have you ever 're- 
marked that the pointers do not always point with equal 
accuracy to the pole star,’ he would in many cases receive 
some such answer as the following :—‘‘ Well, I fancy I have 
noticed it, but I am not very sure about it.” : 

So rarely do we find any but the most candid and pro- 
gressive, who are willing to acknowledge their ignorance of 
a subject, that the above problem may afford those who have 
thoroughly mastered it considerable amusement and some 
information when they cross-examine those among their 
acquaintances who profess to have a knowledge of astronomy. 


Ms PEAT) bOGs; 
By G. H. Kinawan, M.R.I1.A., &c. 


HE formation or growth of peat bogs and that of most, 
at least, of our principal coal seams, were evidently 
very similar: it is therefore interesting to be ac- 

quainted with what may be ascertained about the former. 
Why peat bogs began to grow at first is a question often 
asked, but as yet not satisfactorily answered. In Great 
Britain and Ireland there are three classes of peat, distin- 
guished by three modes of occurrence, namely, first, the 
preglacial or intraglacial peat; second, submarine peat; and 
third, the subaérial, or the peat accumulations that are 
still being formed. The latter, however, as will hereafter be 
mentioned, can in certain places be subdivided, as there is 
proof of a long cessation of peat growth having intervened 
over vast areas during its period of formation. In this paper 


1874.] Peat Bogs. 295 


the facts witnessed in Ireland will be those chiefly consi- 
dered, but at the same time some reference will be made to 
places in Scotland or England as they show the similarity 
of the growth of peat in the three countries. 

There does not appear to be in Ireland any peat accumu- 
lations under the undoubted normal boulder-clay-drift. 
Near Nenagh, Co. Tipperary, there is a black peaty bed 
under ‘‘forty-three feet of hard calcareous clay, with 
numerous lumps of limestone intermixed, but unstratified.”* 
In Boleyneendorrish Valley, near Gort, Co. Galway, 
there is an argillous peat under about 25 feet of a glacial 
drift,t and in some of the pits of the Newtown Colliery, 
Queen’s Co., 3 feet of peat was found under 96 feet of drift 
which was, at least in part, glaciai. From this it will be 
seen that although such peaty accumulations may not have 
been formed prior to the glacial period, yet that some are 
evidently intraglacial,—that is, they were formed subsequent 
to the beginning and prior to the end of the glacial period. 
There are also fragments of peat found in the marine 
gravels in the country west of the south portion of Lough 
Corrib, Co. Galway. These gravels, when compared with 
the gravels of the “‘ Esker Sea period” of the central plain 
of Ireland, seem to be evidently recent ; still they appear to 
have been formed before the final disappearance of the ice 
from the neighbouring highlands, as ice-carried erratics are 
occasionally found lying upon them. In the peaty accumu- 
lations of Boleyneendorrish, Dr. Melville, of the Queen’s 
University and Queen’s College, Galway, detected numerous 
cones of the Pinus sylvestris, cones of the A bies excelsa, DeC., 
fragments of wood (chiefly coniferous), portions of branches, 
scales of bark, pieces of fir bark, an imperfect hazel nut, 
and leaves of plants, which prove the presence of such 
trees on the western portion of the British Islands during at 
least the latter portion of glacial times. 

Submarine peat is not uncommon off the coast of Ireland, 
and in many of the estuaries and brackish water lagoons. 
In the east of Ireland, at the present time, there is very 
little peat growing on the lowlands, yet off the coast, and in 
the estuaries, &c., submerged bogs are not uncommon. 
They have been proved to occur from high-water mark to a 
depth of 20 or 30 feet; those under the estuary muds of 
Wexford Harbour having been found to a depth of 20 feet 
below the surface of the mud, or about 23 or 24 feet below 


* Paper by T. OLpHAM, M.R.I.A., Journ. Geol. Soc. Dubl., vol. iii., p. 64. 
+t Mem. Geol. Survey, ex Sheets 115 and 116, p. 28. 


296 Peat Bogs. (July, 


mean high-water mark: these bogs are found to contain the 
roots and trunks of oak, yew, deal, hazel, sallow, and a 
timber like ash, also hazel nuts. In the south and west of 
Ireland lowland bogs are numerous, and it is a common oc- 
currence to find—off a coast where bogs now form the sea 
margin—peat from 8 to 12 feet deep, even at low water of 
spring tides, giving a depth below mean high-water mark of 
from 23 to 25 feet. In these bogs the roots and trunks of 
oak, yew, deal, willow, and hazel are found, similar to the 
tree remains that occur in the inland bogs. Off the south- 
east coast of England there are also submarine bogs; those 
in Romney Marsh and Pevensey Level being at nearly simi- 
lar depths below the mean high-water mark. It has been 
suggested that the peat accumulations found in lagoons, 
estuaries, and even on the open coast, may have grown at 
their present levels, the sea being kept out from them by a 
barrier of sand, gravel, or the like, which was subsequently 
swept away or moved inland. If, however, we consider a 
moment, the erroneousness of such an idea is apparent. 
Take, for instance, such places as Romney Marsh in Eng- 
land, or Wexford Estuary in Ireland, where we find the 
roots of oak 1 situ more than 15 feet below the mean low- 
water mark. These trees, at the time they were growing, 
would have been liable at any time to have been inundated, 
while even at low water of spring tides they would have had 
no drainage. Such trees as the willow and alder might pos- 
sibly grow under these conditions; but such trees as the 
oak, yew, fir, ash, and hazel require a drainage from the 
ground on which they grow; these, then, never could grow 
and arrive at maturity on ground below low-water mark. 
Such bogs, therefore, as those in which the remains of the 
last-mentioned trees are found, must have been while the — 
trees were growing above high-water mark. Moreover, the 
process of subsidence would seem to have been gradual, to 
allow the peat-forming plants time to grow and decay in oft- 
repeated succession. 

The plant-remains in the submarine peat are, as a general 
rule, similar to those found in the subaérial lowland or ‘‘ red 
bogs,” and we may reasonably conclude that the peat accu- 
mulated under very similar conditions,—that is, as a “red 
bog,” and not in a lagoon or marsh. It also must have 
taken a very long time to accumulate, as peat when drained 
will contract more than half its height, while if weighted 
and compressed—as the peat under estuary mud—it would 
be reduced a third or fourth more, so that the 5 feet of peat 
under the muds of Wexford Estuary would represent a 
growing bog of from 15 to 20 feet in depth. 


1874.] Peat Bogs. 297 


The normal lowland or ‘‘red bogs” of the central plain 
of Ireland are very similarly circumstanced to the ordinary 
coal seams, having an under-clay which is more or less pene- 
trated by the roots of the trees and larger plants which at 
the first occupied the land. In most of them, as also in 
many other low-lying bogs, the roots and the trunks of the 
trees under the peat, or in the lowest strata, are principally 
those of oak and yew, as if prior to the growth of the peat 
the low country was for the most part a vast forest of these 
kinds of trees, the oak greatly preponderating. In these 
forests mosses and other peat-producing plants began to 
grow and flourish, till eventually they stopped the drainage, 
and formed an envelope of peat which gradually killed the 
trees, while subsequently the stems rotted off, between wind 
and water, the trunks toppling over and being entombed by 
the succeeding growth of the peat. After the disappearance 
of the major portion of the oak forest, the bogs for years 
gradually increased in depth, till suddenly—from some as 
yet unexplained cause—their growth ceased, and on their 
surfaces forests of deal sprang up. During all this time, 
however, portions of the original oak forest were preserved, 
and some of them apparently remain in certain places to 
the present day. This seems to have been due to the oaks 
and associated trees being destroyed only in those compara- 
tively level places in which the peat could easily accumulate. 
On hills that were above the general level of the peat the 
oak would still flourish, and during the ‘‘ Deal Forest Age” 
each of these hillocks remained an oak grove. At the pre- 
sent day, in many parts of Ireland, the hills and exposures 
of drift in a flat bog are called “‘derries” (Anglice, oak-woods), 
the ancient name, which has survived down to the present 
age from the time when they were oak groves surrounded by 
forests of deal. Still this name may be more modern, as it 
is probable that, even after the deal forests disappeared, 
many of these hills still remained oak-woods. ‘The derries 
in the midland counties of Ireland have long since been 
cleared of their timber, and are now under tillage or grass 
land, but in a few places—such as some of the wild tracts 
in Mayo—the oak may still be found growing on the drift 
islands in the bogs, it always being associated with yew, 
hazel, birch, ash, and holly; probably the last three trees 
were also denizens of the primary forests, but their timber 
has long since disappeared, they being of kinds that rot 
quickly in bog. 

That such was the mode of the growth of the bogs is 
proved by the different sections exposed, as beneath the peat 


298 Peat Bogs. (July, 


in the clay, marl, or gravel, are found the “corkers,” or 
roots of the oak and yew, following the undulations of the 
ground, while above them—in horizontal layers, and sepa- 
rated from them by from about 4 to 10 or 12 feet of peat— 
are the roots of the deal forest, which at the sides of the 
hills join the oak roots, as shown in the accompanying 
sketch section. In a few lowland bogs, however, and in 
many bogs in the mountainous districts, the lower and upper 
systems of corkers will belong to deal trees, as if in such 
places there had been two distinct ages of deal forests. 
Some of the lowland or red bogs are of great depth, ina 
few places up even to 50 feet, but on an average they gene- 
rally do not exceed 20 or 30 feet, and often are much less. 
A typical red bog gives four kinds of peat: near the surface 
is a clearing of more or less living organic matter, from 3 to 
6 feet in thickness ; under this is white turf, then brown turf, 
and lowest of all black or stone turf. White turf is a nearly 
pure organic substance, very light when dried, burns quickly, 
giving out only a little heat, and leaves little or no ash. 


Fic. 7. 
al eS 
b * é 
Pca. tea cen ae Waa Fes Ayn 


A 
Mas PAT ae mp ask ahh 

a. Drift Hills or Derries. 0. Surface of bog. c. Dealcorkers. d. Oak corkers on gravel. 
Brown turf is always more or less mineralised. Black or 
stone turf is a chemico-organic production, and may contain 
such minerals as pyrite or marcasite; often it is semi- 
crystalline and seems to pass into lzgnyte, and when burnt it 
always leaves more or less ash. A variety in many bogs is 
locally called ‘“‘ Monagay”’ turf, which is very brittle, and 
full of the fragments and stems of flagger-like plants. 
Under monagay turf marl always is found, while under 
typical black turf there is usually gravel, suggesting that 
the monagay turf accumulated in a marsh. Another variety, 
always found at the very bottom of a bog when cut, is of a 
pale greenish-yellow colour: this, if allowed to dry, fully 
“melts” or disintegrates under the atmosphere, but if 
stacked when half dry it becomes a beautiful, hard, compact 
turf, that burns with a strong heat and brilliant light. 

The residue or ash of peat generally, but not always, is 
greater the more deeply the peat is seated. In some places 
mineral matter may be carried up into the peat from springs 
and the like; but the ash of peat seems usually due to the 


1874. | Peat Bogs. 299 


plants growing on the surface collecting their inorganic food 
from the atmosphere, and after their decay to the collected 
mineral substances being continually carried downwards by 
the water percolating through the mass: in this way each 
lower portion becomes more impregnated than the parts 
above it, and when burnt its ash or residue is greater. 

The bogs on mountains are vastly different from those on 
the low lands. The latter usually grow on more or less Hat 
places, where the substratum is non-porous, on which they 
form extensive level plains, while in the mountainous districts 
bog may grow anywhere on the hill-tops, as well as in the 
valleys, and from the latter they creep up the slopes over 
porous and non-porous strata. They are generally of small 
depth as compared with the lowland bogs, as here the peat 
grows much more slowly and more densely. In typical 
mountain bogs the clearing, or partly living organic matter, 
rarely exceeds 12 inches in depth, and this les on brown 
turf, under which there may be black turf, but not always, as 
in some places the peat envelope is too thin to form the 
latter by compression. The difference between mountain 
and lowland peat is evidently due to the different rate of 
growth of the peat-producing plants in the respective posi- 
tions. In the low flat land the growth of the plants is more 
rapid than among or on the mountains; consequently while 
on the former a light spongy substance is accumulating, on 
the latter a heavy felt-like mass is being formed. Besides, 
in all mountainous distri¢ts portions of the peat are very 
much subject to denudation by rain, runlets, and wind, 
which carry particles of peat from one place to another, and, 
by depositing them on the surface of the growing peat, keep 
the surface even, and make the peat compact and firm. In 
this way, on the growing peat may be deposited a layer of 
derivate or sedimentary peat, which will afterwards become 
interstratified by a subsequent growth of the plants. In flat 
mountain bogs, and also in the lowland bogs, when the latter 
are situated at the base of a hill or along a river subject at 
times to extensive floods, layers of sand, gravel, silt, or the 
like, may be found in the peat, such foreign material having 
been deposited on the surface of the bog during freshets, 
while afterwards the peat grows over them. 

In coal-mining we find parts of seams absent; such defi- 
ciencies are called “ faults,” ‘‘ troubles,” ‘‘ horses,” &c., by 
the colliers, and the formations of these coal-less portions 
of a vein are explained by the study of some peat bogs; as 
we find the mass of the peat in some places denuded by the 
wind, and in others by a stream, which cut into it and break 


300 Peat Bogs. (July, 


its continuity, and if, after this, the bog were to be covered 
up by newer strata, such vacancies would be filled with 
foreign materials similar to the “‘ troubles” or ‘‘ horses” in 
a coal seam. 

In the mountain bogs of the British islands the prevailing 
timber seems to be deal, and some of the sticks are of lengths 
that the fir rarely attains at the present day in these 
countries. The absence of the remains of the oak in the 
highlands of these islands would seem to suggest that the 
oak could not flourish above a certain altitude, which in 
Ireland seems to have been about the 400 feet contour line. 
This would seem to suggest that prior to the age of the first 
growth of the subaérial peat the lowlands, and the hill-sides 
to a certain height, were covered with oak forest, while 
above that height, the hills grew deal, the deal trees then 
flourishing at much greater altitudes than now, as large 
sticks are sometimes found in bogs at heights of above 1000 
and 1200 feet. 

From the above we may regard it as probable that there 
has been, since the glacial period at least, two ages of the 
most active growth of peat—irst, after the great oak forest 
period, and second, subsequent to the deal forest period. 
‘That a considerable break occurred between them is evident, 
but the cause of itis unknown. ‘There may indeed have been 
a third period, while the now submarine bogs were growing: 
this, however, does not appear probable, for at the present 
day the lowland bogs may grow at any height from high- 
water mark to the 200 or 250 contour line: it is therefore 
possible that the submarine bogs were forming at the same 
time as the lower strata of our present subaérial bogs, al- 
though now found under such different conditions. The 
turf-cutters on the sea shore generally tell you that “the 
turf is of the same depth at high- and low-water mark,” 
but they cannot say if the corkers or roots of the trees stand 
perpendicular. If they are correct it would necessitate that 
seaward the peat has sunk more than at the shore-line. 
On a straight shore-line this might be possible, but on the 
indented coasts of our bays it is highly improbable.* 

In studying bogs, one of the greatest difficulties is to pro- 
cure reliable data by which to be enabled to estimate the 
rate at which they grow. Undrained bogs grow; drained 


* Near the shore-line I have seen the corkers standing perpendicular, but I 
never saw an off-shore hole bottomed, as the incoming tide usually drives 
away the turf-cutters before they can take out all the turf; and I very much 
suspect my informants told me what they considered most probable, and not 
what they actually saw. 


1874.] Peat Bogs. 301 


bogs, as long as the drains are effective, will not; and it 
would appear, from the Irish annals, that both before and 
since the English occupation attempts were made to drain 
and reclaim the lowland bogs, while they were again allowed 
to run wild in subsequent troublous times. ‘These artifi- 
cial stoppages of the growth of the peat have complicated 
matters, as respects some bogs, so that it is now impossible 
even to guess how long they may have been growing. At 
the present day the growth of the lowland bogs in Ireland 
is generally small, on account of their being more or less 
‘drained, and from turf being cut round their margins. In 
places, however, where the drainage has been for a long 
time neglected, a perceptible change in their height will take 
place: this, however, may in part be due to the bog soaking 
and swelling with water. A road through a bog will rise if 
the side drains are allowed to become choked. The margins 
of others, after the turf-cutting has been abandoned, gra- 
dually begin to resume their natural form, and if left long 
enough the peat will begin to creep out upon the adjoining 
upland, the growth being sometimes very rapid: certain 
bog-holes that were abandoned in 1848 are now nearly filled 
with new peat, but of a very soft spongy nature. 

In the mountainous districts Nature has been less inter- 
fered with, and thus many facts in relation to the growth of 
bogs can be advantageously studied. Bogs naturally grow 
more readily on flats than elsewhere, and among the hills 
we find the deepest peat on the flat hill-tops and in the flat 
valleys: it, however, does not confine itself to such places, 
but creeps up and down the adjoining slopes. The latter 
process might be expected to be the easiest: this, however, 
does not appear to be the case, especially if the slope is 
steep. Bogs on an exposed hill are denuded at the edge 
during storms, especially if these are accompanied by rain. 
Such bogs are thus prevented from creeping downward, 
while the annual growth and decay of the plants increase 
their thickness, thus forming low long cliffs in all exposed 
places ; it is only in sufficiently sheltered situations that the 
peat covering extends continuously downwards. But bogs 
creep rapidly upward, even in places where the slopes are 
composed of porous materials ; as the wind, rain, and runlets 
will add boggy stuff to its edge, forming rapidly a-soil in 
Which heather, moss, and other peat-producing plants ra- 
pidly grow. In some of the valleys in the Connemara hills 
there are coarse shingle slopes, with a covering of peat often 
as much as 8 feet deep, while the bog on the adjoining flats 
is not much deeper. This peat originated with peaty matter 

VOR. 1V. (N.S.) 2Q 


302 Peat Bogs. July, 


from the flat tops of the hills, that was lodged on the surface 
of the stones, by rain and wind, on which heather, &c., 
grew, and by the growth and decay of such the great thick- 
ness of peat was accumulated; from these shingles the peat 
is extending up the slopes of the hills. 

In some of the once-inhabited but now depopulated valleys 
(and similar facts may be observed in parts of the highlands 
of Scotland) the growth of the peat is remarkable; it now 
having nearly obliterated the sites of the farmsteads and 
fields. The growth of peat differs on the hill-tops and in 
the valleys: on the first it is somewhat similar to that of 
lowland bog, in the plain it being principally due to the 
growth and decay of vegetation; for this reason it is more 
or less tussocky: but the turf in the valleys is only partially 
due to vegetable growth and decay, for it is partly derived 
from peaty matter carried on to it; it is therefore usually 
much more dense and level on the surface; it is, however, 
very variable in composition, as in some places it is more 
favourably situated than in others for receiving extraneous © 
matter. 

As yet no human relic has been recorded from the sub- 
marine bogs; but as such peat accumulations have only been 
proved by borings or small excavations, while vast extents 
are unexplored, it is not likely that they should have been 
found; but in the subaérial peats they are not uncommon. 
In Drumkelin bog, parish of Inver, Co. Donegal, a log house 
was found under 14 feet of bog, the house being 8 feet high, 
while under it was 15 feet of bog, in all 37 feet deep. Stone 
celts, sharpened stakes, and methers full of lard or butter, 
have at different times been exhumed from under bog from 
10 to 15 feet deep, in the mountain pass N.W. of Glenbon- 
niv, parish of Feakle, Co. Clare; and the late J. Beete Jukes, 
F.R.S., on seeing the huts, remarked that they were exactly 
similar to the huts built by the natives of Newfoundland to 
shelter them while waiting for the deer in their annual 
migration. In one place in the ridge of hills N.W. of the 
small market-town of Clifden, Co. Galway, wattle fences 
were found stuck in the clay under bog from 8 to 12 feet deep. 
The ridge of these hills is very uneven, large flat spaces oc- 
curring, usually connected by more or less narrow passes. 
These wattle fences consisted of stakes driven into the 
ground, and interwoven with horizontal rods or branches, 
gaps here and there being left open; they always occurred 
opposite to one of the passes leading from one flat to 
another ; and what seems remarkable about them is that they 
are similar to the description of traps made for deer at the 


1874.] Peat Bogs. 303 


present day in Russia. In the bog close to Castleconnell, 
Co. Limerick, a mether full of a substance like whey was 
found standing by an oak corker, and 5 feet above the oak 
corker was a layer of deal corkers, while a short distance 
above the horizon of the latter, extending from the edge of 
the bog next the old castle of the O’Connings to an esker 
called Goig, was a roadway of oak timber built similarly to 
an American corderoy, and over the roadway was from 10 to 
12 feet of solid peat; alongside the road are said to have 
been the remains of ancient bog-holes in which the peat was 
cut in a mode similar to that of the present day. From this 
bog we learn that the oak forests were inhabited, while sub- 
sequently oak timber was accessible in the neighbourhood, 
probably on Goig, after the destruction—at least in part—of 
the great pine forests, and that peat fuel was used at a very 
eatly age. The finds of stone and other weapons, also of 
butter or lard, are too numerous to mention, the latter oc- 
curring sometimes in lumps without the trace of any enve- 
lope,—sometimes in methers, barrels, cloths, and in conical 
vessels made of hoops and straight sticks, lined with cloth ; 
some of them evidently were purposely buried, while others 
seem to have been dropped, and subsequently covered by 
the growth of the peat. 

Hitherto we have been occupied with facts; now, how- 
ever, we will, in part, have to deal with conjectures. The 
intraglacial peats in the localities that have been enumerated 
seem to be very ancient ; those at Newtown, Queen’s Co., 
and near Nenagh, Co. Tipperary, undoubtedly are so, and 
after their accumulation must for years have been under an 
ice-sheet. The peaty stuff in the Boleyneendorrish Valley, 
Co. Galway, must also have been under ice, but probably at 
a much later age than the others, and possibly after the ice 
had left most of the low country, while the pieces of peat in 
the marine gravels west of Lough Corrib are—comparatively 
speaking—recent, as the gravels were formed subsequent to 
the Esker Sea period, and during the time when only the 
Jands under the present 150 feet contour-line were sub- 
merged. In acoom that hes on the north side of Mount 
Leinster, Co. Carlow, there is a peat under drift from a few 
inches to over 4 feet in depth: this peat, however, has not 
been previously mentioned, as the drift evidently is not a 
normal glacial drift, but has been arranged by meteoric 
action, and was probably washed down from a higher part of 
the coom. 

Since the oak forest age there must have been various 
changes in the climate of Ireland. Oaks, indeed, would 


304 Peat Bogs. (July, 


grow at the same altitudes as those at which the corkers are 
found in the bogs, but then it must be remembered that 
these places are probably at least 50 feet lower than they 
were when the oaks flourished ; besides, the bog oak occurs 
in exposed situations in the west of the island, where now 
no trees of the same dimensions would grow; and deal at 
the present day cannot be grown at the altitudes or in the 
situations where large bog deal sticks are found. 

The history of the submarine and estuary peats may be as 
follows:—When the land was about 4o or 50 feet higher 
than at present, or even more, forests grew; subsequently 
the drainage became defe¢tive, either from the land sinking 
or from the growth of ferns, mosses, and the like,—probably 
the latter,—till eventually the forests disappeared, and bogs 
replaced them. Afterwards the land must have been de- 
pressed, and probably in general rapidly, for if the sinking 
was gradual the upper strata of the bogs would have been 
formed from the growth and decay of flaggers, reeds, and 
other marsh plants, while usually the peat seems to have 
formed from the same class of vegetation as that which is 
now forming the upland bogs. 

In the subaérial bogs the decay of the oak forest would be 
somewhat similar to the decay of the woods at the com- 
mencement of the submarine peats, as the growth and decay 
of ferns, mosses, and other denizens of a forest, would gra- 
dually stop the drainage, and produce bogs in all low-lying 
places; these eventually would extend their limits, until all 
the woods on the low lands were destroyed and covered by 
peat; but the stoppage of the growth of the bogs and the 
advent of the deal forest is more difficult to explain. 

Deal trees could not be introduced or flourish on a bog 
until it was first drained and dried, and how this was accom- 
plished can only be conjectured. It seems impossible that 
the drainage of the bogs could be due to artificial means, for 
although we know portions were reclaimed at different times, 
yet such reclamation could not have been universal, and in 
all parts of Ireland the pine forests seem to have existed at 
the same time; we are therefore forced to believe that they 
were introduced by natural causes. At the present day we 
have about five wet years, five of average character, five fine 
years, five of average character, and so on, in recurrent 
cycles; but a similar climate would not have furnished fa- 
vourable conditions for the growth of the pine forests. We 
must therefore suppose that there was a long period of 
drought inauspicious to the growth of peat-producing plants, 
during which the bogs became drained, dried, and consoli- 


1874. | Peat Bogs. 305 


dated ; subsequently the fir trees grew upon them, and came 
to maturity. After the growth of the forests the trees would 
attract the rain, and the climate would again become moist, 
when peat-producing plants would flourish, till eventually 
the pines were also destroyed and replaced by bogs. Against 
such a theory it must be allowed that, after the forests were 
destroyed, the climate ought to have again become dry, yet 
there does not appear to have been any material change 
during the last two hundred years, since the destruction of 
the great upland forests in Ireland recorded in the annals. 

In conclusion, we may attempt to make a rough estimate 
of the years that have passed since the beginning of the 
growth of the oak forest. Some of the largest oaks in the 
bogs have been calculated, by their rings, to be more than 
two hundred years old, while fir trees, by similar indications, 
are found to be over one hundred years old. Many bogs are 
a more or less felt-like mass, but in others each year’s growth 
is represented by a layer or lamina, and these lamine in the 
brown turf are usually from fifteen to twenty in number per 
inch, or about two hundred in a foot, while in the black turf 
the average is about four hundred in a foot. From these 
data the age of the oaks under the previously mentioned 
Castleconnell bog may be as follows :— 


Mak forest age . . yl 4 about, 300 yearse 
Five feet black turf, at 400 years ATOOt Lalit. 2OOOU ,s 
‘Time allowed for the change of climate, say 100 ,, 
Meal torest age .. .° . Shela about BOO a5 
‘Twelve feet mown turf, Ai 200 years afoot . 2400 ,, 


5000 

Such an éstimate is evidently very low, as it ignores the 
white turf or clearing,—also the different artificial stoppages 
of the growth of the peat, one considerable stoppage, at least, 
being during the time the road to Goig was being made and 
used: we, however, learn that in this part of Ireland at 
least five thousand years must have elapsed since the oak 
first began to grow. 


( 306 ) (July, 


Ill.. THE PAST. HISTORY OF OUR ,MOOM 
By Ricuarp A. ProcrTor, B.A. (Camb.), 
Author’ of **The Sun,” “The. Moon,; sree 


\Jo HE appearance of two treatises upon the moon, both 
) of them considerable in dimensions, and within six 
months of each other, indicates the renewed interest 
which astronomers are taking in the study of the nearest of all 
the celestial bodies. It is noteworty, also, that in both these 
treatises,—in that by Nasmyth and Carpenter as well as in 
my own work,—the moon is regarded, not as a mere satellite 
of the earth, but asa planet, the least member of that family 
of five bodies circling within the asteroidal zone, to which 
astronomers have given the name of the terrestrial planets. 
There can be no question that this is the true position of 
the moon in the solar system. In fact, the fashion of re- 
garding her as a mere attendant of our earth may be looked 
upon as the last relic of the old astronomy in which our 
earth figured as the fixed centre of the universe, and the 
body for whose sake all the celestial orbs were fashioned. 
In this aspect, also, the moon is a far more interesting object 
of research than when viewed as belonging to another and 
an inferior order. We are able to recognise in her ap- 
pearances probably resulting from the relative smallness of 
her dimensions, and hence to derive probable information as 
to the condition of other orbs in the solar system which fall 
below the earth in point of size. Precisely as the study of 
the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, has led astronomers 
to infer that certain peculiarities must result from vastness 
of dimensions, so the study of the dwarf planets, Mars, our 
moon, and Mercury, may indicate the relations we are to 
associate with inferiority of size. 

This thought immediately introduces us to another con- 
ception which causes us to regard with even greater interest 
the evidence afforded by the moon’s present condition. It 
can scarcely be questioned that the size of any member of 
the solar system, or rather the quantity of matter in its 
orb, assigns, so to speak, the duration of that orb’s existence, 
or rather of the various stages of that existence. ‘The smaller 
body must cool more rapidly than the larger, and hence the 
various periods during which the former is fit for this or that 
purpose of planetary life (I speak with purposed vagueness 
here) are shorter than the corresponding periods in the 
life of the latter. ‘Thus the sun, viewed in this way, is 


1874. | The Past History of our Moon. 307 


the youngest member of the solar system, while the tiniest 
members of the asteroid family, if not the oldest in reality, 
are the oldest to which the telescope has introduced us. 
Jupiter and Saturn come next to the sun in youth ; they are 
still passing through the earliest stages of planetary ex- 
istence, even if we ought not rather to adopt that theory 
of their condition which regards them as subordinate suns, 
helping the central sun to support life on the satellites which 
circle around them. Uranus and Neptune are in a later 
stage, and perchance when telescopes have been constructed 
large enough to study these planets with advantage, we may 
learn something of that stage, interesting as being inter- 
mediate to the stages through which our earth and Venus 
on the one hand, and the giant brothers Jupiter and Saturn 
on the other, are at present passing. Atter our earth and 
Venus, which are probably at about the same stage of 
planetary development (though owing to the difference in 
their position they may not be equally adapted for the 
support of life) we come to Mars and Mercury, both of which 
must be regarded as in all probality much more advanced 
* and in a sense more aged than the earth on which we live. 
In a similar sense,—even as an ephemeron is more aged 
after a few hours of existence than a man after as many 
years,—the small planet which we call “‘ our moon” may be 
described as in the very decrepitude of planetary existence, 
nay (some prefer to think), as even absolutely dead, though its 
lifeless body still continues to advance upon its accustomed 
orbit, and to obey the law of universal attraction. 
Considerations such as these give singular interest to the 
discussion of the past history of our moon, though they add to 
the difficulty of interpreting the problems she presents to us. 
For we have manifestly to differentiate between the effects due 
to the moon’s relative smaliness on the one hand, and those 
due to her great age on the other. If we could believe the 
moon to be an orb which simply represents the condition to 
which our earth will one day attain, we could study her 
peculiarities of appearance with some hope of understanding 
how they had been brought about, as well as of learning from 
such study the future history of ourown earth. But clearly 
the moon has had another history than our earth. Her 
relative smallness has led to relations such as the earth 
never has presented and never will present. If our earth is, 
as astronomers and physicists believe, to grow dead and cold, 
all life perishing trom her surface, it is tolerably clear 
from what we already know of her history that the ap- 
‘pearance she will present in her decrepitude will be utterly 


308 The Past History of our Moon. (July, 


unlike that presented by the moon. Grant that after the 
lapse of enormous time-intervals the oceans now existing on 
the earth will be withdrawn beneath her solid crust, and 
even (which seems incredible) that at a more distant future 
the atmosphere now surrounding her will have become 
greatly reduced in quantity either by similar withdrawal or in 
any other manner, yet the surface of the earth would present 
few features of resemblance to that of the moon. Viewed 
from the distance at which we view the moon there would 
be few crateriform mountains indeed compared with those 
on the moon; those visible would be small by comparison 
with lunar craters even of medium dimensions; and the 
radiated regions seen on the moon’s surface would have no 
discernible counterpart on the surface of the earth. The 
only features of resemblance, under the imagined conditions, 
would be probably the partially flat sea bottoms (though 
these would bear a different proportion to the more elevated 
regions) and the mountain ranges, the only terrestrial 
features of volcanic disturbance which would be relatively 
more important than their lunar counterparts. 

I do not purpose, however, to discuss the probable future 
of the earth, having only indicated the differences just 
touched upon, in order to remind the reader at the outset 
that we have not in ‘“‘the moon”’ a representation of the earth 
at any stage of her history. Other and different relations 
are presented for our consideration, although it may well be 
that by carefully discussing them we may learn somewhat 
respecting our earth, as also respecting the past history and 
future development of the solar system. 

I have already, on two occasions, discussed in these pages 
some of the problems presented by the observed condition 
of the moon’s surface, and in my treatise on the moon, I 
have in several places indicated the views towards which 
my study of the subject tended. But I have not attempted 
to present any general theory on the subject, feeling, indeed, 
that it was one which presented too many difficulties to be 
hastily dealt with. It seems to me, however, that the enun- 
ciation by Messrs. Nasmyth and Carpenter, of somewhat 
definite theories respecting the moon’s surface, affords me a 
favourable opportunity for advancing considerations which 
I have had much in my thoughts during the last five or six 
months, and which appear to me to accord more satisfactorily 
with observed lunar appearances on the one hand as well as 
with known terrestrial and probable cosmical relations on 
the other, than the theories advanced in the treatise above 
referred to. 


1874.] The Past History of our Moon. 309 


It appears reasonable to regard the moon, after her first 
formation as a distin¢t orb, as presenting the same general 
characteristics that we ascribe to our earth in its primary 
stage asa planet. In one respect the moon, even at that 
early stage, may have differed from the earth. I refer to its 
rotation, the correspondence between which and its revolution 
may probably have existed from the moon’s first formation. 
But this would not materially have affected the relations 
with which we have to deal at present. We may apply, 
then, to the moon the arguments which have been applied 
to the discussion of the first stages of our earth’s history. 

Adopting this view, we see that at the first stage of its 
existence as an independent planet, the moon must have 
been an intensely heated gaseous globe, glowing with in- 
herent light, and undergoing a process of condensation, 
“‘soing on at first at the surface only, until by cooling it 
must have reached the point where the gaseous centre was 
exchanged for one of combined and liquefied matter.” To 
apply now to the moon at this stage the description which 
Dr. Sterry Hunt gives of the earth :—‘‘ Here commences 
the chemistry of the moon. So long as the gaseous con- 
dition of the moon lasted, we may suppose the whole mass 
to have been homogeneous; but when the temperature 
became so reduced that the existence of chemical com- 
pounds at the centre became possible, those which were 
most stable at the elevated temperature then prevailing, 
would be first formed. ‘Thus, forexample, while compounds 
of oxygen with mercury, or even with hydrogen, could not 
exist, oxides of silicon, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, 
and iron, might be formed and condensed in a liquid form 
at the centre of the globe. By progressive cooling still 
other elements would be removed from the gaseous mass, 
which would form the atmosphere of the non-gaseous 
nucleus.” ‘‘The processes of condensation and cooling 
having gone on until those elements which are not volatile 
in the heat of our ordinary furnaces were condensed into a 
liquid form, we may here inquire what would be the result 
on the mass of a further reduction of temperature. It is 
generally assumed that in the cooling of a liquid globe of 
mineral matter congelation would commence at the surface, 
asin the case of water; but water offers an exception to 
most other liquids, inasmuch as it is denser in the liquid 
than in the solid form. Hence, ice floats on water, and 
freezing water becomes covered with a layer of ice which 
protects the liquid below. Some metals and alloys resemble 
water in this respect. With regard to most other earthy 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) aR 


310 The Past History of our Moon. [July, 


substances, and notably the various minerals and earthy 
compounds like those which may be supposed to have made 
up the mass of the molten globe, the case is entirely different. 
The numerous and detailed experiments of Charles Deville 
and those of Delesse, besides the earlier ones of Bischof, 
unite in showing that the density of fused rocks is much less 
than that of the crystalline products resulting from their 
slow cooling, these being, according to Deville, from one- 
seventh to one-sixteenth heavier than the fused mass, so 
that if formed at the surface they would, in obedience to the 
laws of gravity, tend to sink as soon as formed.” 

Here it has to be noted that possibly there existed a period 
(for our earth as well as for the moon) during which, not- 
withstanding the relations indicated by Dr. Hunt, the ex- 
terior portions of the moon were solid, while the interior 
remained liquid. A state of things corresponding to what 
we recognise as possible in the sun may have existed. For 
although undoubtedly any liquid matter forming in the sun 
sinks in obedience to the laws of gravity towards the centre, 
yet the greater heat which it encounters as it sinks must 
vapourise it, notwithstanding increasing pressure, so that it 
can only remain liquid near the region where rapid radiation 
allows of sufficient cooling to produce liquefaction. And in 
the same way we may conceive that the solidification taking 
place at any portion of the surface of the moon’s or the 
earth’s liquid globe, owing to rapid radiation of heat thence, 
although it might be followed immediately by the sinking 
of the solidified matter, would yet result in the continuance 
(rather than the existence) of a partially solid crust. For 
the sinking solid matter, though subjected to an increase of 
pressure (which, in the case of matter expanding on lique- 
faction, would favour solidification) would nevertheless, 
owing to the great increase of heat, become liquefied, and 
expanding would no longer be so much denser* than the 
liquid through which it was sinking as to continue to sink 
rapidly. 

Nevertheless, it is clear that after a time the heat of the 
interior parts of the liquid mass would no longer suffice to 
liquefy the solid matter descending from the surface, and 
then would commence the process of aggregation at the 
centre described by Dr. Hunt. The matter forming the 
solid centre of the earth consists probably of metallic and 
metalloidal compounds of elements denser than those forming 


* It would still be somewhat denser, because under the circumstances it 
would be somewhat cooler. 


1874.] The Past History of our Moon. 311 


the known portions of the earth’s crust.* In the case of 
the moon, whose mean density is very little greater than the 
mean density of the matter forming the earth’s crust, we 
must assume that the matter forming the solid nucleus at 
that early stage was relatively less in amount, or else that 
we may attribute part of the difference to the comparatively 
small force with which lunar gravity operated during various 
stages of contraction and solidification. 

In,the case of the moon, as in that of the earth, before 
the last portions became solidified, there would exist a con- 
dition of imperfect liquidity, as conceived by Hopkins, 
*‘ preventing the sinking of the cooled and heavier particles, 
and giving rise to a superficial crust, from which solidification 
would proceed downwards. There would thus be enclosed 
between the inner and outer solid parts a portion of uncon- 
gealed matter,” which may be supposed to have retained its 
liquid condition to a late period, and to have been the princi- 
pal seat of volcanic action, whether existing in isolated 
reservoirs or subterranean lakes, or whether, as suggested 
by Scrope, forming a continuous sheet surrounding the solid 
nucleus. 

Thus far we have had to deal with relations more or less 
involved in doubt. We have few means of forming a satis- 
factory opinion as to the order of the various changes to 
which, in the first stages of her existence as a planet, our 
moon was subject. Nor can we clearly define the nature of 
those changes. In these matters, as with the corresponding 
processes in our earth’s case, there is much room for variety 
of opinion. 

But few can doubt ee by whatever processes such ‘con- 
dition may have been attained, the moon, when her surface 
began to form itself into its present appearance, consisted 


of a globe partially molten surroundéd by a crust at least | 


partially solidified. Some portions of the actual surface 
may have remained liquid or viscous later than others; but 
at length the time must have arrived when the radiating 
surface was almost wholly solid. It isfrom this stage that 
we have to trace the changes which have led to the present 
condition of the moon’s surface. 

It can scarcely be questioned that those seismologists are 
in the right who have maintained in recent times the theory 


* It is thus, and not by the effets due to increasing pressure (effets which 
do not increase beyond a certain point) that we are to explain the fac that 
the earth’s density as a whole is about twice the mean density of the matters 
which form its solid surface. It may be that this consideration, supported by the 
results of recent experimental researches, may give a significance hitherto not 
noted to the relatively small mean density of the moon. 


312 The Past History of our Moon. (July, 


that in the case of a cooling globe, such as the earth or 
moon at the stage just described, the crust would in the 
first place contract more quickly than the nucleus, while 
later the nucleus would contra¢t more quickly than the crust. 
This amounts, in fact, to little more than the assertion that 
the process of heat radiation from the surface would be more 


rapid, andso lastashortertime than the process of conduétion | 


by which in the main the nucleus would part with its heat. 
The crust would part rapidly with its heat, contra¢ting upon 
the nucleus ; but the very rapidity (relative) of the process, 
by completing at an early stage the radiation of the greater 
portion of the heat originally belonging to the crust, would 
cause the subsequent radiation to be comparatively slow, 
while the conduction of heat from the nucleus to the crust 
would take place more rapidly, not only relatively but 
actually. 

Now it is clear that the results accruing during the two 
stages into which we thus divide the cooling of the lunar 
globe would be markedly different. During the first stage 
forces of tension (tangential) would be called to play in the 
lunar crust ; during the later stage the forces would be those 
of pressure. 

Taking the earlier stage, during which the forces would 
be tensional, let us consider in what way these forces would 
operate. 

At the beginning, when the crust would be comparatively 
thin, I conceive that the more general result of the rapid 
contraction of the crust would be the division of the crust 
into segments, by the formation of numerous fissures due to 
the lateral contraction of the thin crust. The molten mat- 
ter in these fissures would film over rapidly, however, and 
all the time the crust would be growing thicker and thicker, 
until at length the formation of distin¢ét segments would no 
longer be possible. The thickening crust, plastic in its lower 
strata, would now resist more effectively the tangential ten- 
sions, and when yielding would yield in a different manner. 
At this stage, in all probability, it was that processes such 
as those illustrated by Nasmyth’s globe experiments took 
place, and that from time to time the crust yielded at parti- 
cular points, which became the centres of systems of radiating 
fissures. Before proceeding, however, to consider the results 
of such processes, let it be noted that we have seen reason 
to believe that among the very earliest lunar formations 
would be rifts breaking the ancient surface of the lunar crust. 
I distinguish in this way the ancient surface from portions 
of surface whereof I shall presently have to speak as formed 
at a later time. 


1874.] The Past History of our Moon. Bhs 


Now let us conceive the somewhat thickened crust con- 
tracting upon the partially fluid nucleus. If the crust were 
tolerably uniform in strength and thickness we should expect 
to find it yielding (when forced to yield) at many points, dis- 
tributed somewhat uniformly over its extent. But this 
would not be the case if—as we might for many reasons 
expect—the crust were wanting in uniformity. There would 
be regions where the crust would be more plastic, and so 
readier to yield to the tangential tensions. Towards such 
portions of the crust the liquid matter within would tend, 
because there alone would room exist for it. The down- 
drawing, or rather in-drawing, crust elsewhere would force 
away the liquid matter beneath, towards such regions of less 
resistance, which would thus remain at (and be partly forced 
to) ahigherlevel. At length, however, the increasing tensions 
thus resulting would have their natural effect; the crust 
would break open at the middle of the raised region, and in 
radiating rifts, and the molten matter would find vent through 
the rifts as well as at the central opening. The matter so 
extruded, being liquid, would spread, so that—though the 
radiating nature of the rifts would still be indicated by the 
position of the extruded matter—there would be no abrupt 
changes of level. It is clear, also, that so soon as the out- 
let had been formed the long and slowly sloping sides of the 
region of elevation would gradually sink, pressing the liquid 
matter below towards the centre of outlet, whence it would 
continue to pour out so long as this process of contraction 
continued. All round the borders of the aperture the crust 
would be melted, and would continue plastic long after the 
matter which had filled the fissures and flowed out through 
them had solidified. Thus there would be formed a wide 
circular orifice, which would from the beginning be consider- 
ably above the mean level of the moon’s surface, because of 
the manner in which the liquid matter within had been 
gathered there by the pressure of the surrounding slopes.* 


* T have occasion to make some remarks at this stage to avoid possible and 
(my experience has shown me) not altogether improbable misconception, or 
even misrepresentation. The theory enunciated above will be regarded by 
some, who may haye read a certain review of my Treatise on the Moon, as 
totally different from what I have advocated in that work, and, furthermore, as 
a theory which I have borrowed from the aforesaid review. I should not be 
particularly concerned if I had occasion to modify views I had formerly ex- 
pressed, since I apprehend that every active student of science should hope, 
rather than dread, that as his work proceeds he would form new opinions. 
And again, Iam not in the least anxious to claim priority as to the enunciation 
of any theory, conceiving that claims of the kind seem as a rule indicative of 
a singular poverty of intellect on the part of those who make them (as though, 
having given birth to one good thought, they had no hope of ever being 


314 The Past History of our Moon. [July, 


Moreover, around the orifice, the matter outflowing as the 
crust continued to contract would form a raised wall. Until 
the time came when the liauid nucleus began to contract 
more rapidly than the crust, the large crateriform orifice 


delivered of another). Accordingly I have never, on the one hand, found occasion 
—to the best of my recollection—to claim a disputed priority; nor, on the 
other, have I ever been unwilling to abandon a theory which I have formerly 
maintained on insufficient grounds. (I need only point to my article on 
“Mars,” in the “ Quarterly Journal of Science,’ for April, 1873, as an illus- 
trative instance, since I there not only abandon a theory I had once regarded 
with favour, but advocate carefully the theory advanced against it.) But the 
present instance is a somewhat peculiar one. In the “ Saturday Review ” for 
March 28th there is a paper which discusses lunar phenomena with consider- 
able acumen. Of course there is the giant-making process which in the 
‘‘Saturday Review” always precedes the process of giant-killing. The 
work of Messrs. Nasmyth and Carpenter is very warmly praised as a pre- 
liminary to the annihilation of their fundamental hypothesis. ‘* We honour,” 
says the condescending reviewer, ‘‘the courage which is daunted by no diffi- - 
culty, and we feel that the authors were bound to make their theory a complete 
one; but we should have not the less felt bound to point out the glaring 
absurdities of this hypothesis had not the more than diffident tone in which 
the authors themselves speak of it rendered such a proceeding unnecessary.” 
I am treated somewhat differently. A theory which I touched on first in these 
pages—the theory, namely, that some of the lunar markings on the moon’s 
surface may have been due to meteoric downfalls in the long past ages 
when that surface was plastic, and meteor flights were more important than now 
—is described as one which ‘‘ Mr. Proctor would have us believe,” although I 
said in so many words ‘‘that I should certainly not care to maintain that as 
the true theory ;”’ and is then summarily dismissed as a facetia. But while I 
am thus credited with insistance on a theory which I merely sketched as one 
not to be altogether overlooked in discussing peculiarities as yet not satisfac- 
torily interpreted, the reviewer wholly omits to mention that much earlier in 
my book I had advocated, in a much more definite manner, a view closely re- 
sembling (so far as it relates to the large craters) that which he himself advances 
as preferable to Nasmyth’s. I quote in full the passage in which I indicate 
and advocate, briefly but clearly, the theory urged above. At page 255 of my 
work on the “* Moon,” after describing the radiations from Tycho and other 
craters, I proceed—*‘ It appears to me impossible to refer these phenomena to 
any general cause but the reaction of the moon’s interior overcoming the ten- 
sion of the crust, and to this degree Nasmyth’s theory seems correct; but it 
appears manifest, also, that the crust cannot have been fractured in the ordi- 
nary sense of the word. Since, however, it results from Mallet’s investigations 
that the tension of the crust is called into play in the earlier stages of con- 
traction, and its power to resist contraction in the later stages,—in other words, 
since the crust at first contracts faster than the nucleus, and afterwards not so 
fast as the nucleus,—we may assume that the radiating systems were formed 
in so early an era that the crust was plastic. And it seems reasonable to con- 
clude that the outflowing matter would retain its liquid condition long enough 
(the crust itself being intensely hot) to spread widely,—a circumstance which 
would account at once for the breadth of many of the rays, and for the restora- 
tion of level to such a degree that no shadows are thrown. It appears 
probable, also, that not only (which is manifest) were the craters formed later 
which are seen around and upon the radiations, but that the central crater 
itself acquired its actual form long after the epoch when the rays were formed.” 
It will be manifest that the method here indicated as that by which the central 
crater acquired its actual form long after the rays had been formed, could only 
be that which the reviewer has indicated in the following passage :—‘t Assuming 
that the moon was once covered by a crust of rock, under a portion of which 


1874.] The Past History of ouv Moon. 315 


would be full to the brim (or nearly so), at all times, with 
occasional overflows; and as a writer who has recently 
adopted this theory has remarked—‘‘ We should ultimately 
have a large central lake of lava surrounded by a range of 
hills, terraced on the outside,—the lake filling up the space 
taey enclosed.” 

The crust might burst in the manner here considered, at 
several places at the same—or nearly the same—time, the 
range of the radiating fissures depending on the extent of 
the underlying lakes of molten matter thus finding their 
outlet; or there might be a series of outbursts at widely 
separated intervals of time, and at different regions, gradually 
diminishing in extent as the crust gradually thickened and 
the molten matter beneath gradually became reduced in 
relative amount. Probably the latter view should be ac- 
cepted, since if we consider the three systems of radiations 
from Copernicus, Aristarchus, and Kepler, which were 
manifestly not formed contemporaneously, but in the order 
in which their central craters have just been named, we see 
that their dimensions diminished as their date of formation 
was later. According to this view we should regard the 
radiating system from Tycho as the oldest of all these 
formations. 

At this very early stage of the moon’s history, then, 
we regard the moon as a somewhat deformed spheroid, 
the regions whence the radiations extended being the 
highest parts, and the regions farthest removed from the 
ray centres being the lowest.* To these lower regions what- 
ever was liquid on the moon’s surface would find its way. 
The down-flowing lava would not be included in this descrip- 
tion, as being rather viscous than liquid; but if any water 


at least lay melted rock of the same nature, nothing is more natural than that 
the contraction of the crust should cause great overflows of lava, which would 
spread far and wide; the outside portions would cool, but those near the 
centre of disturbance would be kept at. their original temperature, and the 
tendency would be (as is so often noticed in eruptions) to melt the already 
solidified rock with which it was in conta@, and thus the orifice would become 
wider.” 

* Where several ray centres are near together, a region dire@ly between 
two ray centres would be at a level intermediate between that of the ray 
centres and that of a region centrally placed within a triangle or quadrangle of 
tay centres; but the latter region might be at a higher level than another very 
far removed from the part where the ray centres were near together. For in- 
stance, the space inthe middle of the triangle having Copernicus, Aristarchus, 
and Kepler at its angles (or more exactly between Milichius and Bessarion) is 
lower than the surface around Hortensius (between Copernicus and Kepler), 
but not so low as the Mare Imbrium, far away from the region of ray centres 
of which Copernicus, Aristarchus, and Kepler are the principal. 


316 The Past History of our Moon. (July, 


existed at that time it would occupy the depressed regions 
which at the present time are called Maria or Seas. Itisa 
question of some interest, and one on which different 
opinions have been entertained, whether the moon at any 
stage of its existence had oceans and an atmosphere corre- 
sponding or even approaching in relative extent to those of 
the earth. It appears to me that, apart from all the other 
considerations which have been suggested in support of the 
view that the moon formerly had oceans and an atmosphere, 
it is exceedingly difficult to imagine how, under any circum- 
stances, a globe so large as the moon could have been formed 
under conditions not altogether unlike, as we suppose, those 
under which the earth was formed (having a similar origin, 
and presumably constructed of the same elements), without 
having oceans and an atmosphere of considerable extent ; 
the atmosphere would not consist of oxygen and nitrogen 
only or chiefly, any more than, in all probability, the primzval 
atmosphere of our own earth was so constituted. We may 
adopt some such view of the moon’s atmosphere—mutatis 
mutandis—as Dr. Sterry Hunt has adopted respecting the 
ancient atmosphere of the earth. Hunt, it will be remem- 
bered, bases his opinion on the former condition of the earth 
by conceiving an intense heat applied to the earth as now 
existing, and inferring the chemical results. ‘‘To the 
chemist,” he remarks, “‘ it is evident that from such a process 
applied to our globe would result the oxidation of all carbon- 
aceous matter; the conversion of all carbonates, chlorides, 
and sulphates into silicates; and the separation of the car- 
bon, chlorine, and sulphur in the form of acid gases ; which, 
with nitrogen, watery vapour, and an excess of oxygen, 
would form an exceedingly dense atmosphere. The resulting 
fused mass would contain all the bases as silicates, and 
would probably nearly resemble in composition certain 
furnace-slags or basic volcanic glasses. Such we may con- 
ceive to have been the nature of the primitive igneous rock, 
and such the composition of the primeval atmosphere, which 
must have been one of very great density.” All this, with the 
single exception of the italicised remark, may be applied to 
the case of the moon. The lunar atmosphere would not 
probably be dense at that primeval time, even though con- 
stituted like the terrestrial atmosphere just described. It 
would perhaps have been as dense, or nearly so, as our pre- 
sent atmosphere. Accordingly condensation would take 
place at a temperature not far from the present boiling- 
point, and the lower levels of the half-cooled crust would be 
drenched with a heated solution of hydrochloric acid, whose 


1874.] The Past History of owr Moon. 317 


decomposing action would be rapid, though not aided—as 
in the case of our primeval earth—by an excessively high 
temperature. ‘‘ The formation of the chlorides of the 
various bases and the separation of silica would go on until 
the affinities of the acid were satisfied.” ‘* At a later period 
the gradual combination of oxygen with sulphurous acid 
would eliminate this from the atmosphere in the form of 
sulphuric acid.” ‘‘ Carbonic acid would still be a large con- 
stituent of the atmosphere, but thenceforward (that is, after 
the separation of the compounds of sulphur and chlorine 
from the air) there would follow the conversion of the com- 
plex aluminous silicates, under the influence of carbonic 
acid and moisture, into a hydrated silicate of alumina or clay, 
while the separated lime, magnesia, and alkalies would be 
changed into bicarbonates, and conveyed to the sea in a state 
of solution.” 

It seems to me that it is necessary to adopt some such 
theory as to the former existence of lunar oceans, in order 
to explain some of the appearances presented by the so- 
called lunar seas. As regards the present absence of water 
we may adopt the theory of Frankland, that the lunar 
oceans have withdrawn beneath the crust as room was pro- 
vided for them by the contraction of the nucleus. I think, 
indeed, that there are good grounds for looking with favour 
on the theory of Stanislas Meunier, according to which the 
oceans surrounding any planet—our own earth or Mars, for 
example—are gradually withdrawn from the surface to the 
interior. And in view of the enormous length of the time 
intervals required for such a process, we must consider that 
while the process was going on the lunar atmosphere would 
not only part completely with the compounds of sulphur, 
chlorine, and carbon, but would be even still further reduced 
by chemical processes acting with exceeding slowness, yet 
effectively in periods so enormous. But without insisting 
on this consideration, it is manifest that—with very 
reasonable assumptions as to the density of the lunar atmo- 
sphere in its original complex condition—what would remain 
after the removal of the chief portion by chemical processes, 
and after the withdrawal of another considerable portion 
along with the seas beneath the lunar crust, would be so in- 
considerable in quantity as to accord satisfactorily with the 
evidence which demonstrates the exceeding tenuity of any 
lunar atmosphere at present existing. 

These considerations introduce us to the second part of 
the moon’s history,—that corresponding to the period when 
the nucleus was contracting more rapidly than the crust. 

VOL. IV. (N.S.) 25 


318 The Past History of our Moon. (July, 


One of the first and most obvious effects of this more 
rapid nuclear contraction would be the lowering of the level 
of the molten matter, which up to this period had been kept 
up to, or nearly up to, the lips of the great ringed craters. 
If the subsidence could place intermittently there would 
result a terracing of the interior of the ringed elevation, 
such as we see in many lunar craters. Nor would there be 
any uniformity of level in the several crater floors thus 
formed, since the fluid lava would not form parts of a single 
fluid mass (in which case, of course, the level of the fluid 
surface would be everywhere the same), but would belong to 
independent fluid masses. Indeed it may be noticed that 
the very nature of the case requires us to adopt this view, 
since no other will account for the variety of level observed 
in the different lunar crater-floors. If these ceased to be liquid 
at different times, the independence of the fluid masses is 
by that very fact established; and if they ceased to be liquid 
at the same time, they must have been independent, since, 
if communication had existed between them, they would 
have shown the uniformity of surface which the laws of 
hydrostatics require.* 

The next effect which would follow from the gradual re- 
treat of the nucleus from the crust (setting aside the with- 
drawal of lunar seas) would be the formation of corrugations, 
—in other words, of mountain-ranges. Mallet describes the 
formation of mountain-chains as belonging to the period 
when “the continually increasing thickness of the crust re- 
mained such that it was still as a whole flexible enough, or 
opposed sufficient resistance of crushing to admit of the 
uprise of mountain-chains by resolved tangential pressures.” 
Applying this to the case of the moon, I think it is clear 
that—with her much smaller orb and comparatively rapid 
rate of cooling—the era of the formation of mountain-chains 
would be a short one, and that these would therefore form a 
less important characteristic of her surface than of the 
earth’s. On the other hand, the period of volcanic activity 
which would follow that of chain-formation would be 
relatively long continued; for regarding this period as begin- 
ning when the thickness of the moon’s crust had become too 
great to admit of adjustment by corrugation, the compara- 
tively small pressure to which the whole mass of the moon 
had been subjected by lunar gravity, while it would on the 
one hand cause the period to have an earlier commencement 


* It is important to notice that we may derive from these considerations an 
argument as to the condition of the fluid matter now existing beneath the solid 
crust of the earth. 


1874.] The Past History of our Moon. 319 


(relatively), and on the other would leave greater play to the 
effects of contraction. Thus we can understand why the 
signs of volcanic action, as distinguished from the action to 
which mountain-ranges are due, should be far more nume- 
rous and important on the moon than on the earth. 

I do not, however, in this place enter specially into the 
consideration of the moon’s stage of volcanic activity, be- 
cause already, in the pages of my Treatise on the Moon 
(Chapter VI.) I have given a full account of that portion of 
my present subject. I may make a few remarks, however, 
on the theory respecting lunar craters touched on in my 
work on *‘ The Moon.” I have mentioned the possibility that 
some among the enormous number of ring-shaped de- 
pressions which are seen on the moon’s surface may have 
been the result of meteoric downfalls in long past ages of 
the moon’s history. One or two critics have spoken of this 
view as though it were too fantastic for serious consideration. 
Now, though I threw out the opinion merely as a suggestion, 
distinctly stating that I should not care to maintain it as a 
theory, and although my own opinion is unfavourable to the 
supposition that any of the more considerable lunar markings 
can be explained in the suggested way, yet it is necessary to 
notice that on the general question whether the moon’s 
surface has been marked or not by meteoric downfalls 
scarcely any reasonable doubts can be entertained. For, 
first, we can scarcely question that the moon’s surface was 
for long ages plastic, and though we may not assign to this 
period nearly so great a length (350 millions of years) as 
Tyndall—following Bischoff—assigns to the period when 
our earth’s surface was cooling from a temperature of 
2000 C. to 200, yet still it must have lasted millions of 
years; and, secondly, we cannot doubt that the process of 
meteoric downfall now going on is not a new thing, but, on 
the contrary, is rather the final stage of a process which 
once took place far more actively. Now Prof. Newton has 
estimated, by a fair estimate of observed facts, that each day 
on the average 400 millions of meteors fall, of all sizes down 
to the minutest discernible in a telescope, upon the earth’s 
atmosphere, so that on the moon’s unprotected globe—with 
its surface one-thirteenth of the earth’s—about 30 millions 
fall each day, even at the present time. Of large meteoric 
masses only a few hundreds fall each year on the earth, and 
perhaps about a hundred on the moon; but still, even at the 
present rate of downfall, millions of large masses must have 
fallen on the moon during the time when her surface was 
plastic, while presumably a much larger number—including 


320 Tropical Zoology. (July, 


many much larger masses—must have fallen during that 
period. Thus, not only without straining probabilities, but 
by taking only the most probable assumptions as to the 
past, we have arrived at a result which compels us to 
believe that the moon’s surface has been very much marked 
by meteoric downfall, while it renders it by no means un- 
likely that a large proportion of the markings so left would 
be discernible under telescopic scrutiny; so that strong 
evidence exists in favour of that hypothesis which one or 
two writers (who presumably have not given great attention 
to the recent progress of meteoric astronomy) would dismiss 
‘without consideration ” (the way, doubtless, in which they 
have dismissed it). 

I would, in conclusion, invite those who have the requisite 
leisure to a careful study of the distribution of various orders 
of lunar marking. It would be well if the moon’s surface 
were isographically charted, and the distribution of the seas, 
mountain-ranges, and craters of different dimensions and 
character, of rills, radiating streaks, bright and dark regions, 
and so on, carefully compared inter se, with the object of 
determining whether the different parts of the moon’s sur- 
face were probably brought to their present condition during 
earlier or later periods, and of interpreting also the signifi- 
cance of the moon’s characteristic peculiarities. In this 
department of Astronomy, as in some others, the effective- 
ness of well-devised processes of charting has been hitherto 
overlooked. 


i 


IV. MODERN RESEARCHES IN TROPICAL 
ZOOLOGY.* 


feed modern books of travel are justly ranked 
among the dreariest of literary productions. ‘Their 
authors treat the countries which they visit merely 
as a stage for the display of their own imagined perfections, 
their omniscience, their courage, their skill as sportsmen, 
and above all, the importance of their mission to the dis- 
tinguished personages with whom they became acquainted. 
To all this the work before us offers a complete and a 
delightful contrast. Mr. Belt does not obtrude his own 
personality upon us. Like all genuine men, he forgets 
‘‘self” over his subject. Instead of informing us whether 


rw” 


*The Naturalist in Nicaragua; a Narrative of a Residence at the Gold Mines 
of Chontales, By Tuomas BELT, F.G.S. London: John Murray. 


1874.] Tropical Zoology. 321 


or no he received ‘‘the salary of an ambassador and the 
treatment of a gentleman,” he scatters before us, broadcast, 
facts, interesting and novel; valuable hints for future re- 
search, and generalisations which will amply repay a close 
examination. Not alone the zoologist, the botanist, the 
geologist, but the antiquarian, the ethnologist, the social 
philosopher, and the meteorologist, will each find in these 
pages welcome additions to his store of knowledge and sound 
materials for study. With all this, the work is not a mere 
dry catalogue of facts, such as Henry Cavendish might 
have written: it is eminently a “‘ readable book.” ‘Though 
without any effort at fine writing, the beautiful forest land- 
scapes of Central America are brought vividly before us. 
For instances, we refer our readers to the work itself. 

In his professional investigations of the gold deposits of 
Chontales, the author was struck with the scarcity of 
alluvial gold in the valleys, even in the neighbourhood of 
rich veins of auriferous quartz. This fact, reminding the 
observer of the similar scarcity in the valleys of Nova Scotia 
and North Wales, can be explained ‘‘on the supposition 
that the ice of the glacial period was not confined to extra- 
tropical lands, but, in Central America, covered all the 
higher ranges and descended to at least as low as the line of 
country now standing at two thousand feet above the sea, 
and probably much lower.” That glaciers would have this 
‘effect is indubitable. As the author remarks: ‘‘ When the 
denuding agent was water, the rocks were worn away, and 
the heavier gold left behind at the bottom of the alluvial 
deposits; but when the denuding agent was glacier-ice, the 
stony masses and their metallic contents were carried away, 
or mingled together in the unassorted moraines.” 

We may, at first sight, feel sceptical concerning the ex- 
istence of glaciers in the low grounds within 13° of the 
equator. But the testimony of the rocks appears irresist- 
ible. ‘‘ The evidences of glacial action were as clear as in 
any Welsh or Highland valley. There were the same 
rounded and smoothed masses of rock, the same moraine- 
like accumulations of unstratified sand and gravel, the same 
transported boulders that could be traced to their parent 
rocks, several miles distant.’’ Glacial scratches were not, 
indeed, observed; but these are rarely detected on surfaces 
of rock exposed to the atmosphere. We must, also, remem- 
ber that Professor Hart has found glacial drift extending 
from Patagonia all through Brazil to Pernambuco, whilst 
the late lamented Agassiz has observed glacial moraines up 
to the equator. On a former journey Mr. Belt discovered in 


322 Tropical Zoology. (July, 


the province of Maranham, in Brazil, a great drift deposit 
apparently of glacial origin. Hence, he, very justifiably, 
thinks it highly probable that the ice deposits of the glacial 
period were far more extensive than has been generally 
supposed, existing at once in both the northern and southern 
hemispheres, and leaving, in America at least, only the 
lower lands of the tropics free from the icy covering. 

Were the causes of such a redu¢tion of the earth’s general 
temperature cosmic or merely terrestrial? ‘The author does 
not enter minutely into this question, though, with Professor 
Heer, he considers that the cold of the glacial period, like 
the warmth of the miocene epoch, ‘‘ cannot be explained by 
any re-arrangement of the relative positions of land and 
water.” It is very true that were the circum-polar lands, 
British North America and the Russian empire, deeply sub- 
merged beneath the ocean, and were a corresponding amount 
of land raised where now rolls the inter-tropical Pacific, the 
temperature of the world would be much ameliorated. But 
the very evidence of the heat of the miocene ages,—the 
existence, at that time of the beech, the hazel, and the plane 
in Spitzbergen, in north latitude 78°, proves that the polar 
regions were not an unbroken expanse of water. Similarly, 
the proofs of glacial action within the torrid zone show that 
during the glacial period land was by no means wanting 
between the tropics. It seems, therefore, highly probable, 


that in regarding these alternating epochs of heat and cold, 


‘‘we are face to face with a problem whose solution must 
be attempted, and doubtless completed, by the astronomer.” 

But there is another phase of the subject to which the 
attention of the author is mainly given. Every botanist and 
geologist, on hearing of these enormous ice-deposits in what 
are now some of the most luxuriant climates of the world, 
will ask what must have become of all tropical forms of 
organic life? The very tierras calientes in those days, in- 
stead of towering palms and of epiphytal arads and orchids, 
must have possessed a vegetation little richer than that of 
England or Germany in the present order of things. 
Heliconii and Morphos can never have unfolded their 
delicate wings on the chill blast from the ice-deserts. The 
author meets this difficulty by the hypothesis that “a 
refuge was found for many species on lands now below the 
level of the ocean, but then uncovered by the lowering of 
the sea, consequent upon the immense quantity of water 
locked up in the form of ice, and piled upon the continents.” 
A variety of evidence is adduced in support of this view. 
The distribution of animal life over small islands now 


1874.| Tropical Zoology. 323 


separated by shallow seas is readily explained on such 
supposition. Professor Hartt found reason to believe that 
during the time of the drift, Brazil stood at a much higher 
level than at present. Mr. Alfred Tylor considers that 
during the glacial epoch the level of the sea must have been 
reduced at least 600 feet, an estimate which our author 
extends to 1000. Mr. Wallace, in his work on the Malay 
Archipelago, infers from the distribution of animal life that 
Borneo, Java, and the more western islands of the group 
were at one time connected with each other, and with the 
main land of Asia, while New Guinea and the islands to the 
eastward were joined to Australia. The Cyclopean ruins 
found in certain islets of the Pacific, and utterly out of 
keeping with their present size and population, point in the 
same direction. Easter Island, as the author observes, 
could never have supported the race that reared such 
monuments. But if the present island was once one of a 
chain of hills overlooking wide and populous lowlands—now 
submerged beneath the blue waters of the Pacific—such 
remains become intelligible. 

Mr. Belt’s theory, as we may provisionally call it, furnishes 
the key to a number of ancient traditions on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 

May not the Atlantis of Plato, of Theopompus, and of 
Proclus, finally swallowed up by the sea, have been “that 
great continent in the Atlantic, on which the present West 
Indian Islands were mountains?” The warlike and pre- 
datory character ascribed to its inhabitants by Greek and 
Egyptian story is in full harmony with their probably Carib 
origin. Mr. Belt’s theory throws also a wonderful light upon 
the sagas of a universal deluge current, according to Catlin, 
among one hundred and twenty different tribes of North and 
South America. Those low-lying lands, if they existed at 
all, must have been the refuge during the glacial epoch, not 
merely of the principal forms of vegetable and animal life, 
but of the human race. Whatever civilisation existed must 
have had there its seat. Suppose, now, that the temperature 
of the earth experienced, from some unknown cosmical 
cause, a sudden elevation. The glaciers, or rather the ice- 
caps, resting on the present continents, are suddenly con- 
verted into torrents of water rushing down to the sea. The 
ocean level rapidly rises. Atlantis and all the other 
populous regions of the earth are engulphed. A hundred 
fathoms deep roll the waters over fields and cities, whilst a 
few only of the inhabitants escape in boats or find shelter 
on some lofty mountain. 


324 Tropical Zoology. (July, 


Much, however, requires to be done, before such a theory 
can claim recognition among the established doétrines of 
science. Mr. Belt himself insists on the necessity of a 
careful and thorough going verification of his hypothesis. 
** When geologists have mapped out the limits of ancient 
glacier and continental ice all over the world, it will be 
possible to calculate the minimum amount of water that 
was abstracted from the sea; and if by that time hydro- 
graphers have shown on their charts the shoals and sub- 
merged banks that would be laid dry, fabled Atlantis 
will rise before our eyes between Europe and America, and 
in the Pacific the Malay Archipelago will give place to the 
Malay continent.” In our opinion, a knowledge of the 
distribution of animal life, much more accurate and general 
than we now possess, will also be found needful for the full 
solution of the problem. Is it not also possible that by a 
careful examination of the less deeply submerged banks and 
shoals, evidence as to the presence or absence of traces of 
former human activity might be obtained ? 

We must not, however, forget that Mr. Belt’s interesting 
hypothesis is not without a rival. The doctrine of areas of 
subsidence and elevation so ably expounded by Mr. Darwin 
in his Naturalists’ Voyage, accounts for many of the same 
phenomena by an alteration of the level, not of the sea, but 
of the continents, and certainly agrees with many recognised 
facts. We have not space to examine in how far the two 
theories are necessarily antagonistic and mutually exclusive. 
It is plain that some of the Pacific Islands—which accord- 
ing to both views are the mountains of a now submerged 
continent—are still gradually subsiding. It is no less 
manifest that other portions of the earth’s surface, e¢.g., 
certain parts of the South American coast, are gradually 
rising. The evidence of both these progressive variations 
of level may be found in the above-mentioned work of Mr. 
Darwin. ‘The phenomena of the atolls, likewise, appear to 
us to agree better with the assumption of a gradual subsi- 
dence of the dry land than with its inundation by the 
sudden influx of water. On the other hand, the Beltian 
hypothesis, harmonises best with the deluge-traditions of 
the old and the new world. 

On Mr. Belt’s view, we should naturally expect to find 
the fauna and the flora of any large island closely corres- 
pond to that of the adjacent continent, with which during 
the glacial period it would have been connected. Yet to 
this rule—if rule it be—there are notable exceptions of which 
account must be taken. Why should the larger Antilles be 


1874.] Tropical Zoology. 325 


free from carnivora? Cuba and Haiti would have afforded, 
in their glens and woods, ample and congenial lurking- 
grounds for the jaguar and the puma. Nor, to our know- 
ledge, have these islands ever been so populous and so 
civilised that such unwelcome inmates would have been 
extirpated. Ceylon is separated from the mainland of India 
by a shallow sea. If the general level of the waters were 
reduced by 1000, or even by 600 feet, the space between the 
island and the continent would be bridged over. Yet, on 
the authority of Sir E. Tennant, there are more points of 
disagreement than of resemblance between the respective 
animal and vegetable forms on both sides of the straits. 
We are not aware of the depth of the Channel of the 
Mozambique. But scarcely could two richly developed 
faunas differ more strikingly than those of Madagascar and 
of South-eastern Africa. The monkeys of the continent 
are, in the island, replaced by lemurs. The cats and the 
gazelles in which Africa abounds are, we believe, totally 
wanting in Madagascar. The inse¢t-world in particular 
shows a striking divergence. Madagascar is remarkably 
rich in those “‘ animated jewels,” the Cetoniade; but the 
species, and for the most part the genera, are distin@t from 
those of Southern Africa, and, where not peculiar, remind 
us rather of forms developed in the Malay Archipelago. 

But Mr. Belt’s work is so replete with interest that we 
must, unwillingly indeed, desist from any further scrutiny of 
his geological speculations. His instances of the intelligence 
of ants are highly instructive :—‘‘One day when watching a 
small column of these ants (Eciton hamata) I placed a 
little stone on one of them to secure it. The next that 
approached, as soon as it discovered its situation, ran 
backwards in an agitated manner and soon communicated 
the intelligence to the others. They rushed to the rescue; 
some bit at the stone and tried to move it, others seized the 
prisoner by the legs and tugged with such force that I 
thought